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Old Series, 
Vol. XLI. 

Continuation of the \ New Series, 

Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club ( Vol. XXXIIl. 

The Auk 

a (Siuarterli? Journal of ©rnitboloai? 





The American Ornithologists' Uhlpn, .^^^ ,^ ^^^\k 




Entered as second-class maU matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 





The Tennessee Warbler in New Brunswick. By B. S. Bowdish 

and P. B. Philipp. (Plate I) . • • ■ • • 1 

The Courtship of the Merganser, Mallard, Black Duck 
Baldpate, Wood Duck and Bufflehead. By Charles W 

Toivnsend, M.D ^,j' " ' 

Rhythmical Singing of Veeries. By Henry Oldys . ■ 
Two Problems in the Migration of Water Fowl. By John C 

Phillips r, ' a ' n TJ ' T 

A Study of the Seasonal Decline of Bird boNG. By Henry J 

Fry . . • • • • • • • ■ . ■ 

The Discovery of the Nest and Eggs of Leucosticte australis. By 

F. C. Lincoln. (Plate II) . • • • „' r z" p 
A Collection of Birds from Saghalin Island. By John E 

Thayer and Outrani Bangs . . • • • • 
An Undescribed Species of Drepanidid.e on Nihoa, Hawaiian 

Group. By William Alanson Bryan . . '„ '■ u 
A Nesting of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. By Francis H 

Five Years Personal Notes and Observations on the Birds of 
Hatley, Stanstead County, Quebec — 1911-1915. By H 
Mousley • 

A New Subspecies of Hudsonian Chickadee from the Labrador 

Peninsula. By Charles W. Townsend, M.D. ... 74 


An Accomplishment of the Red-throated Loon, 75; The Long-tailed 
Jaeger in Indiana, 75; Notes on Hybrid Ducks from Long Point, 
Ontario, 75; Early European Widgeon on Long Island, 75; A Record 
of the Golden Plover {Charadrius dominicus dominicus in the State ot 
Washington, 76; Barn Owl in Massachusetts, 77; Display oi the 
Purple Finch, 77; Late Nesting of the Montana Junco, 77; Phila- 
delphia Vireo {Vireosylva Philadelphia) in Massachusetts in Autumn, 
78; Additional Autumn Records for the Tennessee Warbler (Kemi- 
vora peregrina) in Massachusetts, 78; Orange-crowned Warbler 
(Vermivora celata celata) in North Carolina, 78; Blue-gray Gnat- 
catcher at Groton, Mass., 78; Notation of Bird Songs and Notes, 78; 
The Type Locality of Brachyramphus craveni, 80; Eye Shine in Birds, 
81; Weight and Contents of Birds' Eggs, 81. 


Watson and Lashley on Homing and Related Activities of Birds, 83; 
Thorburn's 'British Birds,' 84; Grinnell's Distributional List ot the 
Birds of California, 86; Wood on the Eyelids of Birds, 87; Cooke on 
the Distribution and Migration of North American Gulls, 87; Gaige s 
'The Birds of Dickinson Countv, Michigan, 88; Mearns on New 
African Birds, 89; Beal on the Food Habits of Thrushes, 89; MiUer 

iv Contents of Volume XXXIII. 

on Three New Genera of Birds, 89; Chapin on New Birds from the 
Belgian Congo, 90; Riley on New Birds from China and Japan, 90; 
Recent Ornithological Papers by Dabbene, 90; Mathews' 'The Birds 
of Australia,' 91; Shufeldt's Recent Papers oil Avian Osteology and 
Fossil Birds, 92; Richmond on Necessary Changes in Generic Names, 
92; Gordon's 'Hill Birds of Scotland,' 93; Job's 'The Propagation 
of Wild Birds,' 94; The Ornithological Journals, 95; Ornithological 
Articles in Other Journals, 100; Publications Received, 100. 


Methods of Recording Bird Song, 103; On the Position of the Aramidce 
in the System, 108. 


Proper Diagnosis of New Species, 111 ; American Museum's Congo Expedi- 
tion, 112; Natural History Survey of Yosemite, 113; Cherrie's 
Expedition to Brazil, 114; Rhoads' Guatemala Collection, 114; The 
A. O. U. Badge, 114; Correction, 114; Death of Henry E. Dresser, 



AuDUBONiANA. By John E. Thayer. (Plates III-VI.) . . 115 
Some Audubon Letters. By George Bird Grinnell . . . 119 
More Light on Audubon's Folio Birds of America. By Samuel 

N. Rhoads 130 

The Call-Notes of Some Nocturnal Migrating Birds. By 

Winsor M. Tyler, M.D. '.132 

Bird Watching and Biological Science. By Julian S. Huxley, 

B.A 142 

Labrador Bird Notes. By Wells W. Cooke .... 162 
Five Years Personal Notes and Observations on the Birds of 

Hatley, Stanstead County, Quebec — 1911-1915 {concluded). 

By H. Mousley 168 

Additions to the Avifauna of Kerr Co., Texas. By Austin 

Paul Smith 187 

New Petrels from Bermuda. By John Treadwell Nichols and 

Louis L. Mowbray ......... 194 


The T>T5e Locality of Uria troille, 196; The Pomarine Jaeger and the 
Purple Gallinule in Western Missouri, 196; The Breeding Range of 
Leach's Petrel, 196; Barrow's Golden-eye at Wareham, Mass., 197; 
Lesser Snow Goose {Chen h. hyperboreus) in Massachusetts, 197; 
Blue Goose {Chen ccendescens) in Maine, 197; A Banded Canada 
Goose, 198; Two Trumpeter Swan Records for Colorado, 198; King 
Rail {Rallus elegans) in Massachusetts in November, 198; Willets 
in Migration, 198; American Golden Plover {Charadrius d. dominicus) 
at Nantucket Island, 199; Nest of the Alder Flycatcher on the Pocono 
Mt., Pa., 199; Yellow-bellied Flycatcher {Empidonax flaviventris) 
Breeding on the Pocono Mountain, Pa., 200; Swainson's Hawk in 
Illinois, 200; Nesting of the Crossbill {Loxia curvirostra. minor) in 

Contents of Volume XXXIII. v 

Crook Co., Oregon, 201; The Barn Owl (Aluco pratincola) in Massa- 
chusetts, 201; Cowbird wintering in Massachusetts, 201; Another 
Hybrid Warbler from Northern New Jersey, 202; Cape May Warbler 
in Virginia in Winter, 203; The Occurrence of the Western House 
Wren on Smith's Island, Northampton County, Virginia, 203; Bick- 
nell's Thrush in Northeastern Illinois, 203; Additions to the Birds of 
Custer County, Montana, 203 ; The Rose Beetle Poisonous to Young 
Birds, 205; A Fossil Feather from Taubatc, 206. 


Bryan's National History of Hawaii, 207; The B. O. U. Jubilee Supplement 
to 'The Ibis,' No. 2,209; Chapin on New Birds from the Belgian Congo, 
210; Oberholser on Races of the Crested Tern, 210; Riley on a New 
Hazel Grouse, 211 ; McGregor on a New Prionochilus, 211 ; Chapman 
on New Colombian Birds, 211; Coale on the Birds of Lake County, 
111., 212; Roberts' 'Winter Bird-Life of Minne.sota,' 212; Kellogg and 
Grinnell on the Mammals and Birds of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Shasta 
Cos., Cal., 212; Lincoln's 'The Birds of Yuma County, Colorado,' 213; 
Witherby's Report on the 'British Birds' Marking Scheme, 213; 
Recent Papers by Van Oort, 213; Didier's 'Le Macareux du Kamt- 
schatka,' 214; Annual Report of the National Association of Audubon 
Societies for 1915, 214; Recent Bird Biographies by Miss Stanwood, 
214; Washburn's 'Further Observations on Minnesota Birds,' 215; 
Recent Papers on Bird and Game Protection, 215; A Beginning of 
Philippine Economic Ornithology, 26; CoUinge's 'Some Observations 
on the Rate of Digestion in Different Groups of Wild Birds,' 216; 
Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomological Publications, 216; 
The Ornithological Journals, 218; Ornithological Articles in Other 
Journals, 223; Publications Received, 214. 

Membership in the A. O. U., 227; Methods of Recording Bird Song, 228. 


Obituaries: Daniel Giraud Elliot, 230; Henry Eeles Dresser, 232; William 
Charlesworth Levey, 233; Leslie Waldo Lake, 233; Ornithological 
Activities of 1816, 233; Mr. Beebe's Demarara Expedition, 234; The 
Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, 235; Museum of Comparative 
Oology, 235; 'Blue-Bird,' 235; The Annual Meeting of the A. O. U. 
at Philadelphia, 235. 



Yield Notes on Some Long Island Shore Birds. By John Tread- 
well Nichols and Francis Harper. (Plates VII-XIII.) . . 237 

Bird-watching and Biological Science. By Julian S. Huxley, 

B.A 256 

Anatid.e op South Georgia. By Robert Cushman Murphy. 

(Plate XIV.) 270 

The Classification of the Scoters. By W. DeW. Miller . . 278 

vi Contents of Volimie XXXIII. 


The Brkeding of the Prairie Horned Lark at Hatley, Stan- 
stead County, Quebec. By H. Mousley . . . .281 

Notes on the Eider. By Johan Beetz. Translated from the 
French and Annotated by Charles W. Toivnsend, M.D. (Plate 
XV.) 286 

Notes on the Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Gunnison 
County, Colorado. By Edward R. Warren. (Plates XVI- 
XVIII.) 292 


Recent Occurrence of Iceland Gulls near New York, 318; The Arctic Tern 
in Central New York, 319; American Merganser wintering at Boston, 
Mass., 319; The European Widgeon in Central New York, 320; 
Limicolse at Porto Rico in July, 320; Krider's Hawk {Buteo horealis 
krideri) in Alaska, 321; The Type Locality of Colaptes cafer, 322; 
The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher in New Mexico, 324; Evening Grosbeak 
at Williamsport, Pa., 325; Evening Grosbeak at Rochester, N. Y., 
325; Evening Grosbeak at Lowville, N. Y., 325; The Calaveras 
Warbler in Colorado, 325; The Catbird in Winter in Massachusetts, 
325; Breeding of the Golden-crowned Kinglet in Norfolk County, 
Massachusetts, 326; A Record of Townsend's Solitaire {Myadestes 
townsendi), 327; Regular Breeding of Alice's Thrush in Arctic East 
Siberia, 327; Some Unusual Records for Massachusetts, 328; Bird 
Notes from the Chicago Area, 328; Notes from Leon Co., Florida, 329. 


Ridgway's 'The Birds of North and Middle America,' Part VII, 331; 
Todd's 'Birds of the Isle of Pines,' 332; Wetmore's 'Birds of Porto 
Rico,' 333; Hersey's 'List of Birds Observed in Alaska and Siberia,' 
335; Brooks' 'Notes on Birds from East Siberia and Arctic Alaska,' 
335; 'The Birds of Australia,' 336; Cassinia, 1915, 336; Bangs on 
New American Birds, 336; Swarth on the Pacific Coast Races of 
Bewick's Wren, 337; Murphy and Harper on New Diving Petrels, 
337; Chapin on the Pennant-winged Nightjar, 337; Bangs on Birds 
from the Cayman Islands, 338; Cherrie on New South American 
Birds, 338; Todd on New Neotropical Birds, 339; Forbush on The 
Domestic Cat, 339; The Official List of Generic Names, 339; Aves 
of the Zoological Record 1914, 340; Recent Papers by Hartert, 340; 
White on the Birds of Interior South Australia, 341; Life of Teget- 
meier, 340; Recent Publications on Bird and Game Protection, 341; 
The Dissemination of Virginia Creeper Seeds by English Sparrows, 
342; The Ornithological Journals, 342; Ornithological Articles in 
Other Journals, 347; Publications Received, 349. 


The Significance of the Osteological Characters of the Chionides, 352. 


Obituary: Wells W. Cooke, 354; Sven Magnus Gronberger, 355; J. 
Parker Norris, 355;- American Museum Expedition to South America, 
356; Personal Notes: Harry S. Swarth, 356; Francis Harper, 356. 

Contents of Volume XXXIII. 



The Lake Crescent Region, Olympic Mountains,- Washington, 
WITH Notes Regarding its Avifauna. By Samuel F. 
Rathbun. (Plates XIX-XXI.) . . • , • • ' Wr, 

Migration of the Yellow-billed Loon. By Joseph Dixon . .iH) 
Notes on Some Maine Birds. By Arthur H. Norton . . . 376 
Notes on Some Spring Birds of La Plata. By Roland F. Hussey. 384 
Records of Birds New to the Pribilof Islands, including two 

NEW TO North America. By G. Dallas Hanna . . • 400 
The Birds of Vieques Island, Porto Rico. By Alexander Wet- 

TYIOTB ...•••■•■** t:VJO 

The Saw-whet Owl of the Queen Charlotte Islands. By /. 

H. Fleming ....■■■■•■ ^■^^ 
A New Form of Chloephaga hybrida. By John C. Phillips . 423 
Changes in the A. O. U. Check-List of North American Birds 

proposed since the Publication of the Sixteenth Supple 



Concerning the Occurrence of the Western and other Gulls in Southeastern 
Alaska, 432; A Note on the Mottled Duck, 432; An Overlooked 
Specimen of the Trumpeter Swan, 433; Egrets {Herodias egretta) m 
Van Cortland Park, New York City, 433; The Black Rail {Creciscus 
jamaicensis) at Chicago, 111., 433; Early Flight of Wilson's Snipe in 
Massachusetts, 434; Eskimo Curlew in Massachusetts, 434; Note 
on the Nesting of the Valley Quail, 434; Incubation Period of the 
Horned Lark, 435; Crows Destroying Quail, 435; Cassm's Sparrow 
in Colorado, 435; Junco Breeding at West Quincy, Mass., 436; 
Multiple Nest of the Yellow Warbler, 436; Warbler Notes from 
Rhinebeck, N. Y., 436; Mockingbird {Mimus polyglottos polyglottos) 
in W^ayne County, Michigan, 437; The Carohna Wren in the Maine 
Wilderness, 438; Notes from Wisconsin, 438; Birds with Accessory 
Wings, 439; Pseudo-mascuUnity in Birds, 439. 


Chubb's 'The Birds of British Guiana,' 440; Chapman's 'The Travels of 
Birds' 441; Sawyer's 'Land Birds of Northern New York, 442; 
Summer Birds of the Douglas Lake Region, Mich., 442; An Index to 
'Bird-Lore,' 443; A Bibliography of British Ornithology, 443; lodd 
on Dysithamnus mentalis, 444; Cherrie on New Neotropical Birds, 
444- Cory on New South American Birds, 445; Riley on New RaUi- 
formes, 445; Mathews' 'Birds of Australia,' 445; Buturlm's Review 
of the Nuthatches, 445 ; Dabbene on Argentine Coots and Grebes, 446 ; 
Birds in Relation to the Dissemination of Mistletoes in the Lnited 
States, 446; Further Data on the spread of the Chestnut-blight 
Fungus, 447; Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomological Publi- 
cations, 448; Publications on Bird and Game Preservation, 4o0; 
The Ornithological Journals, 450; Ornithological Articles in Other 
Journals, 453; Publications Received, 454. 

Present Work of Gerhard Heilmann, 457. 


Contents of Volume XXXIII. 


Obituaries: John Alexander Harvie-Brown, 458; Lindsey Louin Jewel^ 
459; John Claire Wood, 459; Col. Herbert Hastings Harrington, 460;^ 
Lt. Col. Boyd Robert Horsbrugh, 460; Treaty with Canada for Bird 
Preservation, 460; Ornithological Collection of the Carnegie Museum, 
461; Thirty-fourth Stated Meeting of the American Ornithologists* 
Union, 461. 


Index 463 

Errata 489 

Dates of Issue 489' 

Contents ........... i 

Officers and Members ix 















' XIV. 






Warbler {Vermivora peregrina} 
Rosy Finch 

Nests of the Tennessee 

(two views). 
Nest Site and Nest of the Brown-capped 

{Leucosticte australis) (two views). 
Bufflehead. From Watercolor by Audubon. 
Goldeneye. From Watercolor by Audubon. 
Merganser. From Watercolor by Audubon. 
Golden-crowned Kinglet. From Watercolor by Audubon. 
Beach Blind: SaiiderHng Tracks: SanderHng Feeding 

(four views). 
Northern Phalarope ; "Oxeye" and Dowitcher (two views). 
Blind on Marsh; White-rumped Sandpiper; Pectoral 

Sandpiper; Least Sandpiper (four views). 
Semipalmated Sandpipers; Least and Semipalmated 

Sandpipers (three views) . 
"Oxeyes" over Decoys; Greater Yellow-legs (four views). 
Lesser Yellowlegs (four views). 

Black-bellied Plovers; Semipalmated Plovers (four views). 
South Georgia Teal; Magellanic Goose (two views). 
Labrador Eiders (six figures). 
Galena Park; Hillside Ranch (two views). 
Northward from Mt. Emmons; Crested Butte (two views). 
Nests of Wright's Flycatcher and McGiUivray's Warbler 
(two views). 
Crescent Lake and Vicinity (six views). 


Song of the Veery ..... 

Curve of Variation in number of Geese in Flock 
Chart of Song duration .... 

The A. O. U. badge 

Map of Crescent Lake and Vicinity 








Expiration of Term. 

Fisher, Albert K., PresHent November, 1916. 

Henshaw, Henry W. | y^^^.p^^^i^^^i^ . 191g^ 

Stone, Witmer ) 

Sage, John H., Secretary " 1916. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Treasurer " 1916. 

Additional Members of the Council. 

Deane, Ruthven November, 1916. 


DuTCHER, William 

Grinnell, Joseph 

Lucas, Frederic A 

Osgood, Wilfred H 

Richmond, Charles W. . . 

Roberts, Thomas S 

Allen, J. A. 

Batchelder, Charles F. 

Brewster, Willitum 

Chapman, Frank M 

Cory, Charles B 

Merriam, C. Hart 

Nelson, Edward W 

Ridgway, Robert 

> Ex-Presidents. 

Editorial Staff of 'The Auk.' 
Stone, Witmer, Editor November, 1916. 

Committee on Publications. 

Fisher, Albert K. 
Sage, John H., Secretary. 

Stone, Witmer. 
Dwight, Jonathan. 

Committee of Arrangements for the Meeting of 1916. 

Fisher, Albert K., Chairman. ' Stone, Witmer. 

Sage, John H., Secretary. Baily, William L. 

Morris. George Spencer. 




APRIL, 1916.1 


Date of 

Allen, Dr. J. A., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City Founder 

Anthony, A. W., Ironside, Ore (1885)18952 

Bangs, Outram, Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. . . (1884)1901 

Barrows, Prof. W. B., Box 1047, East Lansing, Mich 1883 

Batchelder, Charles F., 7 Kirkland St., Cambridge, Mass Founder 

Beal, F. E. L., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C (1887)1901 

Beebe, C. William, New York Zool. Park, New York City. . (1897)1912 

Bent, Arthur Cleveland, Taunton, Mass (1889)1909 

Bicknell, Eugene P., Box 1698, New York City Founder 

Bishop, Dr. Louis B., 356 Orange St., New Haven, Conn (1885)1901 

*Brewster, William, 145 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass Founder 

Brown, Nathan Clifford, 218 Middle St., Portland, Me Founder 

Chadbourne, Dr. Arthur P., North Scituate, Mass (1883)1889 

Chapman, Dr. Frank M., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 


Cooke, Prof. Wells W., 1450 Fan-mount St., Washington, D. C 1884 

*CoRy, Charles B., Field Museum Nat. Hist., Chicago, 111 Founder 

Deane, Ruthven, 112 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111 1883 

DuTCHER, William, 939 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J (1883)1886 

DwiGHT, Dr. Jonathan, 134 W. 71st St., New York City (1883)1886 

Fisher, Dr. Albert K., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. . . .Founder 
Fisher, Prof. Walter Kenrick, 1525 Waverley St., Palo Alto, Ca'. 


FoRBUSH, Edward H., 136 State House, Boston, Mass (1887)1912 

Fuertes, Louis A., Cornell Heights, Ithaca, N. Y (1891)1912 

Grinnell, Dr. George Bird, 238 E. 15th St., New York City 1883 

Grinnell, Joseph, Mus. Vert. Zool., Univ. Cal., Berkeley, Cal. (1894) 1901 

Henshaw, Henry W., The Ontario, Washington, D. C 1883 

Jones, Lynds, Spear Laboratory, Oberlin, Ohio (1888)1905 

' Members of the Union, and subscribers to ' The Aiik ' are requested to promptly 
notify Dr. Jonathan D wight, Treasurer, 134 W. 71st St., New York City, of 
any change of address. 

' Dates in parentheses indicate dates of joining the Union. 

* Life FeUow. 

Honorary Fellows. • xi 

LooMis, Leverett M., Cal. Acad. Sci., San Francisco, Cal (1883)1892 

Lucas, Dr. Frederic A., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y. City. . . (1888)1892 

Mailliard, Joseph, 1815 Vallcjo St., San Francisco, Cal (1895)1914 

McAtee, Waldo Lee, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. . .(1903)1914 

McGregor, Richard C, Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I (1889)1907 

Mearns, Dr. Edgar A., U. S. A., U. S. National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D. C , Founder 

Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, 1919 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. Founder 
Miller, W^aldron DeWitt, 309 E. 7th St., Plainfield, N. J.. (1896)1914 

Nehrling, H., Pahn Cottage Experiment Gardens, Gotha, Fla 1883 

Nelson, E. W., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1883 

Oberholser, Harry C, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. (1888)1902 
Osgood, Wilfred H., Field Museum Nat. Hist., Chicago, 111.. (1893)1905 
Palmer, Dr. T. S., 1939 Biltmore St., N. W., Washington, D. C. . (1888)1901 
Palmer, William, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (1888) 1898 
Richmond, Dr. Charles W., U. S. National Museum, Washington, 

D. C (1888)1897 

RiDGWAY, Prof. Robert, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C . .Founder 

Roberts, Dr. Thomas S., 2303 Pleasant Ave., Minneapolis, Minn 1883 

*Sage, John H., Portland, Conn 1883 

Saunders, William E., 240 Central Ave., London, Ontario 1883 

Shufeldt, Dr. Robert W., 3356 18th St., N. W., Washington, D.C. Founder 
Stone, Dr. Witmer, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. . . . (1885)1892 
Widmann, Otto, 5105 Von Versen Ave., St. Louis, Mo 1884 


Belding, Lyman, Stockton, Cal (1883)1911 

Lawrence, Newbold T., Lawrence, N. Y (1883)1913 

Stejneger, Dr. Leonhard, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washuigton,D.C.(1883)1911 


Dubois, Dr. Alphonse, Museum Natural History, Brussels. . .(1884)1911 
Finsch, Prof. Dr. Otto, Leonhardplatz 5, Braunschweig, Germany .... 1883 

Godman, Frederick DuCane, 45 Pont St., London, S. W 1883 

Hartert, Ernst, Zoological Museum, Tring, England (1891)1902 

Harvie-Brown, John A., Dunipace, Larbert, Scotland (1883)1902 

Hellmayr, Dr. C.\rl E., Neuhauserstrasse 51.11, Munich, Germany 


* Life Fellow. 

xii Corresponding Fellows. 

Ihbring, Dr. Hermann von, Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil. (1902) 191 1 
Pycraft, William Plane, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Cromwell 

Road, London, S. W (1902)1911 

Reichenow, Dr. Anton, Konigl. Mus. I'tir Naturkunde, Invaliden- 

strasse, 43, Berlin (1884)1891 

Rothschild, Hon. Lionel Walter, Zoological Museum, Tring, Eng- 
land (1898)1913 

Salvadori, Count Tommaso, Royal Zool. Museum, Turin, Italy 1883 

Schalow, Prof. Herman, HohenzoUerndamm 50, Berlin-Griinewald, 

Germany - (1884)1911 


A-LFARO, Anastasio, San Jose, Costa Rica 1888 

Alpheraky, Sergius N., Imperial Acad. Sci., Petrograd, Russia. . . . 1913 
Arrigoni degli Oddi, Count Ettore, University of Padua, Padua, 

Italy 1900 

Bonhote, John Lewis, Gade Spring Lodge, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, 

England 1911 

BcREAU, Dr. Louis, Eeole de Medicine, Nantes, France 1884 

Butler, Lieut.-Col. E. A., Winsford Hall, Stokesby, Great Yarmouth, 

England 1884 

BijTTiKOFER, Dr. Johannes, Zoological Garden, Rotterdam, Holland. 1886 

BuTURLiN, Sergius A., Wesenberg, Esthonia, Russia 1907 

Campbell, Archibald James, Custom House, Melbourne, Australia. 1902 
Carriker, M. a., Jr., Apartado 51, Santa Marta, Colombia. . .(1907)1912 

Chamberlain, Montague, Cambridge, Mass (Founder) 1901 

Chubb, Charles, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Cromwell Road, Lon- 
don, S. W 1911 

Clarke, William Eagle, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh 1889 

Dalgleish, John J., Brankston Grange, Bogside Station, Alloa, 

Scotland. 1883 

Dole. Sanford B., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 1883 

Echt, Adolph Bachopen von, Nussdorf, near Vienna 1883 

Evans, Arthur Humble, 9 Harvey Road, Cambridge, England 1899 

Feilden, Col. Henry Wemyss, Burwash, England 1884 

Ferrari-Perez, Prof. Fernando, Tacubaya, D. F., Mexico 1885 

Freke, Percy Evans, Southpoint, Limes Road, Folkstone, England. 1883 
FtJRBRiNGER, Prof. Max, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 

Germany 1891 

Gadow, Dr. Hans, University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, 

England 1884 

Corresponding Fellows. xiii 

GiRTANNER, Dr. A., St. Galle, Switzerland 1884 

GoDWiN-AxJSTEN, Lieut.-Col. Henry Haversham, Nore, Hascombe, 

Godalming, Surrey, England 1884 

GoELDi, Prof. Dr. Emil A., Zieglerstrasse 36, Bern, Switzerland 1903 

Grandidier, Alfred, 6 Rond-Point des Champs Elysees, Paris 1883 

GuRNEY, John Henry, Keswick Hall, Norwich, England 1883 

Harting, James Edmund, Edgewood, Weybridge, Surrey, England. .1883 

Hennicke, Dr. Carl R., Gera, Reuss, Germany 1907 

Henson, Harry V., Yokohama, Japan 1888 

Hudson, William Henry, Tower House, St. Luke's Road, West- 
bourne Park, London, W 1895 

KRtJPER, Dr. Theobald J., University Museum, Athens, Greece. . . .1884 
Legge, Col. William V., Cullenswood House, St. Mary's, Tasmania. . 1891 

Le Souef, Dudley, Zoological Gardens, Melbourne, Australia 1911 

MacFarlane, Roderick, Winnipeg, Manitoba 1886 

Madarasz, Dr. Julius von. National Museum, Budapest, Hungary. 1884 
Mathews, Gregory M., Langley Mount, Watford, Herts, England. .1911 
Menzbier, Prof. Dr. Michael, Imperial Society of Naturalists, 

Moscow, Russia 1884 

MiLLAis, John Guille, Compton's Brow, Horsham, England 1911 

Namiye, M., Tokio, Japan 1886 

Nicholson, Francis, The Ivnoll, Windermere, Westmoreland, Eng- 
land 1884 

North, Alfred J., Austrahan Museum, Sydney, New South Wales. .1902 
Ogilvie-Grant, William Robert, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 

Cromwell Road, London, S. W 1899 

Palmen, Dr. J. T., Helsingfors, Finland 1883 

Ramsey, E. P., Sydney, New South Wales 1884 

Ringer, Frederic, Nagasaki, Japan 1888 

Sclater, William Lutley, 10 Sloane Court, Chelsea, London, S. W . . 1906 

Snethlage, Dr. Emilia, Museu Goeldi, Para, Brazil 1915 

Sushkin, Dr. Peter, University, Kharkov, Russia 1903 

Theel, Dr. Hjalmar, University of Upsala, Upsala, Sweden 1884 

Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Victor, Ritter von. Villa Tannenhof, 

bei Hallein, Salzbm-g, Austria 1884 

Van Oort, Edward Daniel, Museum Nat. Hist., Leyden, Holland. .1913 

Waterhouse, F. H., 3 Hanover Square, London, W 1889 

Winge, Dr. Herluf, Univ. Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Den- 



Worcester, Prof. Dean C, Manila, P.I 1903 

Zeledon, Don Jose C, San Jose, Costa Rica 1884 



Allen, Arthur A., McGraw Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 


Allen, Francis H., 4 Park St., Boston, Mass (1888)1901 

Allen, Dr. Glover M., 234 Berkeley St., Boston, Mass (1896)1904 

Anderson, Dr. Rudolph M., 901 Virginia St., Sioux City, la. . . (1907)1914 

Attwater, H. p., 2120 Genesee St., Houston, Texas (1891)1901 

Bailey, Vernon, 1834 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C (1887)1901 

Bailey, Mrs. Vernon, 1834 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C. (1885)1901 

Baily, William L., Ardmore, Pa (1886)1901 

Barbour, Dr. Thomas, Mus. Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. (1903)1914 
Bartsch, Prof. Paul, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. . . (1896)1902 

Bergtold, Dr. W. H., 1159 Race St., Denver, Colo (1889)1914 

Bond, Frank, 3127 Newark St., N. W. Washington, D. C. . . (1887)1901 
Bowles, John Hooper, The Woodstock, Tacoma, Wash. . . . (1891)1910 
Braislin, Dr.WiLLiAMC.,556 WashingtonAve.,Brooklyn,N.Y. (1894)1902 

Brooks, Allan, Okanagan Landing, B. C (1902)1909 

Bryan, William Alanson, College of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaiian 

Islands (1898)1901 

Burns, Frank L., Berwyn, Pa (1891)1901 

Butler, Amos W., 52 Downey Ave., Irvington, Indianapolis, Ind.(1885) 1901 

Chambers, W. Lee, Eagle Rock, Cal (1907)1913 

Clark, Austin Hobart, 1726 18th St., N. W., Washington, D.C.(1899)1905 
Clark, Dr. Hubert Lyman, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass (1886)1902 

Daggett, Frank S., Museum, Exposition Park, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Dawson, William Leon, R. D., No. 3, Box 110, Santa Barbara, Cal. 


Deane, Walter, 29 Brewster St., Cambridge, Mass (1897)1901 

Dearborn, Ned, Linden, Md (1902)1907 

Eaton, Elon Howard, Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y (1895)1907 

Evermann, Prof. Barton W., Cal. Academy of Sciences, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal (1883)1901 

FiNLEY, William L., 651 East Madison St., Portland, Ore. . .(1904)1907 
Fleming, James H., 267 Rusholme Road, Toronto, Ontario. . . (1893)1901 

Gault, Benjamin True, Glen EUyn, 111 (1885)1903 

Goldman, Edward Alfonso, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Hoffmann, Ralph, 11 W. Concord Ave., Kansas City, Mo. . .(1893)1901 

HoLLisTER, Ned, U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C (1894)1910 

Howell, Arthur H., 2919 S. Dakota Ave., Washington, D. C. (1889)1902 
Jacobs, J. Warren, 404 S. Washington St., Waynesburg, Pa. . (1889)1904 

Members. xv 

Jeffries, William Augustus, 11 Pemberton Square, Boston, Mass. 


Job, Herbert K., 291 Main St., West Haven, Conn (1896)1901 

Jordan, Prof. David Starr, Stanford University, Cal (1885)1901 

Kalmbach, Edwin R., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. . (1910)1915 

Kennard, F. H., Dudley Road, Newton Centre, Mass (1892)1912 

Knowlton, F. H., U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C (1883)1902 

Mackay, George H., 304 Bay State Road, Boston, Mass (1890)1901 

Mailliard, John W., 300 Front St., San Francisco, Cal (1895)1901 

Miller, Mrs. Olive Thorne, 5928 Hays Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. (1887) 1901 
Moore, Robert Thomas, King's Highway, Haddonfield, N. J. (1898)1914 

Morris, George Spencer, Olney, Philadelphia, Pa (1887)1903 

Morris, Robert O., 82 Temple St., Springfield, Mass (1888)1904 

Murdoch, John, 16 High Rock Way, Allston, Mass (1883)1901 

Murphy, Robert C, Museum Brooklyn Institute, Eastern Parkway, 

Brooklyn, N. Y (1905)1914 

Nichols, John Tread well. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City (1901) 1914 
Norton, Arthur H., Museum Natural History, 22 Elm St., Port- 
land, Maine (1890)1902 

Pearson, T. Gilbert, 2257 Loring Place, New York City (1891)1902 

Phillips, John C, W^enham, Mass (1904)1912 

Preble, Edward A., 3027 Newark St., Washington, D. C (1892)1901 

Rathbun, Samuel F., 217 14th Ave., N., Seattle, Wash (1893)1902 

Rhoads, Samuel N., 81 Haddon Ave., Haddonfield, N. J (1885)1901 

Riley, Joseph H., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (1897)1905 
Rives, Dr. William C, 1702 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C. 


Robinson, Col. Wirt, U. S. A., West Point, N. Y (1897)1901 

Seton, Ernest Thompson, Greenwich, Conn (1883)1901 

*Sherman, Miss Althea R., National via McGregor, Iowa. .(1907)1912 
Shiras, Hon. George, 3d, Stoneleigh Court, Washington, D. C. (1907)1915 

Stephens, Frank, 3746 Park Boulevard, San Diego, Cal (1883)1901 

Strong, Dr. Reuben M., Univ. of Mississippi, University, Miss. (1889) 1903 
Swales, Bradshaw Hall, Mus. of ZooL, Ann Arbor, Mich. (1902) 1909 
SwARTH, Harry S., Mus. Vert. ZooL, Univ. of Cal., Berkeley, Cal. (1900) 1909 
Taverner, Percy A., Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, Canada 


Thayer, John Eliot, Lancaster, Mass (1898)1905 

Todd, W. E. Clyde, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa (1890)1901 

Townsend, Charles H., Aquarium, Battery Park, New York City 

Townsend, Dr. Charles Wendell, 76 Marlborough St., Boston, 

Mass (1901 

Trotter, Dr. Spencer, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. . (1888 


*Life Member. 

xvi Associates. 

Warren, Edward Royal, 20 West Caramillo St., Colorado Springs, 

Colo (1902)1910 

Wayne, Arthur T., Mt. Pleasant, S. C (1905)1906 

Wetmore, Alex., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C (1908)1912 

WiLLETT, George, 2123 Court St., Los Angeles, Cal (1912)1914 

WoLCOTT, Dr. Robert H., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. . (1901)1903 
Wood, Norman A., Museum Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. . (1904)1912 
Wright, Mrs. Mabel Osgood, Fairfield, Conn (1895)1901 


Abbott, Clinton Gilbert, Orchard Hill, Rhinebeck, N. Y 1898 

Adams, Benjamin, 476 5th Ave., New York City 1911 

Adams, Wallace, 2630 Webster Ave., Berkeley, Cal 1901 

Adams, Dr. Z. B., 43 Cottage Farm Rd., Brookline, Mass 1908 

Aiken, Hon. John, Superior Court, Court House, Boston, Mass. . . .1905 

Alexander, Miss Annie M., 92 Sea View Ave., Piedmont, Cal 1911 

Allen, Mary P., 206 Moon St., Hackettstown, N. J 1913 

Ames, John S., North Easton, Mass 1913 

Anderson, Ernest M., Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C 1915 

Anderson, Mrs. J. C, Great Barrington, Mass 1903 

Angell, Walter A., 33 Westminster St., Providence, R. 1 1901 

Anthony, H. E., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1911 

Anthony, Mrs. S. Reed, 175 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1913 

Armstrong, Edward E., 207 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111 1904 

Arnold, Edward, Grand Trunk R'y., Montreal, Quebec 1894 

Arnold, Dr. W. W., 504 N. Nevada Ave., Colorado Springs, Colo. . . 1910 

Avis, Edward, Box 56, Enfield, Conn 1908 

Ayres, Miss Mary Adeline, 119 High St., Medford, Mass 1915 

Babcock, Dean, Estes Park, Colo 1911 

Bailey, Dr. B. H., 405 S. 22 St., Cedar Rapids, la 1913 

Bailey, Prof. Guy A., Geneseo, N. Y 1910 

Bailey, Samuel Waldo, Box 212, Newbur5rport, Mass 1909 

Baker, Frank Collins, 1555 Highland Ave., Rochester, N. Y 1907 

Baker, John H., Nat. Cash Register Co., Dayton, Ohio 1911 

Baldwin, Roger N., 3739 Windsor Place, St. Louis, Mo 1904 

Bales, Dr. Blenn R., 149 W. Main St., Circleville, Ohio 1907 

Ball, Mrs. Bennet F., Oakville, Conn 1905 

Ball, David S., 622 W. 113 St., New York City 1913 

Ball, Miss Helen Augusta, 43 Laurel St., Worcester, Mass 1893 

Ball, Dr. Jas. P., 5001 Frankford Ave., Philadelphia, Pa 1911 

Banks, Miss Martha B., Westport, Conn 1911 

Barbour, Rev. Robert, Y. M. C. A., Montclau-, N. J 1902 

Barker, Merle Taft, 178 High St., Taunton, Mass 1915 

Associates. xvii 

Barnard, Judge Job, 1306 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C. . .1886 

Barntes, Hon. R. Magoon, Lacon, 111 1889 

Barrett, Chas. H. M., 1339 Valley Place, S. E., Washmgton, D. C. . . 1912 
Barrett, Harold Lawrence, 704 Centre St., Jamaica Plain, Mass . . . 1909 

Barry, Miss Anna K., 5 Bowdoin Ave., Dorchester, Mass 1907 

Bartlett, Miss Mary F., 227 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. .1912 

Bartlett, Wm. M., Silver Hill Road, South Lincoln, Mass 1913 

Bartram, Edwin B., Strafford, Pa 1913 

Batten, George, 93 Union St., Montclair, N. J 1911 

Batten, George, Jr., 381 Fourth Ave., New York City 1914 

Baynes, Ernest H., Meriden, N. H 1912 

Beck, Rollo Howard, San Jose, R. D. 21, Cal 1894 

Bell, Prof. W. B., Agricultural College, N. D 1912 

Bennett, Rev. Geo., Iowa City, la 1913 

Bennett, William J., 1941 1st St. N. W., Washington, D. C 1901 

Benson, C. Stanley, 75 Plymouth St., North Abington, Mass 1915 

Betts, Norman de Witt, Forest Products Lab., Madison, Wis 190S 

BicKNELL, Mrs. F. T., 319 S. Normandie Ave., Los Angeles, Cal 1913 

BiDDLE, Miss Emily Williams, 2201 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. .1898 

Bigelow, Albert F., 84 State St., Boston, Mass 1910 

BiGELOw, Dr. Lyman F., 80 W^inter St., Norwood, Mass 1914 

Blackwelder, Eliot, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 1895 

Blain, Merrill W., 1026 N. Coronado St., Los Angeles, Cal 1910 

Blake, Sidney F., 154 Walnut St., Stoughton, Mass 1910 

Bloomfield, Mrs. C. C, 723 Main St., W., Jackson, Mich 1901 

BoARDMAN, Miss E. D., 416 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1906 

Bogardus, Miss Charlotte, Elm St., Coxsackie, N. Y '. 1909 

BoGERT, William S., 1000 Garden St., Bellingham, Wash 1904 

BoLLES, Mrs. Frank, 6 Berkeley St., Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Bolt, Benjamin Fr.^jvklin, 1421 Prospect Ave., Kansas City, Mo. .1909 

Bond, Harry L., Lakefield, Minn 1908 

Borland, Wm. G., 14 Wall St., New York City 1911 

Borneman, Henry S., 1613 Dyre St., Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. . . . 1912 

Bosson, Campbell, 722 Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass 1906 

Boulton, W. Rudyud, Jr., 338 1st St., Beaver, Pa 1915 

Bourne, Thos. L., Hamburg, N. Y 1914 

BowDiSH, B. S., Demarest, N.J 1891 

Bowdish, Mrs. B. S., Demarest, N. J 1902 

BowDiTCH. Harold, 60 Harvard Ave., Brookline, Mass 1900 

BowDiTCH, James H., 903 Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass 1913 

Bracken, Mrs. Henry M., 1010 Fourth St., S.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 1897 

Bradbury, W. C, 1440 Race St., Denver, Colo 1915 

Bradlee, Thomas Stevenson, Somerset Club, Boston, Mass 1902 

Brandrbth, Franklin, Ossining, N. Y 1889 

Brandt, Herbert W., 2025 East 88 St., Cleveland, Ohio 1915 

Brewster, Edward Everett, 316 East C St., Iron Mountain, Mich. 1893 

xviii Associates. 

Brewsteb, Mrs. William, 145 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Bridge, Edmund, 52 Wyman St., West Medford, Mass 1910 

Bridge, Mrs. Edmund, 52 Wyman St., West Medford. Mass 1902 

Brimley, H. H., Raleigh, N. C 1904 

Bristol, John I. D., 1 Madison Ave., New York City 1907 

Britten, G. S., 302 University Bldg., Syracuse, N. Y 1913 

Brock, Dr. Henry Herbert, 687 Congress St, Portland, Me 1894 

Brockway, Arthur W., Hadlyme, Conn 1912 

Brooks, Rev. Earle Amos, 419 N. River Ave., Weston, W. Va 1892 

Brooks, Maurice Graham, French Creek, W. \a 1915 

Brown, Miss Annie H., 31 Maple St., Stoneham, Mass 1909 

Brown, Edward J., U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C 1891 

Brown, Harry A., 40 Talbot St., Lowell, Mass 1912 

Broavn, Mrs. Henry Temple, Lancaster, Mass 1912 

Brown, Philip G., 85 Vaughan St., Portland, Me 1911 

Brown, Stewardson, 20 E. Penn St., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. . 1895 

Brown, Wm. James, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Quebec 1908 

Browning, Wm. Hall, 16 Cooper Square, New York City 1911 

Bruen, Frank, 69 Prospect St., Bristol, Conn 1908 

Bryant, Harold Child, Mus. Vert. Zool., Univ. of California, 

Berkeley, Cal 1913 

BuRBANK, Chas. O., 48 Glenwood Ave., Newton Centre, Mass 1912 

BucKW alter, Mrs. A. I., Union, Mass 1915 

Burgess, John Kingsbury, Chestnut St., Dedham, Mass 1898 

Burleigh, Thos. D., 825 N. Negley Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1913 

Burnett, William L., State Agric. College, Fort Collins, Colo 1895 

BuRNHAM, John Bird, 233 Broadway, New York City 1912 

Burt, Henry P., 355 Union St., New Bedford, Mass 1908 

Burtch, Verdi, Branchport, N. Y 1903 

Cabot, Louis, BrookUne, Mass 1904 

Caduc, Eugene E., 512 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, Mass 1910 

Callender, James Phillips, 32 Broadway, New York City 1903 

Calvert, J. Fletcher, 596 Princess Ave., London, Ont 1912 

Campbell, Miss Clara D., 1253 Beacon St., Brookline, Mass 1913 

Carpenter, Rev. Charles Knapp, 311 Park St., Elgin, 111 1894 

Carpenter, George I., 129 Dean St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1907 

Carriger, H. W., 5185 Trask St., Fruitvale Station, Oakland, Cal. . . . 1913 

Carter, John D., Lansdowne, Pa 1907 

Cash, Harry A., 448 Hope St., Providence, R. 1 1898 

Chamberlain, Chauncy W., 36 Lincoln St., Boston, Mass 1885 

Chapin, Prof. Angie Clara, 25 Freeman' Cottage, Wellesley College, 

Wellesley, Mass 1896 

Chapin, James P., Amer. Mus. of Natural History, New York City. . 1906 

Chapman, Mrs. F. M., Englewood, N. J 1908 

Chapman, Roy, 2316 Pierce Ave., St. Anthony Park, St. Paul, Minn. . . 1911 
Chase, Sidney, Nantucket, Mass 1904 

Associates. xix 

Cheesman, Morton R., 55 W. 4th St., S., Salt Lake City, Utah 1911 

Chipman, Miss Grace E., Sandwich, Mass 1912 

Christy, Bayard H., 403 Frederick Ave., Sewickley, Pa 1901 

Clark, Clarence H., Lubec, Me 1913 

Clark, Josiah H., 238 Broadway, Paterson, N.J 1895 

Clarke, Charles E., 11 Chetwynd Road, Tufts College, Mass 1907 

Clakke, Miss Harriet E., 9 Chestnut St., Worcester, Mass 1896 

Cleaves, Howard H., Public Museum, New Brighton, N. Y 1907 

Cleveland, Dr. Clement, 925 Park Ave., New York City 1903 

Cleveland, Miss Lilian, Woods Edge Road, West Medford, Mass. . . 1906 

CoALE, Henry K., Highland Park, 111 1883 

Cobb, Miss Anna E., 322 Broadway, Providence, R. I 1913 

Cobb, Miss Annie W., 20 Amsden St., Arlington, Mass 1909 

Cobb, Dr. Stanley, 206 E. Chase St., Baltimore, Md 1909 

Coffin, Mrs. Percival B., 3232 Grovelaud Ave., Chicago, 111 1905 

Colburn, Albert E., 806 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal 1891 

Cole, Dr. Leon J., College of Agric, Univ. of Wis., Madison, Wis 1908 

Commons, Mrs. F. W., 608 Chamber of Commerce, Minneapolis, Minn. 1902 

Conn, Hugh, Cochrane, Ont., Canada 1915 

Coney, Mrs. Geo. H., R. F. D., Box 25, Windsor, Conn 1906 

Conklin, Charles Edg.\r, Roslyn, N. Y 1915 

Cook, Frederick W., 1604 East Harrison St., Seattle, Wash 1915 

.Cook, Miss Lilian Gillette, 165 West 82 St., New York, N. Y 1899 

Cooke, Miss MayThacher, 1450 Fairmount St., Washington, D. C. . . 1915 

Cope, Francis R., Jr., Diinock, Pa 1892 

CoPELAND, Manton, 88 Federal St., Brunswick, Me 1900 

Craig, Wallace, Orono, Me 1912 

Cram, R. J., 26 Hancock Ave., W., Detroit, Mich 1893 

Crandall, C. W., 10 Thu-d St., Woodside, N. Y 1891 

Crane, Miss Clara L., Dalton, Mass 1904 

Crane, Mrs. Zenas, Dalton, Mass 1904 

Crehoke, Frederic M., P. O. Box 1252, Boston, Mass 1913 

Cressy, Mrs. A. S., Avon Road, Unionville, Conn 1912 

Crosby, Maunsell S., Rhinebeck, N. Y 1904 

Culver, Delos E., Addingham, Pa 1913 

Cummings, Miss Emma G., 16 Kennard Road, Brookline, Mass 1903 

CuRRiE, RoLLA P., 632 Kcefer Place N. W., Washington, D. C 1895 

Currier, Edmonde Samuel, 416 E. Chicago St., St. Johns, Ore 1894 

Curtis, Charles P., 244 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1915 

CusHMAN, Miss Alice, 919 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1910 

Dana, Miss Ada, 488 Centre St., Newton, Mass 1912 

Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Chestnut Hill, Mass 1912 

Davenport, Mrs. Elizabeth B., Lindenhurst, Brattleboro, Vt 1898 

Davidson, Mrs. Francis S., 1302 W., S. Grand Ave., Sprmgfield, 111. . 1912 

Davis, Charles H., 700 N. Hamilton St., Saginaw, W. S., Mich 1906 

Day, Chester Sessions, 15 Chilton Road, West Roxbury, Mass. . . .1897 

XX Associates. 

Dean, R. H., 720 Quintard Ave., Anniston, Ala 1913 

Deane, George Clement, 80 Sparks St., Cambridge, Mass 1899 

DeLoach, R. J. H., Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment, Ga. . .1910 

Densmore, Miss Mabel, 629 4th St., Red Wing, Minn 1910 

Derby, Richard, 116 E. 79th St., New York City 1898 

Dewey, Dr. Charles A., 78 Plymouth Ave., Rochester, N. Y 1900 

Dexter, Lewis, 1889 Elm St., Manchester, N. H 1915 

Dickey, Donald R., San Rafael Heights, Pasadena, Cal, 1907 

Dickey, Samuel S., Waynesburg, Pa 1905 

DiLLE, Frederick M., 2927 W. 28th Ave., Denver, Colo 1892 

DiONNE, C. E., Laval University, Quebec, Canada 1893 

Dixon, Frederick J., Ill Elm Ave., Hackensack, N. J 1891 

DoDSON, Joseph H., Room 1201, 19 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111 1909 

DoRN, Prof. Louis, Concordia College, Fort Wayne, Ind 1912 

Drummond, Miss Mary, 510 Spring Lane, Lake Forest, 111 1904 

Dull, Mrs. A. P. L., 211 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa 1900 

DuNLOP, Eric B., St. Regis Hotel, Winnipeg, Man 1915 

Durfee,- Owen, Box 125, Fall River, Mass 1887 

DuRYEA, Miss Annie B., 62 Washington St., Newark, N. J 1911 

Dyke, Arthur Curtis, 205 Summer St., Bridgewater, Mass 1902 

Eaton, Miss Mary S., Monument St., Concord, Mass 1909 

Eaton, Scott Harrison, Malcolm Hotel, LawrencevUle, 111 1912 

Edson, John M., Marietta Road, Bellingham, Wash 1886 

Ehinger, Dr. Clyde E., 100 Rosedale Ave., West Chester, Pa 1904 

EiFRiG, Prof. C. W. Gustave, 504 Monroe Ave., Oak Park, 111 1901 

EiMBECK, Dr. A. F., New Haven, Mo 1906 

Ekblaw, Walter Elmer, care of G. Ekblaw, Rantoul, 111 1911 

Eldridge, Arthur S., South Lincoln, Mass 1912 

Elliot, Mrs. J. W., 124 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Ells, George P., Norwalk, Conn 1904 

Emmons, Rupert A., 17 T. St., N. E., Washington, D. C 1914 

Emory, Mrs. Mary Dille, 156 Foundry St., Morgantown, W. Va. . .1899 

Euete, Russell, Terrace Park, Ohio 1915 

Evans, William B., Westtown, Pa 1897 

Farley, John A., 52. Cedar St., Maiden, Mass 1904 

Fay, S. Prescott, 53 State St., Boston, Mass 1907 

Felger, Alva Howard, North Side High School, Denver, Colo 1898 

Fell, Miss Emma Trego, 1534 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Findlay, D. Douglas, Carleton Place, Ontario, Canada 1914 

Fisher, Miss Elizabeth Wilson, 2222 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. . 1896 
Fisher, Dr. G. Clyde, American Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City. . 1908 

Flanagan, John H., 89 Power St., Providence, R. 1 1898 

Fletcher, Mrs. Mary E., Proctorsville, Vt 1898 

FooTE, Miss F. Huberta, 90 Locust Hill Ave., Yonkers, N. Y 1897 

Forbes, Alexander, Milton, Mass 1912 

FoRDYCE, Geo. L., 40 Lincoln Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 1901 

Fowler, Frederick Hall, 221 Kingsley Ave., Palo Alto, Cal 1892 

Associates. xxi 

Fowler, Henry W., Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa 1892 

Fox, Dr. William H., 1826 Jefferson Place, Washington, D. C 1883 

Francis, Nathaniel A., 35 Davis Ave., BrookUne, Mass 1913 

Fraser, Donald, Johnstown, N. Y 1902 

Freeman, Miss Harriet E., 37 Union Park, Boston, Mass 1903 

French, Charles H., Canton, Mass 1904 

French, Mrs. Chas. H., Canton, Mass 1908 

Fuller, T. Otis, Needham, Mass 1904 

Fuller, Mrs. T. Otis, Needham, Mass 1909 

Gabrielson, Ira N., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1912 

Gardiner, Charles Barnes, 5 Minard Place, Norwalk, Ohio 1903 

Gertken, Severin, Prof., St. Johns University, CollegeviUe, Minn. . 1912 

GiANiNi, Chas. A., Poland, N. Y 1911 

Gilman, M. French, Fort Bidwell, Cal 1907 

Gladding, Mrs. John R., 30 Stimson Ave., Providence, R. 1 1912 

GoLSAN, Lewis S., Box 97, Prattville, Ala 1912 

Goodrich, Juliet T., 1210 Astor St., Chicago, HI 1904 

Gordon, Harry E., 168 Ashbury St., Rochester, N. Y 1911 

Gould, Joseph E., Arcadia, Fla 1889 

Graham, Wm. J., Aledo, 111 1909 

Granger, Miss Helen, 47 Prentiss St., Cambridge, Mass 1904 

Granger, Walter, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1891 

Grant, W^m. W., 600 Castle St., Geneva, N. Y 1910 

Graves, Mrs. Charles B., 4 Mercer St., New London, Conn 1905 

Griscom, Ludlow, 20 Fifth Ave., New York City 1908 

Gronberger, S. M., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C 1909 

Gross, Dr. Alfred O., 11 Boody St., Brmiswick, Me 1907 

Guild, Henry R., Fly Club, Cambridge, Mass • 1912 

Outsell, James S., 301 College Ave., Ithaca, N. Y 1911 

Hadley, Alden H., Monrovia, Indiana 1906 

Hagar, J. A., 79 Washington Park, Newtonville, Mass 1914 

Hall, Frank H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y 1910 

Hallett, Geo. H., Jr., 199 Owen Ave., Landsdowne, Pa 1911 

Hankinson, Thos. Leroy, Charleston, 111 1897 

Hardon, Mrs. Henry W., 315 West 71st St., New York City 1905 

Harper, Francis, 555 First Ave., College Point, N. Y 1907 

Harrington, Ralph M., 1239 Central Y. M. C. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.. .1915 

Harris, Harry, Kansas City, Mo 1911 

Hathaway, Harry S., Box 1466, Providence, R.I 1897 

Havemeyer, H. O., Jr., Mahwah, N. J 1893 

Hazard, Hon. Rowland G., Peace Dale, R.I 1885 

Hblme, Arthur H., Miller Place, N. Y 1888 

Hendrickson, W. F., 276 Hillside Ave., Jamaica, N. Y 1885 

Hennessey, Frank C, 1108 E. Porter St., Albion, Mich 1914 

Herrick, Francis H., Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio 1913 

Herrick, Harold, 25 Liberty St., New York City 1905 

xxii Associates. 

Herrick, Newbold L., Cedarhurst, N. Y 1913 

Hersey, F. Seymour, 6 Maple Ave., Taunton, Mass 1911 

Hersey, L. J., Wray, Colo 1909 

Hill, James Haynes, Box 485, New London, Conn 1897 

Hill, Mrs. Thomas R., The Montrose, Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Hinckley, Arthur T., 548 Fifth St., Niagara Falls, N. Y 1915 

Hinckley, Geo. Lyman, Redwood Library, Newport, R. 1 1912 

Hinckley, Henry H., 50 West Hill Ave., Melrose Highlands, Mass. . 1912 

HiNE, Prof. James Stewart, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 1899 

HiNE, Mrs. Jane L., Auburn, Ind 1890 

Hix, George E., 100 W. 91st St., New York City 1904 

Hodge, Prof. Clifton Fremont, Univ. of Ore., Eugene, Oregon. . .1899 

Holland, Harold May, Box 1851, Los Angeles, Cal 1910 

Holland, Dr. William J., Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa 1899 

HoLLiSTER, Warren D., McPhee Bldg., Denver, Colo 1901 

HoLMAN, Ralph H., 33 Chestnut St., Stoneham, Mass 1907 

Holt, Ernest G., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1911 

Honywill, Albert W., Jr., 50 Farmington Ave., Hartford, Conn.. . .1907 

HoRSFALL, Robert Bruce, 1457 E. 18 St., Portland, Ore 1905 

Howell, A. Brazier, Covina, Cal 1909 

HowLAND, R. H., 164 Wildwood Ave., Upper Montclair, N.J 1903 

HoYT, William H., Box 425, Stamford, Conn 1907 

Hubbard, Mrs. Sara A., 177 Woodruff Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1891 

HuBER, Wharton, Gwynedd Valley, Pa 1915 

Hudson, Mrs. K. W., The Bellevue, Intervale, N. H 1911 

Hull, Edwin D., 6024 Ellis Ave., Chicago, HI ^ ■ • ■ 1913 

HuNN, John T. Sharpless, 1218 Prospect Ave., Plainfield, N.J 1895 

HussEY, Roland F., 1308 E. Anne St., Ann Arbor, Mich 1915 

HusHER, Mrs. Edwin H., 1495 West Adams St., Los Angeles, Cal.... 1915 

Ingalls, Charles E., East Templeton, Mass 1885 

Ingersoll, Albert M., 908 F St., San Diego, Cal 1885 

Irving, John, Glen Cove, N. Y 1894 

Isham, C. B., 27 W. 67 St., New York City 1891 

Ives, H. David, Southampton, N. Y 1912 

Jackson, Hartley, H. T., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1910 

Jackson, Thomas H., 304 N. FrankUn St., West Chester, Pa 1888 

James, Norman, Catonsville, Md 1913 

Jarves, Miss Flora Amy, Box 151, Kingston Hill, R. I 1913 

Jenks, Chas. W., Bedford, Mass 1912 

Jenney, Charles F., 100 Gordon Ave., Hyde Park, Mass 1905 

Jennings, Richard D., 129 Harrison St., East Orange, N. J 1913 

Jensen, J. K., Westwood, Mass 1912 

Jewett, Stanley G., 582 Bidwell Ave., Portland, Oregon 1906 

Johns, Erw^n Wm., 19 West Market St., Iowa City, Iowa 1910 

Johnson, Chas. E., 714 16 Ave., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn 1912 

Johnson, Mrs. Grace Pettis, City Library Asso., Springfield, Mass. . 1908 

Associates. xxiii 

Johnson, Julius M., 77 Herkimer St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1913 

Johnson, Wilbur Wallace, 144 Harrison St., East Orange, N. J 1914 

Jordan, A. H. B., Everett, Wash 1888 

Jump, Mrs. Edwin R., 97 Oakleigh Road, Newton, Mass 1910 

Justice, Henry, 2023 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1913 

Keays, James Edward, 328 St. George St., London, Ontario 1899 

Kellogg, Ralph T., Silver City, N. M 1913 

Kelso, Dr. John E. H., Braeside, Edgewood, Lower Arrow Lake, B. C. 191.5 

Kent, Duane E., 47 West St., Rutland, Vt 1913 

Kermode, Fr.'VNCis, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C 1904 

Keyes, Prof. Chas. R., Mt. Vernon, la 1904 

*Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton, Mass 1906 

Kihn, Wilfred L., 755 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y 1913 

KiLGORE, William, Jr., 4304 Colfax Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn 1906 

Kirkham, Mrs. James W., 275 Maple St., Springfield, Mass 1904 

*KiRKHAM, Stanton D., 152 Howell St., Canandaigua, N. Y 1910 

KiRKWOOD, Frank C, Monkton, Md 1892 

Kittredge, Joseph, Jr., U. S. Forest Service, Missoula, Mont 1910 

Kloseman, Miss Jessie E., 9 School St., Dedham, Mass 190V) 

Knaebel, Ernest, 3707 Morrison St., Chevy Chase, D. C 1906 

Knapp, Mrs. Henry A., 301 Quincy Ave., Scranton, Pa 1907 

Knolhoff, Ferdinand William, 40 E. 42d St., New York City 1890 

Kretzman, Prof. P. E., 1230 St. Anthony Ave., St. Paul, Minn 1913 

Kuser, Anthony R., Bernardsville, N.J 1908 

Kuser, Mrs. Anthony R., Bernardsville, N.J 1910 

Kuser, John Dryden, Bernardsville, N.J 1910 

La Dow, Stanley V., 610 W. 116th St., New York City 1913 

Lacey, Howard George, R. F. D. No. 1, Kerrville, Texas 1899 

Lamb, Chas. R., 77 Franklin St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Lang, Herbert, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1907 

Latimer, Miss Caroline P., 19 Pierrepont St., Brooldyn, N. Y 1898 

Laurent, Philip, 31 E. Mt. Airy Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa.. .1902 

Law, J. Eugene, 1834 El Cerrito Place, Hollywood, Cal 1907 

Lawrence, John L., Lawrence, N. Y 1915 

Lengerke, Justus von, 200 5th Ave., New York, N. Y 1907 

Levey, Mrs. William, Alton Bay, N. H 1915 

Lewis, Harrison F., R. R. 2 Yarmouth, Nova Scotia 1912 

Lewis, Mrs. Herman E., 120 Grove St., Haverhill, Mass 1912 

Ligon, Stokley, Chloride, New Mexico 1912 

Lincoln, Frederick Charles, Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist., Denver, Colo. . 1910 

Lings, Geo. H., Richmond Hill, Cheadle, Cheshire, Eng 1913 

Little, Luther 2d, Sierra Madre, Cal 1913 

Longstreet, Rubert J., Stetson University, DeLand, Fla 1913 

Luce, Mrs. Frances P., Vineyard Haven, Mass 1912 

♦Life Associate. 

xxiv Associates. 

LuM, Edward H., Chatham, N.J 1904 

Lund, Ewakd G., 527 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1915 

Maclay, Mark W., Jr., 830 Park Ave., New York City 1905 

Maddock, Miss Emeline, 63S6 Drexel Road, Overbrook, Pa 1897 

Madison, Harold L., Park Museum, Providence, R. 1 1912 

Maher, J. E., 351 Communipaw Ave., Jersey City, N. J 1902 

Main, Frank H., 227 N. 18 St., Philadelphia, Pa 1913 

Maitland, Robert L., 141 Broadway, New York City 1889 

Mann, Elias P., WiUiamstown, Mass 1912 

Maples, James C, Port Chester, N. Y 1913 

Marble, Richard M., Woodstock, Vt 1907 

Marks, Edward Sidney, 655 Kearney Ave., Arlington, N.J 1915 

Marrs, Mrs. Kingsmill, 9 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass 1903 

Marshall, Ella M. O., New Salem, Mass 1912 

Martin, Miss Maria Ross, Box 365, New Brunswick, N.J 1902 

Marx, Edward J. F., 207 Burke St., Easton, Pa 1907 

Mattern, Edwin S., 1042 Walnut St., AUentown, Pa 1912 

Mattern, Walter I., 1042 Wahiut St., Allentown, Pa 1912 

McClintock, Norman, 504 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1900 

McConnell, Thomas S., 1813 Huey St., McKeesport, Pa 1915 

McCook, Philip J., 571 Park Ave., New York City 1895 

McIlhenny, Edward Avery, Avery Island, La 1894 

McLain, Robert Baird, Room 26, McLain Building, Wheeling, W. 

Va 1893 

McLane, James Latimer, Jr., Garrison P. O., Baltimore, Md 1915 

McLean, Hon. Geo. P., Simsbury, Conn 1913 

McMahon, Walt F., 74 Eddy St., West Newton, Mass 1913 

McMillan, Mrs. Gilbert, Gorham, N. H 1902 

Mead, Mrs. E. M., 303 W. 84th St., New York City 1904 

Means, Chas. J., 29 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Meeker, Jesse C. A., 51 Washington Ave., Danbury, Conn 1915 

Mengel, G. Henry, 739 Madison Ave., Reading, Pa 1913 

Merriam, Charles, Weston, Mass 1908 

Merriam, Henry F., 26 Wyoming Ave., Maplewood, N.J 1905 

Merrill, Albert R., Hamilton, Mass 1912 

Merrill, D. E., State College, New Mexico 1913 

Merrill, Harry, 316 State St., Bangor, Maine 1883 

Mershon, W. B., Saginaw, Mich 1905 

Metcalf, Z. p., a. & M. College, West Raleigh, N. C 1913 

Meyer, Lieut. G. Ralph, C. D. of Oahu, Honolulu, H.I 1913 

Meyer, Miss Heloise, Lenox, Mass 1913 

Miller, Miss Bertha Stuart, Box 2, Palisade, N.J 1915 

Miller, Chas. W., Jaffna College, JafTna, Ceylon 1909 

Miner, Leo D., 1836 Vernon St., N. W. Washington, D. C 1913 

Mitchell, Catherine Adams, Riverside, 111 1911 

Mitchell, Dr. Walton I., 603 Beacon Bldg., Wichita, Kan 1893 

Associates. xxv 

Moore, Henry D., Haddonfield, N. J 1911 

Moore, William G., 257 W. Main St., Haddonfield, N. J 1910 

MoRCOM, G. Frean, Box 175, Huntington Beach, Cal 1886 

MoRLEY, S. Griswold, 2535 Etna St., Berkeley, Cal 1911 

MoRRLSON, Alva, 53 Middle St., Braintree, Mass 1915 

Morse, Eliza A., 21 Elm St., Worcester, Mass 1913 

Morse, Harry Gilman, Huron, Ohio 1912 

Mosher, Franklin H., 17 Highland Ave., Melrose Highlands, Mass. . 1905 

MousLEY, Wm. Henry, Hatley, Que., Canada 1915 

MuNRO, J. A., Okanagan Landing, British Columbia, Canada 1913 

MuNSON, Prof. William H., 208 Winona St., Winona, Minn 1915 

MuRiE, O. J., Sellwood 219 7th Ave., Moorhead, Minn 1913 

Myers, Mrs. Harriet W., 311 N. Ave. 66, Los Angeles. Cal 1906 

My'ers, Miss Lucy F., Brookside, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 1898 

New-ell, Mrs. H. S., 2431 E. 5th St., Duluth, Minn 1912 

NiMS, Mrs. Lucius, 17 Union St., Greenfield, Mass 1913 

Nokes, Dr. I. D., 820 Marsh-Strong Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal 1915 

NoLTE, Rev. Felix, St. Benedict's College, Atchison, Kan 1903 

NoRRis, J. Parker, Jr., 2122 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1904 

NoRRis, Roy C, 725 N. 10th St., Richmond, Ind 1904 

NovY, Frank Oriel, 721 Forest Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich 1909 

Ogden, Dr. Henry' Vining, 141 Wisconsin St., Milwaukee, Wis 1897 

Ohl, H. C, 1457 Jay St., Fresno, Cal 1913 

Oldys, Henry-, Silver Springs, Md 1896 

*Oliver, Dr. Henry Kemble, 4 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 1900 

Ordway, Miss Elizabeth L, 20 Myrtle St., Winchester, Mass 1913 

OsBORN, Arthur A., 58 Washington St., Peabody, Mass 1912 

Ottemiller, Free, 30 N. Pine St., York, Pa 1914 

Overton, Dr. Frank, Patchogue, N. Y 1909 

*OwEN, Miss Juliette Amelia, 306 N. 9th St., St. Joseph, Mo 1897 

Paine, Augustus G., Jr., 18 West 49th St., New York City 1886 

Palmer, S. C, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa 1899 

Pangburn, Clifford H., 1001 Cherry St , Philadelphia, Pa 1907 

Paul, Lucius H., 19 Aurora St., Rochester, N. Y 1908 

Peabody, Lloy'd, 645 Delaware Ave., St. Paul, Minn 1915 

Peabody, Rev. P. B., Blue Rapids, Kan 1903 

Peck, Morton E., 1458 Court St., Salem, Ore 1909 

Penard, Thos. E., 16 Norfolk Rd., Arlington, Mass 1912 

Penfield, Miss Annie L., 155 Charles St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Pennington, Fred Albert, 5529 Kenwood Ave., Chicago, 111 1910 

Pepper, Dr. Wm., 1811 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa 1911 

Perkins, Arthur W., Farniington, Me 1915 

Perkins, Dr. Geo. H., Burlington, Vt 1912 

Perry, Dr. Henry Joseph, 636 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1909 

Peters, Albert S., Lake Wilson, Minn 1908 

♦Life Associate. 

xxvi Associates. 

Peters, James Lee, Harvard, Mass 1904 

Phelps, Frank M., 212 E. 4th St., Elyria, Ohio 1912 

Phelps, Mrs. J. W., Box 36, Northfield, Mass 1899 

Philipp, Philip B., 220 Broadway, New York City 1907 

Phillips, Alexander H., 54 Hodge Road, Princeton, N. J 1891 

Phillips, Chas. Lincoln, 5 West Weir St., Taunton, Mass 1912 

Pinchot, Gifford, 1617 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C 1910 

Platt, Mrs. Dan F., Englewood, N. J 1913 

PoE, Miss Margaretta, 1204 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Md 1899 

Pond, Miss Ellen J., 160 Lexington Ave., New York City 1909 

Porter, Rev. E. C, 24 Randolph St., Arlington, Mass 1912 

Porter, Louis H., Stamford, Conn 1893 

Potter, Julian K., 563 Bailey St., Camden, N. J 1912 

Praeger, William E., 421 Douglas Ave., Kalamazoo, Mich 1892 

Price, John Henry, Crown W Ranch, Knowlton, Mont 1906 

Price, Ligon, R. F. D. 1, Box 44, Dunmore, W. Va 1913 

Primm, Roy Lee, 1113 W. Dayton St., Madison, Wis 1912 

PuRDY, James B., R. F. D. 4, Plymouth, Mich 1893 

Quiggle, James C, McElhattan, Pa 1915 

Radetsky, Harvey D., 4433 Federal Boulevard, Denver, Colo 1915 

Ramsden, Chas. T., Box 146, Guantanamo, Cuba 1912 

Rea, Paul M., Charleston Museum, Charleston, S. C 1912 

Reach, Dr. Arthur Lincoln, 39 Maple St., West Roxbury, Mass. . 1896 

Redfield, Miss Elisa W., 29 Everett St., Cambridge, Mass 1897 

Reed, Hugh Daniel, 108 Brandon Place, Ithaca, N. Y 1900 

Rehn, James A. G., 6033 B Catherine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Reynolds, Theo. E. W., R. F. D. 2, Box 92, Kent, Wash 1912 

Rhoads, Charles J., National Reserve Bank, Philadelphia, Pa 1895 

Rice, James Henry, Jr., Summerville, S. C 1910 

Rice, Ward J., Roachdale, Ind 1913 

Richards, Miss Harriet E., 36 Longwood Ave., Brookline, Mass. .1900 

Richardson, Wyman, 50 Claverly Hall, Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Riker, Clarence B., 43 Scotland Road, South Orange, N. J 1885 

Ripley, Mrs. J. W., 67 Greenleaf St., Maiden, Mass 1912 

RoBBiNS, Charles A., Onset, Mass 1914 

Roberts, William Ely, 5513 Irving St., Philadelphia, Pa 1902 

Robertson, Howard, 157 S. Wilton Drive, Los Angeles, Cal 1911 

Robinson, Anthony W., 401 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Roe, Chas. M., 3012 Bathgate St., Cincinnati, O 1906 

*RoGERS, Charles H., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1904 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, Hyde Park, N. Y 1896 

Roper, Kenyon, 509 N. 4th St., Steubenville, Ohio 1911 

Ross, George H., 23 West St., Rutland, Vt 1904 

Ross, Dr. Lucretius H., 507 Main St., Bennington, Vt 1912 

Rowley, John, 42 Plaza Drive, Berkeley, Cal 1889 

*Life Associate. 

Associates. xxvii 

Sackett, Clarence, Rye, N. Y 1910 

Sanborn, Colin C, P. O. Box 50, Evanston, 111 1911 

Saunders, Aretas A., Y. M. C. A. Building, New Haven, Conn 1907 

Savage, James, 1097 EUicott Sq., Buffalo, N. Y 1895 

Savage, Walter Giles, Glenwood, Ark 1898 

Sawyer, Edmund J., Box 123, Watertown, Mass 1915 

Schenck, Frederic, Lenox, Mass 1912 

ScHERMERHORN, Charles F., Oak Kuoll, Fla 1915 

ScHORGER, A. W., Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wis 1913 

Shannon, Wm. Purdy, 1170 Broadway, New York City 1908 

Sharples, Robert P., West Chester, Pa 1907 

Shaw, Chas. F., 676 Bedford St., North Abington, Mass 1912 

Shaw, William T., 600 Linden Ave., Pullman, Wash 1908 

Shearer, Dr. Amon R., Mont Belvieu, Tex 1905 

Sheldon, Charles, Wood.stock, Vt 1911 

Shelton, Alfred, Univ. of Ore., Eugene, Ore 1911 

Shoemaker, Clarence R., 3116 P St., Washington, D. C 1910 

Shoffner, Charles P., 28 German-American Bldg., Phila., Pa 1915 

Shrosbree, George, Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis 1899 

Silliman, O. p., 220 Salinas St., Salinas, Cal 1915 

Simmons, Geo. Finlay, 622 First National Bank, Houston, Texas. . .1910 
Smith, Austin Paul, 742 Pennsylvania Ave., San Antonio, Texas. . .1911 

Smith, Rev. Francis Curtis, 812 Columbia St., Utica, N. Y 1903 

Smith, Prof. Frank, 913 West California Ave., Urbana, 111 1909 

Smith, Horace G., State Museum, State House, Denver, Colo 1888 

Smith, Dr. Hugh M., 1209 M St. N. W., Washington, D. C 1886 

Smith, Louis Irvin, Jr., 3908 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Smith, Napier, 46 Cotes des Neiges Road, Montreal, Quebec 1915 

Smyth, Prof. Ellison A., Jr., Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, Va. . . .1892 

Snyder, Will Edwin, 309 De Clark St., Beaver Dam, Wis 1895 

Spelman, Henry M., 48 Brewster St., Cambridge, Mass 1911 

Squier, Theo. L., 149 Freemont St., Battle Creek, Mich 1915 

Stanton, Prof. J. Y., 410 Main St., Lewiston, Me 1883 

Stanwood, Miss Cordelia Johnson, Ellsworth, Me 1909 

Stephens, T. C, Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa 1909 

Stevens, Frank E., 25 Hudson St., Somerville, Mass 1912 

Stevens, Dr. J. F., Box 546, Lincoln, Neb 1908 

Stewart, Phillip B., 1228 Wood Ave., Colorado Springs, Colo 1915 

Stew.\rt, Mrs. Phillip B., 1228 Wood Ave., Colorado Springs, Colo. 1915 

Stiles, Edgar C, 345 Main St., West Haven, Conn 1907 

St. John, Edward Porter, 57 Farmiiigton Ave., Hartford, Conn.. .1911 

Stockbridge, Chas. A., Fort Wayne, Ind 1911 

Stoddard, Herbert Lee, Field Museum Nat. Hist., Chicago, 111. . .1912 

Stone, Clarence F., Branchport, N. Y 1903 

Street, J. Fletcher, Beverly, N.J 1908 

Stu.\rt, Frank A., Marshall, Mich 1915 

Stuart, Geo. H., 3rd, 923 Clinton St., Philadelphia, Pa 1913 

xxviii Associates. 

Sturgis, S. Warren, Groton, Mass 1910 

Sturtevant, Edward, St. George's School, Newport, R. 1 1896 

SuGDEN, Arthur W., 52 Highland St., Hartford, Conn 1913 

Surface, Harvey Adam, State Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa 1897 

Swain, John Merton, Box 528, Farmington, Me 1899 

Swenk, Myron H., 3028 Starr Street, Lincoln, Neb 1904 

Taylor, Alexander R., 1410 Washington St., Columbia, S. C 1907 

Teachenor, Dix, 3230 Woodland Ave., Kansas City, Mo 1915 

Terrill, Lewis McL, 53 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, Quebec 1907 

Thomas, Miss Emily Hinds, Bryn Mawr 1901 

Tinker, Almerin D., 631 S. 12th St., Ann Arbor, Mich 1907 

Tower, Mrs. Kate Denig, 9 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 1908 

Townshend, Henry Hotchkiss, 69 Church St., New Haven, Conn. . . 1915 

Treganza, a. O., 614 E. South St., Salt Lake City, Utah 1906 

Trotter, William Henry, 36 N. Front St., Philadelphia, Pa 1899 

Tudbury, Warren C, 621 Citizens' Nat. Bank Bldg., Los Angeles, 

Cal 1903 

Tufts, Miss Mary I., 1 Atlantic St., Lynn, Mass 1910 

Tweedy, Edgar, 404 Main St., Danbury, Conn 1902 

Tyler, John G., 1114 Belmont Ave., Fresno, Cal 1912 

Tyler, Dr. Winsor M., 522 Massachusetts Ave., Lexington, Mass. .1912 

Valentine, Miss Anna J., Bellefonte, Pa 1905 

Van Cortlandt, Miss Anne S., Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 1885 

Van Name, Willard Gibbs, 121 High St., New Haven, Conn 1900 

Vantassell, F. L., 116 High St., Passaic, N.J 1907 

Vetter, Dr. Charles, 2 West 88th St., New York City 1898 

ViETOR, Dr. Edward W., 166 St. James Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1911 

ViETOR, Mrs. Edward W., 166 St. James Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1914 

Visher, Dr. Stephen S., 1018 S. 7th Ave., Moorhead, Minn 1904 

Wadsworth, Clarence S., 37 Washington St., Middletown, Conn. .1906 

Waite, Mrs. J. GiLMAN, 19 Pearl St., Medford, Mass 1912 

Walker, Dr. R. L., 355 Main Ave., Carnegie, Pa 1888 

Wallace, Chas. R., 69 Columbus Ave. Delaware, Ohio 1913 

Wallace, James S., 12 Wellington St., E., Toronto, Ontario 1907 

Walter, Dr. Herbert E., 67 Oriole Ave., Providence, R. 1 1901 

Walters, Frank, 40 West Ave., Great Barrington, Mass 1902 

Ward, Frank H., 18 Grove Place, Rochester, N. Y 1908 

Ward, Mrs. Martha E., 25 ArUngton St., Lynn, Mass 1909 

Ward, Roy A., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1915 

Warner, Edward P., Concord, Mass 1910 

Watson, Mrs. Alex M., 124 Hatton St., Portsmouth, Va 1910 

Weber, J. A., Palisades Park, N. J 1907 

Wellman, Gordon B., 54 Beltran St., Maiden, Mass 1908 

Wetmore, Mrs. Edmund, 125 E. 57th St., New York City 1902 

Weygandt, Dr. Cornelius, Wissahickon Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadel- 
phia, Pa 1907 

Associates. • xxix 

Wharton, William P., Groton, Mass 1907 

White, Francis Beach, St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H 1891 

White, George R., Dead Letter Office, Ottawa, Ontario 1903 

White, Dr. James C, 259 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1913 

White, W. A., 158 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y 1902 

Wilbur, Addison P., 60 Gibson St., Canandaigua, N. Y. 1895 

Wilcox, T. Ferdinand, 118 E. 54th St., New York City 1895 

Willard, Bertel G., 1619 Mas.sachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Mass.. .1906 

WiLLARD, Frank C, Tombstone, Arizona 1909 

WiLLcox, Prof. M. A., 63 Oakwood Road, Newtonville, Mass 1913 

Williams, Miss Belle, Sec, Audubon Soc, Columbia, S. C 1915 

Williams, Robert S., New York Botanical Gardens, New York City . . 1888 

Williams, Robert W., Tallahassee, Fla 1900 

Williamson, E. B., Bluffton, Ind 1900 

Willis, Miss Clara L., 1615 Beacon St., Waban, Mass 1915 

WiLLiSTON, Mrs. Samuel, 577 Belmont St., Belmont, Mass 1911 

WiNDLE, Francis, West Chester, Pa 1909 

Wing, DeWitt C, 5401 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, 111 1913 

WiNSLOw, Arthur M., Jackson, Mich 1912 

Wood, J. Claire, 179 17th St., Detroit, Mich 1902 

Wood, Nelson R., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C 1895 

Woodruff, Lewis B., 14 E. 68th St., New York City 1886 

Wright, Albert H., 707 E. State St., Ithaca, N. Y 1906 

Wright, Miss Harriet H., 1637 Gratiot Ave., Saginaw, W. S., Mich. 1907 

Wright, Horace Winslow, 107 Pinckney St., Boston, Mass 1902 

Wright, Samuel, Conshohocken, Pa 1895 

Wyman, Luther E., 3927 Wisconsin St., Los Angeles, Cal 1907 

Young, John P., 1510 5th Ave., Youngstowu, Ohio 1911 

Zimmer, J. T., 42 Holdrege St., Lincoln, Neb 1908 

XXX Deceased Members. 



Date of Death 

Aldrich, Charles March 8, 1908 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton Aug. 19, 1887 

Bendire, Charles Emil Feb. 4, 1897 

CouES, Elliott Dec. 25, 1899 

Elliot, Daniel Giraud Dec. 22, 1915 

Goss, Nathaniel Stickney March 10, 1891 

Holder, Joseph Bassett Feb. 28, 1888 

Jeffries, John Amory March 26, 1892 

McIlwraith, Thomas Jan. 31, 1903 

Merrill, James Cushing Oct. 27, 1902 

PuRDiE, Henry Augustus March 29, 1911 

Sennett, George Burritt March 18, 1900 

Trumbull, Gurdon Dec. 28, 1903 

Wheaton, John Maynard Jan. 28, 1887 

Retired Fellows. 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas Sept. 25, 1914 

Honorary Fellows. 

Blanford, William Thomas June 23, 1905 

Barboza du Bocage, Jose Vicente July — , 1908 

Berlepsch, Hans von Feb. 27, 1915 

Burmeister, Karl Hermann Konrad May 1, 1891 

Cabanis, Jean Louis Feb. 20, 1906 

Dres.ser, Henry Eeles Nov. 28, 1915 

Gatke, Heinrich Jan. 1, 1897 

Giglioli, Enrico Hillyer Dec. 16, 1909 

Gundlach, Johannes Christopher March 17, 1896 

Gurney, John Henry April 20, 1890 

Hartlaub, [Karl Johann] Gustav Nov. 20, 1900 

Hume, Allan Octaviajst July 31, 1912 

Huxley, Thomas Henry June 29, 1895 

Kraus, Ferdinand Sept. 15, 1890 

Lawrence, George Newbold Jan. 17, 1895 

Meyer, Adolf Bernhard Feb. 5, 1911 

Milne-Edwards, Alphonse April 21, 1900 

Deceased Members. xxxi 

Newton, Alfred June 7, 1907 

Parker, William Kitchen July 3, 1890 

Pelzeln, August von Sept. 2, 1891 

Salvin, Osbekt June 1, 1898 

Saunders, Howard Oct. 20, 1907 

ScHLEGEL, Hermann Jan. 17, 1884 

Sclater, Philip Lutlet June 27, 1913 

Seebohm, Henry Nov. 26, 1895 

Sharpe, Richard Bowdler Dec. 25, 1909 

Taczanowski, Ladislas [Casimirovich] Jan. 17, 1890 

Wallace, Alfred Russel Nov. 7, 1913 

Corresponding Fellows. 

Altum, [C. a. =] Bernard Feb. 1, 1900 

Anderson, John Aug. 15, 1900 

Baldamus, Auguste Karl Eduard Oct. 30, 1893 

Blakiston, Thomas Wright Oct. 15, 1891 

Blasius, [Paul Heinrich] Rudolph Sept. 21, 1907 

Blasius, Wilhelm August Heinrich May 31, 1912 

BoGDANOW, Modest Nikolaevich March 16, 1888 

Brooks, William Edwin Jan. 18, 1899 

Bryant, Walter [Pierc]E May 21, 1905 

BuLLER, Walter Lawry July 19, 1906 

Collett, Robert Jan. 27, 1913 

Cooper, James Graham July 19, 1902 

Cordeaux, John Aug. 1, 1899 

David, Armand Nov. 10, 1900 

Duces, Alfred Jan. 7, 1910 

Fatio, Victor March 19, 1906 

Haast, Julius von Aug. 16, 1887 

Hargitt, Edward March 19, 1895 

Hayek, Gustav Edler von Jan. 9, 1911 

Herman, Otto Dec. 27, 1914 

HOLUB, Emil Feb. 21, 1902 

Homeyer, Eugen Ferdinand von May 31, 1889 

Knudsen, Valdemar Jan. 8, 1898 

Krukenberg, Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Feb. 18, 1889 

Layard, Edgar Leopold Jan. 1, 1900 

Leverkuhn, Paul Dec. 5, 1905 

LiLFORD, Lord (Thomas Lyttleton Powys) June 17, 1896 

Marschall, August Friedrich Oct. 11, 1887 

Malmgren, Anders Johan April 12, 1897 

Middendorff, Alexander Theodorovich Jan. 28, 1894 

xxxii Deceased Members, 

Mosjisovics VON MojsvAR, Felix Georg Hermann August. Aug. 27,1897 

Gates, Eugene William Nov. 16, 1911 

OusTALET, [Jean Frederic] Emile Oct. 23, 1905 

Philippi, Rudolf Amandus July 23, 1904 

Prjevalsky, Nicolas Michaelovich Nov. 1, 1888 

Prentiss, Daniel Webster Nov. 19, 1899 

Pryer, Harry James Stovin Feb. 17, 1888 

Radde, Gustav Ferdinand Richard von March 15, 1903 

ScHRENCK, Leopold von Jan. 20, 1894 

Selys-Longchamps, Michel Edmond de Dec. 11, 1900 

Severtzow, Nicolas Aleksyevich Feb. 8, 1885 

Shelley, George Ernest Nov. 29, 1910 

Stevenson, Henry Aug. 18, 1888 

Tristram, Henry Baker March 8, 1906 

Wharton, Henry Thornton Sept. — , 1895 

Woodhouse, Samuel Washington Oct. 23, 1904 

Herman, Otto Dec. 27, 1914 


Bagg, Egbert July 12, 1915 

Brown, Herbert May 12, 1913^ 

Cameron, Ewen Somerled May 25, 1915 

Fannin, John June 20, 1904 

Hardy, Manly Dec. 9, 1910 

JuDD, Sylvester Dwight Oct. 22, 1905 

Knight, Ora Willis Nov. 11, 1913 

Pennock, Charles John (disappeared) May 15, 1913 

Ralph, William LeGrange July 8, 1907 

Torrey, Bradford Oct. 7, 1912 

Whitman, Charles Otis Dec. 6, 1910 


Adams, Charles Francis May 20, 1893 

Allen, Charles Slover Oct. 15, 1893 

Antes, Frank Tallant Feb. 6, 1907 

Atkins, Harmon Albro May 19, 1885 

Avery, William Cushman March 11, 1894 

Bailey, Charles E , 1905 

Baird, Lucy Hunter June 19, 1913 

Barlow, Chester Nov. 6, 1902 

Baur, Georg [Hermann Carl Ludwig] June 25, 1898 

Deceased Members. xxxiii 

Beckham, Charles Wickliffe June 8, 1888 

Berier, DeLagnel Feb. 11, 1916 

Bill, Charles April 14, 1897 

Birtwell, Francis Joseph June 28, 1901 

BoARDMAN, George Augustus Jan. 11, 1901 

BoDiNE, Donaldson Aug. 26, 1915 

BoLLES, Frank Jan. 10, 1894 

Brackett, Foster Hodges Jan. 5, 1900 

Brantley, William Foreacre Sept. 9, 1914 

Breese, William Lawrence Dec. 7, 1888 

Breninger, George Frank Dec. 3, 1905 

Brennan, Charles F Mar. 21, 1907 

Brokaw, Louis Westen Sept. 3, 1897 

Brown, John Clifford Jan. 16, 1901 

Browne, Francis Charles Jan. 9, 1900 

Brownson, William Henry Sept. 6, 1909 

Burke, William Bardwell April 15, 1914 

Burnett, Leonard Elmer March 16, 1904 

Butler, [Thomas] Jefferson Oct. 23, 1913 

Buxbaum, Mrs. Cl.ara E March 23, 1914 

Cairns, John Simpson June 10, 1895 

Call, Aubrey Brendon Nov. 20, 1901 

Campbell, Robert Argyll April , 1897 

Canfield, Joseph Buckingham Feb. 18, 1904 

Carleton, Cyrus Nov. 15, 1907 

Carter, Edwin Feb. 3, 1900 

Carter, Isabel Monteith Paddock (Mrs. Carter) Sept. 15, 1907 

Chadbourne, Ethel Richardson (Mrs. Arthur Patterson 

Chadbourne) Oct- 4, 1908 

Charles, Fred Lemar May 6, 1911 

Clark, John Nathaniel Jan. 13, 1903 

CoE, William Wellington April 26, 1885 

Colburn, William Wallace -Oct. 17, 1899 

Collett, [Collette] Alonzo McGee Aug. 22, 1902 

Conant, Martha Wilson (Mrs. Thomas Oakes Conant) . .Dec. 28, 1907 

Corning, Erastus, Jr April 8, 1893 

Baffin, William H April 21, 1902 

Dakin, John Allen Feb. 21, 1900 

Davis, Susan Louise (Mrs. Walter Rockwood Davis) Feb. 13, 1913 

Davis, Walter Rockwood April 3, 1907 

Dexter, [Simon] Newton July 27, 1901 

Dodge, Julian Montgomery Nov. 23, 1909 

Dyche, Lewis Lindsay Jan. 20, 191o 

Elliott, Samuel Lowell Feb. 11, 1889 

Fairbanks, Franklin April 24, 1895 

Farwell, Mrs. Ellen Sheldon Drummond Aug. 6, 1912 

xxxiv Deceased Members. 

Ferry, John Farwell Feb. 11, 1910 

Ferry, Mary B Mar. 18, 1915 

Fisher, William Hubbell Oct. 6, 1909 

Fowler, Joshua Lounsbury July 11, 1899 

Fuller, Charles Anthony Mar. 16, 1906 

Gesner, Abraham Herbert April 30, 1895 

Goss, Benjamin Franklin July 6, 1893 

Hales, Henry Teasdel Nov. 6, 1913 

Hatch, Jesse Maurice May 1, 1898 

Hill, William Henry Oct. 14, 1913 

HoADLEY, Frederick Hodges Feb. 26, 1895 

Holmes, LaRue Klingle May 10, 1906 

Hoopes, Josiah Jan. 16, 1904 

Howe, Florence Aurella July 9, 1913 

Howe, Louise Sept. 13, 1912 

HowLAND, John Snowden Sept. 19, 1885 

Ingersoll, Joseph Carleton Oct. 1, 1897 

Jenks, John Whipple Potter Sept. 26, 1894 

Jesurun, Mortimer (disappeared) Feb. 19, 1905 

Jewel, Lindsey L Sept. 5, 1915 

JouY, Pierre Louis March 22, 1894 

Kelker, William Anthony Feb. 15, 1908 

Knight, Wilber Clinton July 28, 1903 

Knox, John Cowing June 10, 1904 

Koch, August Feb. 15, 1907 

Kumlien, Ludwig Dec. 4, 1902 

KuMLiEN, Thure Ludwig Theodor Aug. 5, 1888 

Lake, Leslie Waldo Feb. 7, 1916 

Lawrence, Robert Hoe April 27, 1897 

Lee, Leslie Alexander May 20, 1908 

Levey, William Charlesworth July 5, 1914 

Linden, Charles Feb. 3, 1888 

Lloyd, Andrew James June 14, 1906 

Lord William R 1916 

Mabbett, Gideon Aug. 15, 1890 

Maitland, Alexander Oct. 25, 1907 

Marble, Charles Churchill Sept. 10, 1900 

Marcy, Oliver March 19, 1899 

Maris, Willard Lorraine Dec. 11, 1895 

Marsden, Henry Warden Feb. 26, 1914 

McEwEN, Daniel Church Nov. 1. 1909 

McKinlay, James Nov. 30, 1899 

Mead, George Smith June 18, 1901 

MiNOT, Henry Davis Nov. 13, 1890 

Morrell, Clarence Henry July 15, 1902 

Nichols, Howard Gardner June 23, 1896 

Deceased Members. 

NiMS, Lee March 12 

Northrop, John Isaiah June 26 

Park, Austin Ford Sept. 22 

Paulmier, Frederick Clark March 4 

PoMEROY, Grace V May 14 

PoMEROY, Harry Kirkland Jan. 27 

Putnam, Frederic Ward Aug. 14 

Ragsdale, George Henry March 25 

Rawle, Francis William June 12 

Ready, George Henry March 20 

Reed, Chester Albert Dec. 16 

Richardson, Jenness June 24 

Robins, Julia Stockton (Mrs. Edward Robins) July 2 

Sand, Isabella Low April 20 

Selous, Percy Sherborn April 7 

Slater, James Howe Feb. 22 

Slevin, Thomas Edwards Dec. 23 

Small, Edgar Albert April 23 

Small, Harold Wesley Mar. 12 

Smith, Clarence Albert May 6 

Smith, Ruth Cook (Mrs. H. A. Hammond Smith) Jan. 2 

Snow, Francis Huntington Sept. 20 

Southwick, James Mortimer June 3 

Spaulding, Frederick Benjamin Oct. 22 

Stone, Willard Harrison March 15 

SwEiGER, Helen Bronson (Mrs. Jacob L. Sweiger) March 24 

Taylor, Alexander O'Driscoll April 10 

Thompson, Millett Taylor Aug. 7 

Thorne, Platt Marvin March 16 

Thorne, Samuel July 4 

Thurber, Eugene Carleton Sept. 6 

Upham, Mary Cornelia (Mrs. William Henry Upham) . .Nov. 29 

Vennor, Henry George June 8 

Waters, Edward Stanley Dec. 27 

Welles, Charles Salter Feb. 24 

Willard, Samuel Wells May 24 

Wilson, Sidney Stewart Nov. 22 

Wister, William Rotch Aug. 21 

Wood, William Aug. 9 

Woodruff, Edward Seymour Jan. 15 

Worthen, Charles Kimball May 27 

Young, Curtis Clay July 30 








The Auk 

a (^uarterli? 3ournal of ©rnttboloa^ 


JANUARY, 1916 

No. 1 


The American Ornithologists' Union 


Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 


The Tennessee Warbler in New Brunswick. By B. S. Bowdish and P. B 

Philipp. (Plate I) 

The Courtship of the Merganser, Mali-ard, Black Duck, Baldpate, Wood 

Duck and Bufflehead. By Charles W. Townsend, M.D. 
Rhythmical Singing of Veeries. By Henry Oldys ..... 
Two Problems in the Migration of Water Fowl. By Joh7i C. Phillips . 
A Study of the Seasonal Decline of Bird Song. By Henry J. Fry . 
The Discovery of the Nest and Eggs of Leucosticte ajistralis. By F. C. Lincoln 

(Plate II) 

A Collection of Birds from Saghalin Island. By John E. Thayer a.nd Outrath 

Bangs ............. 

An Undescribed Species of Drepanidid.e on Nihoa, Hawaiian Group. By 

William Alanson Bryan .......... 

A Nesting OF the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. By Francis H.Allen . 

Five Years Personal Notes and Observations on the Birds of Hatley 

Stanstead County, Quebec — 1911-1915. By H. Mousley 
A New Subspecies of HubsoNiAN Chickadee from the Labrador Peninsula 
By Charles W. Townsend, M.D. 








General Notes. — An Accomplishment of the Red-tlu-oated Loon, 75; The Long-tailed 
Jaeger in Indiana, 75; Notes on Hybrid Ducks from I^oug Point, Ontario, 75; Early 
European Widgeon on Long Island, 75: A Record of the Golden Plover {Charadrius 
dominicus dominicus in the State of Washington, 70; Barn Owl in Massachusetts 
77; Display of the Purple Finch, 77; Late Nesting of the Montana Junco, 77 
Pliiladelphia Vireo (Vireosyha Philadelphia) in Massachusetts in Autumn, 78 
Additional Autumn Records for the Tennessee Warbler ( Vermivora peregrina) in 
Massachusetts, 78; Orange-crowned Warbler {Vermii'ora celata celala) in North 
Carolina, 78; Blue-gray Gnatcatclier at Groton, Mass., 78; Notation of Bird Songs 
and Notes, 78; The Type Locality of Brachyramphus craverii, 80; Eye Shine in Birds, 
81; Weight and Contents of Birds' Eggs, 81. 

Recent Literature. — Watson and Lashley on Homing and Related Activities of Birds, 
88; Thortaurn's 'British Birds,' 84: Grinnell's 'Distributional List of the Birds of 
CaUfornia,' 86; Wood on the Eyelids of Birds, 87; Cooke on the Distribution and 
Migration of North American Gulls, 87; Gaige's 'The Birds of Dickinson County, 
Michigan, 88; Mearns on New African Birds, 89; Beal on the Food Habits of 
Thrushes, 89; Miller on Three New Genera of Birds, 89; Chapiu on New Bu'ds from 
the Belgian Congo, 90; Riley on New Birds from China and Japan, 90; Recent 
Ornithological Papers l)y Dabbene, 90; Mathews' 'The Birds of Australia, 91; 
Shufeldt's Recent Papers on Avian Osteology and Fossil Birds, 92; Richmond on 
Necessary Changes in Generic Names, 92; Gordon's 'Hill Birds of Scotland,' 93; 
Job's 'The Propagation of Wild Birds,' 94; The Ornithological Journals, 95; Orni- 
thological Articles in Other Journals, 100; Publications Received, 100. 

Correspondence. — Methods of Recording Bird Song, 103; On the Position of the 
Aramidm in the System, 108. 

Notes and News. — Proper Diagnosis of New Species, 111; American Museum's Congo 
Expedition, 112; Natural History Survey of Yosemite, 113; Cherrie's Expedition to 
Brazil, 114; Rhoads' Guatemala Collection, 114; The A. O. U. Badge, 114; Correc- 
tion, 114; Death of Henry E. Dresser, 114. 

'THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, is edited, beginning with volume for 1912, by Dr. Wither 

Terms: — ^$3.00 a year, including postage, .strictly in advance. Single num- 
bers, 75 cents. Free to Honorary Fellows, and to Fellows, Members, and Asso- 
ciates of the A. O. U. not in arrears for dues. 

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and publications for notice, may be sent to DR. WITMER STONE, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manuscripts for general articles should reach the editor at least six weeks 
'before the date of the number for which they are intended, and manuscripts 
for 'General Notes', 'Recent Literature', etc., not later than the first of. the month 
preceding the date of the number in which it is desired they shall appear. 

Tun Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate I. 


li''^ '"^f 

Nests of the Tennessee Warbler {Vermivora peregrina). 




Vol. XXXIII. January, 1916. No. 1, 



Plate I. 

During an expedition made by Messrs. T. F. Wilcox and P. B. 
Philipp to northern New Brunswick in 1914, two male Tennessee 
Warblers (Vermivora peregrina) were secured in breeding condi- 
tion. No females were taken and no nests were found, but the 
birds were believed to have certainly been breeding, both because 
of the condition of the specimens taken, and the persistence of 
the males in remaining day after day in or about the small areas 
where they were first noted. 

In June, 1915, a visit was made by the authors to the same 
locahty for the purpose of obtaining data as to the breeding habits 
of the species. The number of nests found and the consequent 
amount of breeding data collected are thought sufficient to warrant 
the publication of the present notes, especially in view of the 
meagreness of the published accounts of the breeding habits of 
this none too common bird. 

The region in question is particularly well adapted to the nesting 
requirements of the Tennessee Warbler, as we noted them during 
the above period. Extensive lumbering has removed the greater 
part of the large growth spruce and balsam timber, which forms 
the great bulk of the forests of this region, leaving areas of small 
trees, which, in the older clearings, have grown thickly, and to an 

2 BowDiSH AND Philipp, Tennessee Warbler. [j"n 

average height of ten feet. These are interspersed with areas of 
more or less open, large timber, and others where the second growth 
has reached little more than the proportions of somewhat scattered 
shrubbery. The essentially level surface is frequently scored by 
slight depressions which form the beds of tiny streams, bordered 
on either side by boggy ground, dotted with grass tussocks, bushes 
and small trees, and overspread with a luxuriant growth of moss. 
Such areas are most numerous in cleared tracts, but not infrequent 
in the edges and the more open portions of the woods. These are 
the summer home-sites of the Tennessee Warbler. 

While it was natural to expect to find this bird breeding under 
similar conditions as its near congener, the Nashville Warbler, 
and while some of the scanty data suggested that it did so, certain 
statements were extant to the effect that the nests were to be 
found "in low bushes near the ground," doubtless the basis for 
such an assertion being one or two nests alleged to have been taken 
from small bushes at a height of three or four feet. The very few 
reliable records we have been able to find, coinciding largely with 
our own experience, suggest a doubt as to the correctness of identi- 
fication of nests taken from such situations, and purporting to be 
those of the Tennessee Warbler. 

This Warbler, because of its inconspicuous gray and olive green 
coloring, might easily escape observation, save for the singing of 
the males which perch high up in the large trees where they sing 
almost constantly. At the time of our visit to the breeding country, 
in the middle of June, nest building was completed and full sets of 
eggs had been laid. Altogether, ten nests w^ere located, all built 
on the ground in substantially the same general sort of situation, 
and all but two were found by flushing the bird. The nest is built 
in the moss, usually in a wet place at the foot of a small bush, and 
in most cases in woods, somewhat back from the more open part 
of the clearings. A hollow is dug in the moss, usually beneath an 
overhanging bunch of grass. The nest is in nearly every case 
entirely concealed and it is impossible to see it from any view-point 
without displacing the overhanging grass. Consequently unless 
the bird is flushed it would be all but impossible to find it. The 
outer foundation of the nest is of dry grass, forming quite a sub- 
stantial structure. Several nests had whisps of grass stems extend- 

^*''' iga^"^^] BowDisH and Philipp, Tennessee Warbler. 3 

ing from the front rim, as noted in description of first nest below. 
It is lined, usually, with fine dry grass, to which in some instances 
the quill-like hairs of the porcupine, or white moose hairs, are 
added, and more rarely still, fine hair-like roots which were not 
identified. The females, so far as observed, do all the incubating 
and sit very closely, — so closely, in fact, that one was caught alive 
on the nest, where the exact situation had been previously marked. 
The nest is so carefully concealed that even when the bird is 
flushed it is sometimes very difficult to find it, so deeply is it buried 
in the moss. 

This species seems to be somewhat gregarious. In 1914, in 
one small clearing, five males were heard singing at the same time. 
In 1915, in the same clearing, three males were heard singing at 
once, and two nests were found. In almost every clearing of suit- 
able size at least two pairs of birds were found, the nests being 
sometimes located rather close together. The females, when once 
flushed off the nest, are very shy about returning while the observer 
is about, but one can easily tell whether a flushed female has a 
nest in the immediate neighborhood by the utterance of a sharp 
"chip," which is nervously given, the bird flitting constantly about 
from twig to twig, a habit which makes them difficult to collect 
in the heavy undergrowth. 

On the second day of our sojourn, June 19, we visited one of the 
typical nesting places of this warbler, a boggy, cleared swale, with 
scattering, small second growth, and soon flushed a female from a 
nest containing six fresh, or practically fresh, eggs. This nest, 
typical of the majority of those found in both construction and 
situation, was placed in the side of a small tussock, bedded in moss 
and completely overhung by the dead grass of the previous year's 
growth. The nest was composed entirely of fine, nearly white, 
dead grass stems. From the front rim protruded outward and 
downward, a wisp of dead grass tips, lying over the lower grasses 
in the tussock, and shingled over by the overhanging grass, estab- 
lishing a continuity of the side of the tussock, thus cunningly adding 
to the perfect concealment. A tiny tree and one or two bush shoots 
grew from the tussock, close to the nest, and this feature was typi- 
cal of the greater number of the nests found. Though larger, 
the nest was similar, both as to general appearance and situation, 

4 BowDisH AND Philipp, Tennessee Warbler. [j^ 

to nests of the Nashville Warbler, found by Philipp and Wilcox 
the previous year, and to a nest of that species found by Bowdish 
in Ontario. 

On June 20 another nest with six eggs was found, also situated 
in a moss bank, overhung with grass, in the edge of the woods 
and partially under the tips of a fallen dead branch. A nest with 
five fresh eggs, found on the same date, was snuggled down in the 
middle of a flat bed of moss, with little grass in the vicinity, and 
could be seen without the removal of any cover. This was the 
most striking departure from the type of nesting already described. 

On June 22, a rainy day, the female was caught on the nest 
with six eggs, found June 20, by clapping a hat over the nest. On 
June 23 three nests were found, each containing five eggs, built 
in the typical situations before described. On June 24 another 
typically situated nest containing five eggs was found. Another 
was located on the same date which had been dragged from its 
original site, presumably by some mammal, bits of egg shell giving 
evidence of destruction of eggs. This was the most bulky and 
substantially built of all the nests found. 

Another nest with five fresh eggs was found on June 20, and a 
nest in its original, typical situation, containing bits of egg shell, 
bespoke another tragedy. The last nest, found June 27, situated 
in the side of a grass tussock, in the edge of woods, just off a boggy 
clearing, contained seve7i eggs, in which incubation appeared to be 
half or more complete. These eggs had not hatched on July 1, 
the day before we left, and the last opportunity we had to examine 
the nest. 

Four nests measured as follows, in inches: 

1. Depth, outside, 2; inside, 1|; diameter, outside, 3|; inside, 2. 

2. Depth, outside, 2$; inside, Ij; diameter, outside, 4; 
inside, l^. 

3. Depth, outside, 3|; inside, 1|; diameter, outside, 3|; 
inside, 2. 

4. Depth, outside, 3; inside, 1|; diameter, outside, 3; inside, 1|. 
None of these presented the "quite flat" appearance described 

by J. Parker Norris, Jr., in the nest taken by Allan Brooks in British 
Columbia. On the contrary, they were well cupped and, though 
far from bulky, were fairly substantially built. 



] liowuisii AND PiiiMiM*, '/'m/ffi.s.sTC Warbler. 5 

The ogjf.s vary from 5 to 7 in iiuinhor, usually 5, and aro ilvad 
white in ground color, well sprinkled with fine specks and small 
blotches of reddish brown, and less numerous and conspicuous 
lilac markings, more thickly about the large end, where, in perhaps 
a third of the specimens, they tend to form a wreath. Three sets 
measure as follows, in hundredths of an incli: 
No. 1. .()() X .50; .02 X .17; .()4 X .47; .(12 X .47; AV2 X .47; 

.62 X .47. 
No. 2. .(Hi X .52; .()5 X .51; .(57 X .52; .()4 X .51; .70 X .50. 
No. 3. .()4 X .49; .().S X .49; .()5 X .47; .()2 X .45; .()3 X .47. 

The males sing most persistently, and at all times of day, and 
as they sing from some perch, usually lofty, within a few roils of 
the nest, they give a good clue to its general location. 

The song, though (iuit(> characteristic, is ratiicr dillicult to 
describe. In fact, the authors finding this beyond tlu>ir powers, 
appealed to Mr. Louis Agnssiz Fuerte.s^ who kindly furnished the 
following notes: 

"1 would not recognize" it iiniong other ' Vermivora>' by its '(;hip,' 
but I usually spot its .'foiuj, which to my car is represented as ' Xee', 
Xee', Xee' see', sec', see' see'-e-e-e-e- " or K'sec'-K'see', xee', 
xee', see' see' sce'-e-e-e-e-.' It is done in a thin or wiry (luality 
of tone, high, like a Nashville's, and is the only Warbler song I 
know that is a consistent accelerando from end to cm], all on tiie 
same pitch. Though wiry, it is frecjucntly ((uite loud, and may be 
heard for some distance'. It may — and proI)ably does — have 
more elabonitcd songs for the period of early sununer, which 1 
have never heard." 

As a basis for estimating the frequency of .song repetition, 
counts were kept on three singing birds for a period of fi\'(! minutes 
each, with a result of .'i2, 'M) and 22 songs, respectively, within the 
period. In one instance, a bird was observed to sing wliih^ on the 
wing, repeating the song twice in the course of a short flight. 

In addition to the birds of the ten nests obse-rved, at least a dozen 
males were heard singing in other localities within a radius of four 
or five miles. The Tennessee Warbler would appear to be one of 
the most mnne^rous warblers of this part of New Brunswick, 
while the two nesting records of the Nashville Warbler in 1914 
and one nest with four eggs, fomxi on dry u])laiul, -hme 29 of (he 

6 BowDiSH AND Philipp, Tennessee Warbler. [j"n_ 

present year, would, according to our experience, seem little more 
than casual. 

The stomachs of four birds taken were preserved and sent to 
Mr. H. W. Henshaw, Chief of the Biological Survey, United States 
Department of Agriculture, who kindly furnished the following 
copies of analyses of contents : 

No. 1, male, June 21, contents; eight small caterpillars (as in 
No. 3), 35%; Dipterous fragments, 23%; a small spider, 2%; 
scale-like fragments (perhaps of some catkin), 40%. 

No. 2, female, June 22; empty. 

No. 3, female, June 23, contents: a camponotid ant, 16%; 
at least 78 small caterpillars (Tortricidse), 75%; a snail (Vitrea 
hammoides) 4%; unidentified vegetable fragments, 5%. 

No. 4, male, June 28, contents: 3 Lampyrids near Podabrus, 8%; 
a small Coleopterous (?) larva, 3%; about 15 small caterpillars (as 
in No. 3), 25%; a Neuropterous insect (apparently a caddis fly), 
50%; 2 small spiders, 14%; trace of unidentified vegetable matter. 

In connection with the subject of food, a note published in the 
'Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club,' Vol. V, 1880, 
page 48, by J. A. Allen, cites destruction of grapes by these birds 
in Kansas in September of the previous year, the birds puncturing 
the skin and eating the pulp or succulent parts. 

On the other hand, W. F. McAtee, describing his experience with 
injury to grapes by these birds, in 'The Auk,' Vol. XXI, 1904, 
page 489, found that while puncturing many grapes, the Warblers 
did not eat the pulp, but seemed to quench their thirst with the 
juice. Examination of stomach contents showed insects of species 
most injurious to grapevines, and as the Warblers are present in 
the grape growing areas as transients only, it is argued that such 
harm as is wrought by the grape puncturing habit is probably far 
more than offset by the insects eaten. The suggestion is also 
made that by supplying abundance of water, the injurious habit 
might be eliminated. 

Little information seems available as to the migration of the 
Tennessee Warbler in New Brunswick. The Biological Survey 
has but two records of arrival, both for Petit Codiac, by John 
Brittain; May 19, 1886, and May 26, 1888. 

In conclusion, it may be of interest to cite the more pertinent 

1916 J BowDisH AND Philipp, Tennessee Warbler. 7 

published data respecting the breeding of the Tennessee Warbler, 
which we have been able to locate. 

In 'The Warblers of North America,' Chapman cites C. J. 
Maynard 'Birds of Coos Co., N. H. and Oxford Co., Me.,' (Pro- 
ceedings Boston Society Natural History, 1871, page 7) who "found 
it to be very common in wooded localities about Umbagog." The 
citation does not state that nests were found and we have not been 
able to consult the source cited. 

H. D. Minot, 'Land and Game Birds of New England,' 1876, 
states that "the nest and eggs are essentially like those of the 
Nash\alle Warbler, though the eggs vary and exhibit certain pecu- 
liar forms, and though the nest is 'often placed in the woods.'" 

In the 'Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club,' Vol. VI, 
1881, page 7, C. Hart Merriam, in 'Birds of the Adirondac Region,' 
states of the Tennessee Warbler: "Breeds. Not rare in suitable 
localities. Generally prefers hard-wood areas." In a list of the 
birds of Point De Monts, Quebec, the same author in the same 
publication. Vol. VII, 1882, page 234, says: "A tolerably common 
summer resident." 

J. H. Langille, ' Our Birds in Their Haunts,' 1884, says " It bree(5s 
far to the north, its nest having been found in Michipicoton, on 
Lake Superior." 

Ernest Thompson Seton, 'The Birds of Western Manitoba,' 
(Auk, Vol. Ill, 1886, pages 325-326) gives the Tennessee Warbler 
as a "Rare summer resident." 

Walter Faxon found a singing male in Berkshire Co., Mass., 
July 15, 1888; (Auk, Vol. VI, 1889, page 102). He quotes William 
Brewster as always having found it in conifer regions and C. H. 
Merriam and J. A. Allen as having found it frequenting hard wood. 

John Brittain and Philip Cox, Jr., in notes on summer birds of 
the Restigouche Valley, New Brunswick (Auk, Vol. VI, 1889, 
page 118) give the Tennessee Warbler as "Very rare." 

In 'Bulletin No. 18, United States Department of Agriculture 
— Bureau of Biological Survey,' Wells W. Cooke records two sets 
of eggs taken by one of the parties of the Biological Survey in 
the summer of 1901 at Fort Smith, Mackenzie. "These eggs are 
among the first absolutely authentic specimens known to science." 
This note however gives no description of the nesting habits. 

8 BowDiSH AND Philipp, Temiessee Warhler. [ja^, 

J. Parker Norris, Jr., describes (Auk, Vol. XIX, 1902, page 88) 
a nest and four eggs in his collection, taken by Allan Brooks at 
Cariboo, British Columbia, June 15, 1901. On the same date 
Brooks found another nest with newly hatched yoimg and several 
more nests with young the following week. From this it would 
appear that the breeding season there was a week or two earlier 
than we found it in New Brunswick. We infer from Brooks' data 
that he found the birds nesting on dry ground, but otherwise the 
situation of the nests, arched over by dry grass, se^ms to have been 
the same as in the case of the New Brunswick nests. Norris' 
description of these eggs agrees largely with those we observed, but 
his nest differs both as to the flat appearance previously mentioned 
and in having a greater variety of material, leaves not occurring 
in the nests we found, while moss was seldom used by the New 
Brunswick birds. A photograph of the nest in the Norris collec- 
tion appears in 'The Oologist,' (Vol. XXII, 1905, page 134). 

Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian Birds, as to breeding, only 
quotes the description of the Norris nest, above mentioned, and 
an alleged nest reported by W. Raine as having been taken near 
Edmonton, Alberta, in 1899, situated two feet up in a willow bush. 
O. W. Knight in his 'Birds of Maine' reports a nest found by C. D. 
Farrer, near South Lewiston, Maine, June 4, 1895, containing five 
eggs, advanced in incubation, and other nests with young, found 
near Bangor, Maine. 

The August, 1915, issue of ' The Oologist ' reports a nest and four 
eggs in the collection of Gerard Alan Abbott, taken by E. Arnold, 
at Gaff Topsail, Newfoundland, June 25, 1913. 

1916 J TowNSEND, Courtship of Ducks. 





The following studies have all been made within the limits of 
large cities, where the birds, protected from gunners, act without 
fear and show, sometimes at close range, their natural character- 
istics. The Baldpate has been studied at Jamaica and Leverett 
Ponds, the Merganser, Mallard and Black Duck at these ponds 
and in the Fens and Back-Bay Basin — all in the Boston Park 
System — in the reservoir at Chestnut Hill and at Fresh Pond in 
Cambridge. All of these bodies of water are within four miles of 
the Boston State House, and, as I frequently pass near them, I 
have made a practice for several years of stopping whenever possi- 
ble and watching the ducks through strong binoculars. The 
BufHehead has been studied chiefly at Squantum and at Lynn 
Beach, while the Wood Duck has been watched at still closer range 
in the Boston Zoological Park. All my notes, which were made on 
the spot and extend over several years, are drawn upon so as to 
give as complete a picture as possible for each bird. This seems 
worth while as so little has been published on the courtship of North 
American ducks. The reader is referred to previous papers on the 
courtship of the Golden-eye and Eider ^ and of the Red-breasted 

The occupations of wintering ducks may be roughly divided into 
three parts. Most of their time is spent in procuring food either 
by diving or dipping; another part is devoted to preening their 
feathers and to sleeping either on the water or on the shore or ice; 
the rest is devoted to courtship. Courtship is commonly to be 
seen in the autumn months, less frequently in December and Janu- 
ary, but it occupies more and more time and increases in ardency 
during February, March and April, before the departure of the 

1 Read before the Nuttall Ornithological Club, April 26, 1915. 

2 Aiik, XXVII. 1910, p. 177. 
'Auk, XXVIII, 1911, p. 341. 

10 TowNSEND, Courtship of Ducks. [jj![^_ 

birds for the breeding grounds. A group of birds are apt to be all 
doing the same thing at the same time. For example, courting 
may be going on actively, when suddenly the flock takes to diving 
or dipping. Again the birds may become indolent, and doze and 
preen themselves, so that one may often be disappointed on visiting 
a pond to find the ducks all feeding or dozing and not courting. If 
one's time is limited, he may often draw a blank. 

If, in a group of ducks the drakes are seen to be restlessly swim- 
ming back and forth or weaving their way in and out through the 
crowd as if they were at an afternoon tea, the case looks promising. 
This afternoon-tea-effect is very characteristic of courtship among 
water birds in general, and one can often tell at a glance whether 
courtship is in progress or not. The most favorable opportunity 
for observation is afforded when the ducks are crowded into a small 
area of open water near the shore by the freezing over of the larger 
part of the pond. 

There is a great variety in the methods of courtship of ducks 
from the very spectacular performance, — the song and dance — 
of the Whistler to the simpler movements of the Mallard, but one 
can trace in most of them a general family resemblance. All are 
interesting as primitive forms of dancing, an art which has under- 
gone wonderful developments in the human species, but undoubt- 
edly owes its origin to courtship impulses. It is to be noted that, 
even among mankind, the dance may not be with the feet alone, 
but may include movements of the body, neck, head, arms and 
hands. Indeed certain human dances in Java and some of the 
Oceanic islands are limited to one or more of these last named 
movements without any leg action. 

The courtship of the Merganser or Goosander (Mergus ameri- 
canus), is fairly spectacular and differs widely from that of its 
red-breasted cousin, M. senator. The only description I can find 
of it is one by Mr. William Brewster ^ who states that he saw the 
performance on March 16, 1909, at Fresh Pond, Cambridge. 
This and the brief description given by Mr. J. G. Millais ^ of the 
Courtship of the European Merganser (Mergus merganser), — a 

' Bird Lore, XIII, 1911, p. 125-127. 

2 British Diving Ducks, 1913, vol. 2, p. 94. 

Vol-XJOCIIIj TowNSEND, Courtship of Ducks. 11 

bird which is regarded by many authors as identical with M. 
amcricanus ^ correspond very closely to my own observations 
which now follow: 

A group of five or six male Mergansers may be seen swimming 
energetically back and forth by three or four passive females. 
Sometimes the drakes swim in a compact mass or in a file for six 
or seven yards or even farther, and then each turns abruptly and 
swims back. Again they swim in and out among each other, and 
every now and then one with swelling breast and slightly raised 
wings spurts ahead at great speed by himself or in the pursuit of a 
rival. The birds suggest swift motor boats by the waves which 
curl up on either side, and by the rapidity with which they turn 
and swash around. Again they suggest polo-ponies, as one in 
rapid course pushes sidewise against a rival, in order to keep him 
away from the object of the quest. They frequently strike at each 
other with their bills, and I have seen two splendid drakes rise up 
in the water breast to breast, and, amid a great splashing, during 
which it was impossible to see details, fight like game-cocks. The 
pursuit is varied by sudden, momentary dives and much splashing 

of water. 

The smooth iridescent green heads, the brilliant carmme bills 
tipped with black nails, the snowy white of flanks and wing patches 
and the red feet, which flash out in the dive, make a wonderful 
color effect, contrasting well with the dark water and white ice. 
The smaller females with their shaggy brown heads, their neat 
white throat-bibs, their quaker blue-gray backs and modest wmg 
patches, which are generally hidden, are fitting foils to their mates. 
I have reserved for the last the mention of the delicate salmon 
yellow tint of the lower breast and the beUy of the male, a colora- 
tion of which he is deservedly proud, for, during courtship, he 
frequentlv raises himself up almost on to his tail with or without a 
flapping of the wings and reveals this color, in the same way that 
the Eider displays his jet black shield. Most of the time he keeps 
his tail cocked up and spread, so that it shows from behind a white 
centre and blue border. Every now and then he points his head 
and closed bill up at an angle of forty-five degrees or to the zenith. 
Again he bows or bobs his head nervously and often at the same 
time tilts up the front of his breast from which flashes out the salmon 

12 TowNSEND, Courtship of Ditcks. [j^ 

tint. From time to time he emits a quickly repeated purring 
note, dorr - dorr or krr - krr. 

The most surprising part of the performance is the spurt of water 
fully three or four feet long which every now and then is sent back- 
wards into the air by the powerful kick of the drake's foot. It is 
similar to the performance of the Whistler but much greater, and 
while the foot of the Whistler is easily seen and is plainly a part of 
the display, it is difficult to see the red foot of the Merganser in the 
rush of water, although it is evident doubtless, to the females. The 
display of the brilliantly colored foot in both species is probably the 
primary sexual display, and the splash, at first incidental and 
secondary, has now become of primary importance. 

During all this time the female swims about unconcernedly, 
merely keeping out of the way of the ardent and belligerent males, 
although she sometimes joins in the dance and bobs in a mild way. 
At last she succumbs to the captivating display and submerges 
herself so that only a small part of her body with a bit of the crest 
appear above the water, and she swims slowly beside or after her 
mate, sometimes even touching him with her bill. Later she re- 
mains motionless, flattens herself still more, the crest disappears 
and she sinks so that only a line like that made by a board floating 
on the water is seen. One would never imagine it to be a live duck. 
The drake slowly swims around her several times, twitches his head 
and neck, picks at the water, at his own feathers and at her before 
he mounts and completely submerges her, holding tightly with his 
bill to her neck meanwhile. Then she bathes herself, washes the 
water vigorously through her feathers and flaps her wings; the 
drake stretches himself and flaps his wings likewise. From the 
beginning of submergence by the female the process is the same in 
all the duck family that I have observed. 

The Mallard {Anas platyrhynchos) is a common duck in Jamaica 
and Leverett Ponds, in the Fens and in the Back Bay Basin. 
Most of these birds have been introduced by the Park Department 
and semi-domesticated, and some are housed in winter, but there 
are always a considerable number that fly freely and spend the 
winter in the few open places at the entrance of springs and water 
courses that are to be found at that season. They are practically 
wild birds, and it is possible and probable that some are really wild. 

°1916 J TowNSEND, CouHsMp of Ducks. 13 

Many of them have more or less blood of the Black Duck, but my 
courtship description applies to what appeared to be full blooded 

When the Mallard drake courts, he swims restlessly about 
following or sidling up to a duck. She may lead him quite a chase 
before she vouchsafes to acknowledge his presence, although he is 
continually bowing to her, bobbing his head up and down in nerv- 
ous jerks so that the yellow bill dips into the water for a quarter 
of its length and comes up dripping. He also rears himself up in 
the water and from time to time displays his breast. She occa- 
sionally turns her head to one side and carelessly dabbles her bill 
in the water, but sooner or later, if all goes well, she begins to bow 
also, less vigorously at first — not touching the water at all — and 
to the empty space in front of her. Suddenly she turns and the 
pair bow to each other in the same energetic nervous jerks, and, 
unless a rival appears to spoil the situation, the drake has won his 
suit. A somewhat similar description of the courtship is given 
by J. G. Millais,^ but none as far as I know has been given by 
American writers. 

The most numerous duck in the fresh waters in and about Boston 
is the Black Duck and both Ajias nihrlpes ruhripcs and Anas 
rubripes tristis are well represented throughout the winter and 
spring. A group of fifteen or twenty may be seen solemnly feeding 
by dipping, with their tails pointing zenithward, when they begin 
to swim about nervously, weaving their ways in and out among 
their fellows. Now one swims rapidly with head low and darts 
at another that, in order to avoid him, dives just below the surface 
with a great splashing with his wings. Soon nearly the whole 
group are chasing each other and diving awkwardly. Every now 
and then the short quack of the drake is heard, sometimes the loud 
croak of the duck. Now a drake flys for fifteen or twenty feet over 
the water with drooping body and legs and plumps down by a duck 
with a splash and an impetus that carries him three or four feet 
further. This is repeated again and again by the drakes and is a 
conspicuous part of the courtship. At times they bob the head in a 
manner exactly similar to that already described in the case of the 

1 The Natural History of the British Surface-feeding Ducks, 1902, p. 6. 

14 TowNSEND, Courtship of Ducks. [j^. 

Mallard. The bobbing does not continue so long, for the short 
flights seem to play a more essential and important part in the 
courtship of the Black Duck. It is possible that the white lower 
surface of the wings revealed in these short flights may have an 
entrancing efi^ect on the females. The under surface of the wings 
of Pigeons who indulge in the same tactics on land are also white. 
It is a common courtship action however, even with birds whose 
under wing surface is not conspicuous and, it seems to me, these 
flights are very different from the pursuit in the air of the female 
by one or more males. The short flights are courtship displays 
for the purpose of attracting the female and of leading to a choice. 
The pursuit flights are different and are not in the nature of display; 
it is possible indeed that the choice has already been made. Such 
flights take place both in the case of the Black Duck and of the 
Mallard and probably of other species. 

A striking instance of pursuit flight in the Black Duck observed 
in Southern Labrador in 1909, I have described as follows: ^ 

"At Esquimeaux Point on June 2, as I was standing on the 
rocks on the shore, I was startled by the loud quack or croak char- 
acteristic of the female black duck, and looking up I saw two large 
black ducks, evidently males, in close pursuit of a smaller female. 
They doubled and twisted in a manner wonderful to see, as the 
duck appeared to be straining every nerve to elude the drakes. 
At last one of the drakes gave up the pursuit and disappeared over 
the low forest, whereupon the other drake and the duck sailed away 
together, as if it had all been arranged beforehand, straight to a 
secluded pool out of sight behind the rocks." 

Mr. Bent has seen similar flights in the Mallard in Manitoba 
and thus describes it : ^ "I have seen as many as three males in 
ardent pursuit of one female, flying about high in the air, circling 
over the marshes in rapid flight and quacking loudly; finally the 
duck flies up to the drake of her choice, touches him with her bill 
and the two fly off together, leaving the unlucky suitors to seek 
other mates." 

I have found no previous mention of the courtship of the Black 

I "A Labrador Spring," 1910, p. 9.5. 

= MS. 

^"'"iQi^"^] TowNSEND, Courtship of Ducks. 15 

Duck except one by Mr. Edmund J. Sawyer ^ who describes the 
actions of two Black Ducks that flew repeatedly two or three rods 
back and forth in a small pool, alighting each time with splashings 
of the water while other ducks swam about unconcernedly. An 
interesting sketch of this courtship flight illustrates the article. 

The Baldpate (Mareca americana) is a charming little duck with 
his pale blue bill, snowy white pate, and vinous breast. He is an 
arrant thief, however, and much prefers to rob his diving neigh- 
bors, particularly the Coot and Lesser Scaup, of their provender 
brought from the bottom by honest labor, than to search the shal- 
lower waters by his own limited method of dipping. The robbery 
is bold and open, and apparently awakens no resentment. In his 
courting he continually emits gentle but eager whistling notes, and 
with neck extended and head low, bill wide open and wings elevated 
behind so that the tips are pointed up at an angle of forty-five de- 
grees, he swims rapidly over the water behind or beside the duck. 
Occasionally he pecks playfully at the side of her head, and now 
and then in his excitement jumps clear of the water and flies for 
two or three yards. 

I have found no previous account of the courtship of this species. 
Millais' description of the courtship of the European Wigeon 
{Mareca penelope) shows a striking similarity, the only difference 
being in the character of the note emitted. Millais^ says that as 
the female swims away, the drakes "follow in a close phalanx, 
every male raising his crest, stretching out his neck close over the 
water and erecting the beautiful long feathers of the scapulars to 
show them off. He also depresses the shoulder joint downwards, 
so as to elevate the primaries in the air. All the time the amorous 
males keep up a perfect babble of loud Whee — ous, and they are 
by far the noisiest of ducks in their courtship." 

The courtship of the Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) is a pretty sight. 
The gorgeously colored drake swims close to his modest little wife 
who is dressed in quaker gray and wears large white spectacles. 
If she swims too fast for him he is apt to touch her head with his 
bill, and when she stops he jerks his head up and down in an 

1 Bird Lore, XI, 1909, p. 195. 

' British Surface-feeding Ducks, p. 45. 

16 TowNSEND, Courtship of Ducks. [jm. 

abbreviated bow. At the same time he whistles in a low sweet 
way as if he were drawing in rather than blowing out his breath. 
The feathers of his crest and head are at the same time erected. 

The only description heretofore given of this courtship that I 
can find, with the exception of a partial one by Hatch/ is the fol- 
lowing from Audubon : - " Observe that fine drake. How grace- 
fully he raises his head and curves his neck. As he bows before 
the object of his love, he raises for a moment his silken crest. 
His throat is swelled and from it there issues a guttural sound, 
which to his beloved is as sweet as the song of the Wood Thrush to 
its gentle mate. The female as if not unwilling to manifest the 
desire to please which she really feels, swims close by his side, now 
and then caresses him by touching his feathers with her bill, and 
shows displeasure towards any other of her sex that rnay come near. 
Soon the happy pair separate from the rest, repeat every now and 
then their caresses, and at length having sealed the conjugal com- 
pact, fly off to the woods to search for a large Woodpecker's hole." 

The Bufflehead {Charitonetta albeola) in nuptial plumage is a 
handsome sight and well deserves his name for his head is as large 
in proportion to his body as is the Buffalo's, for huffle-head means, 
I suppose, buffalo-head. The white triangle behind the eyes 
contrasts strikingly with the glossy greenish-black forehead, and 
the white of the flanks rolls up over the white of the wings. The 
female is much more modestly dressed and only a small white 
patch adorns her smaller head. 

As far as I know the courtship of this species has never been 
described. Millais ^ says " From what I could gather from natura- 
lists in British Columbia the Courtship is very like, if not exactly 
similar to that of the Golden-eye, but no one seems to have ob- 
served it at close range." As will be seen my own observations do 
not bear this out. 

A group of thirty-five or forty of these birds with sexes about 
equally divided may have been actively feeding, swimming to- 
gether in a compact flock all pointing the same way. They dive 
within a few seconds of each other and stay under water 14 to 20 

» p. L. Hatch, "Notes on the Birds of Minnesota," 1892, p. 54. 

2 Birds of America, 1842, VI, p. 275. 

3 British Diving Ducks. Vol. I, p. 109. 

"'1916 J Oldys, The Singing of Veeries. 17 

seconds and repeat the diving at frequent intervals.^ Suddenly a 
male swims vigorously at another with flapping wings, making the 
water boil, and soon each male is ardently courting. He spreads 
and cocks his tail, puflFs out the feathers of his head and cheeks, 
extends his bill straight out in front close to the water and every 
now and then throws it back with a bob in a sort of reversed bow. 
All the time he swims rapidly, and, whereas in feeding the group 
were all swimming the same way in an orderly manner, the drakes 
are now nervously swimming back and forth and in and out through 
the crowd. Every now and then there is a commotion in the water 
as one or more drakes dive with a splashing of water only to come 
up again in pursuit or retreat. As the excitement grows a drake 
flaps his wings frequently and then jumps from the water and 
flies low with outstretched neck towards a duck who has listlessly 
strayed from the group. He alights beside her precipitately, 
sliding along on his tail, his breast and head elevated to their ut- 
most extent and held erect. He bobs nervously. And so it goes. 



In a recent article in 'The Independent' I made the following 
statement : 

"Thrush songs are especially worthy of careful investigation, 
because of their advanced character. Those of superior Olive- 
backed, Hermit, and Wood Thrushes, disclose a rhythmical arrange- 
ment very satisfying to the human ear; and from incomplete study 
of the singing of the Veery, I am inclined to believe that the oboe 
phrases of this member of the thrush family will, in some instances, 
be found, on close attention, to show a similar arrangement." 

Since this article was published (20th July, 1914) I have been so 

1 A series of four dives timed with a stop watcli in the Back Bay Basin averaged 
18 seconds, varying between 14 and 20 seconds. At Lynn Beach of four dives 
three were 17 seconds, one, 15 seconds, in duration. 

18 Oldys, The Singing of Veeries. [j^_ 

fortunate as to have noted several verifications of this prediction, 
the first as recently as May 19, 1915. I was at Rhinebeck, N. Y., 
at the charming home of Mr. Maunsell S. Crosby, an enthusiastic 
student of bird life. In the late afternoon, as we were standing 
beside a large pond (or small lake) on his place, our attention was 
attracted by the singing of a Veery. Other Veery songs had greeted 
our ears, but this one particularly excited our interest because of 
its containing a short phrase with a closing trill. We had listened 
but a moment or two when it became evident that this shorter 
phrase occurred with regular frequency, following two other phrases, 
which differed from each other slightly and had each its fixed place 
in the song. 

On our making this discovery I directed my efforts toward 
obtaining an exact record of the song. It is extremely difficult 
to record all the minor notes of a Veery or a Hermit Thrush, and the 
record I secured is not perfect in this respect. It shows, however, 
the principal notes — those that give the song its character — and 
is sufiiciently correct to represent the phrases substantially as 
they were sung. The following is the record I made: 

fi. , m^m 1 | t^Tf tji; ; |t£rfT| 

All the notes were given with the Veery 'burr,' which I have 
indicated by the wavy lines above them. "While I listened the 
song was repeated fifteen or twenty times and, so far as I observed, 
without variation. 

The proximity of the dinner hour compelled a suspension of my 
study of the song sooner than I should have wished ; but I contented 
myself with the hope that I might have an opportunity to resume 
the study on the following morning before breakfast. In this I 
was disappointed, for although Mr, Crosby and I were on the 
scene very early the next morning, the bird remained absolutely 
silent during our entire stay in the vicinity. Perhaps it had passed 
on to the north. 

No further opportunity presented itself for investigation of 
Veery music until a lecturing trip for the University of Minnesota 

"l9i6 J (Jldys, The Singing of Veeries. 19 

brought me to Taylor's Falls, Minn., on June 9. At this attractive 
spot beside the Dalles of the St. Croix I was so fortunate as to 
make several interesting ornithological notes, including the record 
of two rhythmical Veery songs. The first bird was singing in regular 
order three phrases, each with different closing notes, like those of 
the Rhinebeck Veery, and also with an additional opening note in 
the third phrase, as in the case of the Rhinebeck bird. To show the 
rhythm alone these phrases may be freely syllabled thus: 

Wee-ie-a-wee, te-a-ioee, te-a-ivee: 

Wee-te-a-wee, te-a-wee, te-a-wee: 

W ee-te-te-a-wee, te-a-wee, te-a-wee. 

I did not take the notes, chiefly because of the presence in the 
vicinity of a voluble Rose-breasted Grosbeak, an energetic brass 
band with a particularly enthusiastic bass drummer, and a merry- 
go-round with the usual depressing music, traction-engine whistle, 
and other noise producers. 

The second bird was uttering a song of four phi'ases, in which 
the first and third phrases were identical and ended with A flat; 
the second phrase was similar to these, but closed with G flat (both 
of these closing notes being long) ; and the fourth phrase was notice- 
ably shorter than an}^ of the others and was finished with an inde- 
terminate broken chord. 

The following day I was at Moose Lake, Minn., a point about 
forty miles south of Duluth. Veeries were plentiful and were 
singing freely. Every song I listened to critically consisted of three 
different phrases, repeated always in the same order. Another 
point of resemblance to the Rhinebeck song was that the first 
part of each phrase consisted of two higher notes and the second 
of a broken chord on a lower pitch repeated without further change 
of pitch. In the notations of Veeries' songs made by other musi- 
cians the closing notes have sometimes been represented as chords; 
but I believe that what these listeners heard were not actual 
chords, but broken chords, the separate notes of which were uttered 
so rapidly as to cause them to seem to blend in complete harmony. 

The Veery's singing offers a very difficult study to the recorder 
of bird music; but because of its very difficulty it is especially 
tempting to an enthusiastic and conscientious explorer of this 

20 Oldys, The Singing of Veeries. Vian. 

neglected field of natural history. Because of its difficulty, also, 
it should be undertaken only by trained musicians. For while 
much excellent work in describing and differentiating bird songs 
has been done b}^ naturalists who lack musical training, yet the 
final word as regards birds' notes must be spoken by the musician, 
whose education fits him to observe important features that are 
quite certain to escape the attention of one whose musical ear has 
never been cultivated. In lectures and writings I have persistently 
endeavored to arouse the interest of musicians in this fascinating 
and important phase of ornithological research ; and while my efforts 
have met with some success, yet there is pressing demand for many, 
many more properly equipped students. 

Let me take this opportunity to say a few words about the noting 
of bird songs. Adequate appreciation is not given by either natura- 
lists or musicians to the fact that a number of problems, not 
inferior in importance to any to which ornithologists are devoting 
their energies, require for their solution careful and exhaustive 
study of the utterances of birds by competent musicians. The 
question of the extent of the part played by inheritance in specific 
songs is on a par with similar questions relating to migration, nest- 
building, feeding, and other activities of birds. The matter of 
the growth of vocal ability in young birds (which has scarcely 
been touched) and that of seasonal activity in singing are fully 
as important as the allied questions of plumage growth and seasonal 
moult ^- in each case de^'elopment follows normally definite lines 
dependent on the previous evolutionary history of the species. 
And such problems as the reason for song, the origin of song, 
the reason for governance of bird music by laws of rhythmical 
sequence, similar to — often identical with — laws that govern 
human music, open up broad fields of research which in interest 
and value stand unrivaled; for they inseparably connect themselves 
with one of the greatest, most interesting, and least understood 
problems of psychology — the origin and development of aesthetic 
taste in man. 

The young student of bird songs need not be discouraged if he 
finds his records out of accord with those of other observers; nor 
should he sweepingly condemn the work of others because of such 
discrepancy. Because of the great individual diversity of bird 

°'l9l6 J Oldys, The Singing of Veeries. 21 

songs ; the impossibility in the case of some songs, of making more 
than merely suggestive records (though such suggestive records 
have a value, often important) ; and the extreme difficulty, in certain 
other instances, of securing a perfect record, legitimate differences 
of interpretation will arise in this branch of ornithology, as in all 
other branches. Such discrepancies will gradually disappear as 
knowledge progresses. 

But all such points, be it understood, can best be discussed by 
musical scientists, rather than non-musical scientists, whose lack 
of musical information often leads them to offer frivolous and 
absurd objections. (One such criticism in the case of a published 
record of a Bewick's wren song showed ignorance of the fundamental 
fact that the key of a song merely indicates its pitch, and was based 
on the ludicrous notion that it would be more difficult for a bird to 
sing in six flats than in one!) 

The study of thrush music is of especial value, owing to its ad- 
vanced character in comparison with most bird music; and it is 
my earnest hope that musicians living within the breeding ranges 
of different members of the thrush family throughout the world 
may become interested in making permanent records of note- 
worthy songs, and thus preserve them to science. 

22 Phillips, Problems in Migration. [ja'Ji_ 




I. Do American Ducks Reach the Marshall Islands? 

I have recently run across an ornithological item of great 
interest, which as far as I know has not been brought to the atten- 
tion of American ornithologists. This concerns the capture of 
three species of American ducks in the Marshall Isles, northeast 
of New Guinea. These islands lie on the parallel of 10° N. latitude 
and are over 2200 miles southwest of the Hawaiian Islands and 
obviously far off the. known course of any American migrants. 

In 1899, Reichenow, the well-known German ornithologist, 
reported (Ornith. Monatsb., p. 41) that Herr Brandeis, Imperial 
Governor of the Marshalls, had written of a remarkable flight of 
birds. " Each year at the end of October, coming from the north, 
enormous wedge-shaped flocks of wild ducks come in continuous 
flight over Atoll Bikar, LTterick, Ailuk, Jemo, Likieb and Wotje. 
These flocks cover the sky for three or four days. Tired birds 
from these flights settle down on the islands and after they have 
recuperated, set out in small flocks in a southerly direction [italics 
mine] following the main flock. In May similar flocks appear 
again, flying north, which on this occasion take their way over 
Atoll Ailinglablab, and from there between Kwadjelin and Likieb 
and over Gasparico. The planter de Brum is going to obtain 
some specimens." 

In the same Journal for 1901, p. 17, Herr Reichenow records the 
receipt of Marshall Island duck skins sent by Herr Dr. Bartels 
from Jaluit to the Zoological Museum at Berlin. The species 
were Anas carolinensis, A. acuta americana and Nyroca valisneria. 

Reichenow adds that he thinks these ducks must come from 
Alaska, perhaps the valley of the Lower Yukon, and from there 
they may take their course along the Alaskan Peninsula to the 
Aleutian Islands and go south over the ocean. He asks where 
these ducks can winter, and adds that a further flight would take 

°'l9i6 J Phillips, Problems in Migration. 23 

them to the New Hebrides and New Zealand. Notwithstanding 
this, no such birds have ever been taken either there or in 
AustraHa, New Guinea or the Polynesia Isles. He thinks there 
must be some large shallow, quiet tracts in the Polynesian Ocean 
where sea-weed collects. Possibly they might find a feeding ground 
among the small coral islands between the Solomons and Australia. 

The above facts excite no end of speculation but in view of the 
meagre data at hand and the extraordinary character of the infor- 
mation we must wait for further reports. 

From the north Pacific coast to the Marshalls is roughly 5000 
miles, a distance which is far greater than any trans-ocean flight 
yet known. Obviously until we know the predominating species 
among this body of ducks, it is almost impossible to guess at its 
origin. The farthest Pacific point which our migrants reach is 
the Hawaiian group. Here the Pintail and Shoveller are the only 
common ducks, and these are by no means in really large numbers, 
while the Baldpate, Mallard, Green-winged Teal, Buffle-head are 
extremely rare migrants (Henshaw, 1902). The Red-breasted 
Merganser is perhaps not quite so rare. 

From this it does not seem likely that the mysterious Marshall 
Isle flight ever strikes the Hawaiian group. 

As to the breeding ground of tlie three species mentioned by 
Reichenow we can at least say that it must be American, but the 
occurrence of the Canvas-back suggests a mid-continental origin, 
that is, provided the Canvas-back occurs in large numbers. This 
duck is so sparsely distributed on the north Pacific coast, and is so 
infrequent a breeder in Alaska that the Yukon Valley could hardly 
supply a great body of migrants. 

Mr. Henshaw (Auk, 1900, p. 245) tells us of the 2000 mile flight 
of certain migrants from the Aleutians to the Hawaiian group, 
but remarkable as is this fact, it w^ould be entirely eclipsed by the 
appearance of American birds 2000 miles further from our continent. 

Mr. Bent (Smith. Mic. CoUec, Vol. 56, No. 32) believes that the 
European Teal probably breeds on the whole Aleutian chain of 
islands, and that the American Green-winged Teal is confined 
to the mainland of Alaska. This makes the appearance of A'^. 
carolinensis in the Pacific still more mystifying. 

The question of the winter distribution of these ducks is scarcely 

24 Phillips, Problems in Migration. [jan. 

worth guessing at until further data are available. It is not 
possible that they can ever reach the coast of Australia, as the 
avifauna there is so well known that even as stragglers they could 
not escape detection. The coast of New Guinea is also fairly well 
known, but the Solomon Islands are as yet only imperfectly ex- 
plored, though American ducks along the coasts ought certainly 
to have been reported. 

A brief investigation makes me very skeptical of the presence of 
an oceanic feeding place. There is no large windless area in the 
Polynesian Sea, at least not during the winter months, and it is 
almost beyond belief that Teal, or Canvas-backs either, could lead 
a really oceanic life for any length of time. Moreover, the ocean 
south of the Marshalls is very deep, and the borders of the coralline 
atolls offer a very unattractive vegetable supply. The surface 
flora of these seas is not rich, and there is no indication of a sar- 
gasso sea. 

II. Behavior and Makeup of the Migrating Flocks of 
Canada Geese. 

In 'The Auk' for July, 1910, I called attention to a peculiar 
action of migrating Canada Geese, long familiar to those who have 
shot geese over live decoys. At that time I saw nothing significant 
in this behavior, but, looking at it in a different way, it seems 
at least worth recording again. 

The facts referred to are the following. Canada geese {Branta 
canadensis) migrate in large and small flocks, and they are decoyed 
down to some of the Massachusetts ponds which happen to be 
situated on favorite flight lines, by the use of an elaborate system 
of live and wooden decoys. Manj^ of the wild geese would not 
alight in the ponds at all, were it not for the irresistible attraction 
of the decoys. The nature of geese is, of course, exceedingly wild. 
They usually alight well out in the pond, and, after a varying period, 
swim towards the decoy geese on the shore. At such a time the 
slightest disturbance will alarm them. A distant boat, a gun shot, 
a person walking along the shore, or a noise from the shooting stand 
will result either in their taking to wing and continuing their flight, 
or in keeping them in the middle of the pond, suspicious of the 

1916 J Phillips, Problems in Migration. 25 

Now if a successful shot is finally made into such a flock, and 
perhaps one half or three fourths of their number have been killed, 
the remainder, after a few turns in the air, or a short flight of five 
or ten minutes, will almost always return to the pond, where, 
if not actually disturbed, they will remain from several hours to a 
day or so. Sometimes they will decoy a second time. 

Now the method employed in capturing such "left over" geese 
is to put out a boat, which manoeuvre is seldom objected to, and 
to scull directly down upon them. A close shot is often obtained 
from the boat and an approach of from sixty to seventy-five yards 
is almost always possible. If disturbed, such geese nearly always 
come back to another part of the pond, when the same process is 
repeated, only the birds get a little wilder each time, as a rule. 
The more successful the first shot from the stand and the less geese 
there are "left over," the better is the chance of obtaining a close 
shot from a boat. 

Now this curious "stupidity" is manifested by the same geese, 
which, in an organized migrating flock only a few minutes before, 
would have left the pond at the slightest indication of danger. 
Some mutual interrelation has become disorganized, and that 
this has been caused by something more than fright alone would 
seem probable, because on the winter feeding grounds geese do not 
show any such "stupidity," but simply depart post-haste after 
some or many of their numbers have fallen. Also in a Massachu- 
setts decoy pond, if, through some error, a poor shot or total miss 
is made, the frightened flock simply holds on its way South, and 
is not seen again. Of course the presence of the live decoys has 
something to do with the puzzled behavior of the geese, but will 
it explain their disregard of an approaching boat. 

It is to be remarked that the geese referred to are birds in full 
migration and thus under the impelling force of a peculiar "in- 

That geese migrate in families and that autumn flocks at least 
are composed of parents and their young has always been inferred. 
This theory is strengthened by the actual count of large numbers 
of flocks of geese on the autumn migration in Massachusetts 
made by myself at Wenliam and Oldham Ponds. When plotted 
out in a frequency curve, we get a marked rise in the curve running 

26 Phillips, Problems in Migration. [jan. 

up from a flock of two to a flock of five, the apex being at the 
number seven. Then the curve falls to a right hand base at the 
number nine. Above this number there are small rises in the curve 
at various points, notably ten, fifteen and twenty, which may have 
some significance, but as we go up into the larger flocks, the numbers 
(number of flocks counted) are smaller, and the counts themselves 
perhaps not so accurate. The "small flock" frequency curve 
(flocks of one to fifteen in number) is composed of counts of 262 
different flocks. It gives us the usual size as six or seven birds, 
the next commonest number being five. The scarcity of flocks 
of eight and nine is remarkable. Only ten flocks of nine each were 
observed, while there were thirty-seven flocks of seven each and 
thirty-five flocks of six each. The actual average size of a flock 
of autumn migrants in Massachusetts is not considered here. 
It is much larger, nearer thirtj^-five, because very large flocks of 
100 to 300 are not rare. These large flocks need not concern us. 

It is of interest to note that the small flocks, when they are 
captured entire, show from inspection of various external age 
characters — size, roughness of soles of feet, development of wing 
spurs, etc. — a pair of old birds and several young, two to five, or 
even six. It is especially easy to pick out the young birds from 
the old in early October flights, because the young have had less 
time to develop, but it is not always possible to do this with 
certainty. We are speaking, of course, of the fall migration only. 
Whether these facts, special behavior and individual make-up of 
the " small flock," hold for the vernal migration is unknown to me, 
and it would be harder to ascertain. 

I give below a curve of frequency for flocks of geese of from one 
to thirty in number. The peaks of the curve at ten, fifteen and 
twenty may mean combinations of two, three, or four families: 
but as noted above the observations are hardly numerous enough 
for the larger flocks. The striking fact is the very sharp rise of 
the curve to six and seven. The frequency of ones and twos and 
even threes and fours is much too high, because I have had to 
include in the curve a number of geese undoubtedly left over from 
shot-up flocks. In the natural state of affairs there would probably 
be very few flocks below the number four. Flocks of eight are 
perhaps mostly one large family, while flocks of nine are composed 
of small families. 

Phillips, Problems in Migration. 


Vol. xxxiin 

1916 J 

I plotted two separate eurves in this way from observations made 
both at Wenham, Mass., and at Pembroke, Mass and boA curves 
were exactly alike, showing the same nses and falls th>s 
combined curve shows, so that I teel sure that we are dealmg 
snmethins significant. „ , . 4. 

Tt is hardfy necessary to state that the apex of th.s curve, a 
six and seven, represents the average size of a family of Canada 

Geese as demonstrated by wild nests and -P^l^^^J" *t 
our flock counts are exactly what we would expect from smgle 

'Tn conclusion I may say that (I) The P-."«- beha"°"»; 
in. geese when shot into over live decoys is not explamable on he 
ba'isortright alone, but suggests the temporary breakmg of a 
sp a^ tor,; of interdependence, resulting m a curious lack o 
Xtas n the individuals left behind. Is this due to parents 
alertness m ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ,,„o,,ed, 


of families. The usual size of a famdy .s six or seven, often it 

five, and occasionally eight. 


28 Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. LJan. 




This study of the decline of l)ird song was made at the 1914 
Summer School of the Biological Laboratories at Cold Spring 
Harbor, Long Island, while taking the course offered there in orni- 
thology. Observations were begun July 1, and the last were made 
August 10, hence the period studied comprises forty-one days. 

All work on the problem was confined to a limited area, not 
more than three quarters of a mile square, centering about the 
end of Cold Spring Harbor, which is an inlet from Long Island 
Sound. TLe region contains an unusual diversity of bird habitats, 
including open salt water, tidal marshes and sandy beaches, fresh 
water lakes, streams and small swamps, road-ways dotted with 
farm houses, orchards and open fields, scrubby pastures and dense 
woods. The altitude ranges from sea level, along the edge of the 
water to an elevation of from two to three hundred feet on the 
hills immediately surrounding the inlet. 

There is nothing unusual about this vicinity that would effect 
the decline of song in any abnormal way. Perhaps the presence 
of so much water, surrounded by abrupt hills renders the atmos- 
phere somewhat more humid than usual, but the average summer 
temperature is about the same as is found at that latitude inland. 

Systematic observations were regularly taken many times each 
day. Every morning from 6.00 to 7.30 was spent in the study of 
song, as was the time from 10.00 to 11.30, and alternate aftertioons 
were given to the same work. A large part of the other hours of 
the days was spent in the open, and always with pencil and note- 
book in hand, recording song data. The central parts of the area 
were studied a little more closely than the rest, but all the remoter 
sections were visited at least three or four times each week, espe- 
cially when they harbored birds not found elsewhere in the locality. 

Three mornings a week, the half hour between 7.00 and 7.30 
was devoted in a peculiar way to one of three especially favorable 

iQlg J Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. 29 

points, each place being visited once a week. On these occasions 
a prepared sheet of paper was used, having thirty vertical columns, 
one for each minute from 7.00 to 7.30, and every song or call heard 
during that half hour was carefully recorded, in the proper column. 
Thus the number of species singing, and the quantity of their song, 
were tabulated. This gave an accurate parallel study to the notes 
taken during the usual observation hours, checking any false 

A large chart was kept in the study to which all field notes were 
transferred every evening. It contained forty-one vertical col- 
umns, one for each day from July 1 to August 10, and about fifty 
horizontal columns, each one set apart for a certain species. All 
notes taken July 1, were placed in the column under that date, 
the items on the various birds, each inserted in the proper hori- 
zontal column. The same was done for July 2, and so forth to the 
end of the period studied. Every day the notations on the song 
volume of each species, was compared with the song volume of 
that bird, for the previous day, so that the progress of the decline 
was carefully followed. Thus when the end of the period came, 
by running the eye along the notes of any column, the progress 
of that bird's song could be determined at a glance. 

As an example of the character of the notations, those on the 
Catbird {Dumetella carolinensis) are here given, taken directly 
from the chart, though for the convenience of the eye, the items 
are listed one under the other, while on the chart they were all on 
one horizontal column, each note in the column under the proper 

July 1 — - Catbirds are in full song. 
" 2 — Ditto. 
" 3 — Ditto. 
" 4 — Ditto. 
" 5 — Ditto. 
" 6 — Ditto. 
" 7 — Ditto. 
" 8 — Ditto. 
" 9 — Ditto. 
" 10 — Perhaps the songs are becoming a trifle less vivacious, though 

this is a question. 
" 11 — About the same full volume as last week — any diminution 


30 Fby, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song-. [j^ 

July 12 — Ditto. 

13 — Ditto. 

14 — Intensity and frequency of song are lessening. 

15 — Ditto. 

16 — Ditto. 

17 — Songs less frequent than yesterday. 

18 — Songs have become infrequent. 

19 — Ditto. 

20 — • At best, songs are much softer and shorter than a week ago. 

21 — Songs are very occasional. 

22 — Ditto. 

23 — Songs becoming less every day. 

24 — Nothing heard but an occasional gurgle. 

25 -r Ditto. 

26 — Ditto. 

27 — No song at all. 

28 — Ditto. 

29 — A phrase of song heard rarely. 

30 — Ditto. 

31 — No song at all. 
Aug. 1 — Ditto. 

2 — Ditto. 

3 — Ditto. 

4 — One short phrase of song heard. 

5 — No song at all. 

6 — Ditto. 

7 — A single short phrase of song heard. 

8 — No song. 

9 — Ditto. 
10 — Ditto. 

Note : — The scold notes were numerous throughout the entire period . 

It was immediately noticed that cold or rainy weather caused 
an evident depression in the songs of that day. Hence tempera- 
ture, direction and strength of the wind, cloud conditions, humidity, 
and also the hour at which the observations were taken, as well as 
the exact localities visited, were daily recorded. In the final con- 
clusions as to general song decline, local depressions caused by the 
weather, have been omitted, as they were of a purely temporary 

It would be interesting to repeat this study in the same locality 
for five or six successive years, keeping strict watch on the average 
temperature of each summer, to discover if a comparatively cool 










, ., ^- 



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llllillill ill II II II II 11 11 II III 11 1 




























c - 













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r ! 1 1 1 III 

e-2i-Ocx::x:2 Q. 

o2 Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. [jaii. 

summer caused an earlier decline than usual, or if a warmer season 
retarded the diminution. 

The accompanying chart is a graphical presentation of the data 
given in this paper, showing the decline of bird song, for thirty-seven 
species, studied at Cold Spring Harbor, from July 1 to August 10, 
1914. It will be seen that this chart is on the same plan as the one 
described above. The forty-one vertical columns represent the 
days of the period studied, and each wide horizontal line (taking 
the place of the notes on the horizontal columns) by its varying 
width indicates the song decline of a species. The birds have 
been arranged according to the date when the depression begins, 
the one affected first, being placed at the head of the list. The 
heavy black portions of the lines indicate maximum volume of 
song, and obliquely lined portions represent the days of lesser 
quantity. The volume of song of one species as compared with the 
volume of another is not taken into consideration at all, for the 
Song Sparrow {Mclospiza viclodia mclodia) which was heard almost 
constantly, and the Meadowlark {Sturnclla mcupia magna) which 
sang only occasionally, are both represented by black lines of the 
same width so long as they continue to sing at their maximum, 
which is up to July 21. After that date the narrowing lines show 
their decline, but there is absolutely no indication as to the relative 
volume of song between the two species. 

At the end of the paper are several lists summing up the results. 
One of them contains those birds, concerning which manifestly 
insufficient data have been gathered, and another summer's study 
might show different results for some of these species. It must be 
remembered that the studies did not begin till the first of July, 
and if any of the birds commenced to decline prior to that date, 
the fact could only be surmised. Surely the majority were in 
full song at that time, and only further study, beginning in June 
will clear up the doubtful cases, which have also been listed. 

The Robin (Planesticus migratorius migratorius) was heard con- 
tinually during the first few days of July but a scarcely perceptible 
decline of song began as early as the seventh. In fact, had it been 
carefully studied from the middle of June, the song volume of July 
1, in comparison with that of the preceding weeks, even then might 
have shown the first faint signs of diminution. In all probability 

° ■ 19X6 J Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. 33 

the decrease did not really begin till about the seventh, and from 
that date on through the rest of the month the decline was very 
gradual. There was a day or two when there seemed to be a 
temporary, though slight, increase, but by August 1 it was heard 
only occasionally, and during the last few days prior to August 10, 
only a few phrases were recorded now and then. 

The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) sang frequently up to the 
tenth of July, after which there was a very rapid diminution. The 
last song was heard on the sixteenth, though had its haunts been 
continually watched during the week following the sixteenth, it 
might have been recorded occasionally for a few days later. It is 
interesting to note that a full song, though softer than July's, was 
distinctly heard on August 7. Was this an accident, or is there a 
slight rejuvenation of song later in the season? 

Any conclusion at all on the Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) is 
but tentative as its data are not as full as for most of the other 
species. The song, if it may be called such, was heard occasion- 
ally throughout the first half of July and the last record is on the 
fifteenth. In all probability it would have been heard a good deal 
later had its particular haunts been more persistently studied. 
The call notes were numerous throughout the whole period, though 
they diminished somewhat during August. 

The Red-winged Blackbird {Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus) 
gave its " kong-quer-quee " about the swamps till the thirteenth of 
July. It is a question whether or not diminution had commenced 
prior to July 1. After the thirteenth it was heard infrequently 
and the last record is the thirtieth. The sharp call notes were also 
noted throughout July, and as there is no record for them after 
August 1, their diminution seems to practically coincide with the 

The White-breasted Nuthatch {Sitta carolinensis carolinensis) 
was noted occasionally during the first twelve days, and after that 
date its "yanks" were a good deal more in evidence, and this 
increase in call continued till about the thirtieth. After that date, 
and on through to the end of the period studied, it was heard in 
about the same lessened frequency of the early part of July. 

Up to the fourteenth, the Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) was 
heard repeatedly. After the tenth its vivacity may have lessened 

34 Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. [13*11. 

somewhat, but it was a slight change at best. The diminution was 
rapid from the fourteenth to the twenty-fourth, and after that 
only an occasional gurgle or phrase of song was heard, the last 
record for any song at all being August 7. The scold notes were 
heard throughout the period. 

Up to the fifteenth, the Redstart {Setophaga rutidlla) was heard 
frequently, but by the twenty-second the song had fallen off 
decidedly. It was noted occasionally till about the twenty- 
seventh, when an increase set in, and by August 2, the song was 
once more much in evidence and continued so, though a second 
decline was under way during the last few days of the period. 

The Scarlet Tanager {Piranga erythromelas) was in full, rich song , 
till about July 16, though further study may show this date inac- 
curate by several days. From that time on the song declined 
steadily and the last one was recorded on the twenty-seventh. 
The "chip-churs" were heard throughout the period. 

The Wood Thrush {Hylocichla mustelina) was singing on every 
hand the first sixteen days. About the seventeenth a slight 
diminution was apparent which rapidly increased, and after the 
twenty-fifth the species was comparatively silent, though occa- 
sional, soft, short songs were heard at intervals as late as August 7. 
The "whit-whit" calls were heard daily. 

The Yellow Warbler (De?idroica oestiva oestiva) began its song 
decline with the Wood Thrush on the seventeenth, and was heard 
less and less till the twenty-third, when the diminution ceased. 
Between this date and the thirtieth it sang occasionally and then 
began to increase, and by August 3 it was again singing quite 
frequently, though not as much as during the first part of July. 
It was still in this semi-revived period when the studies ceased, 
August 10. 

The Maryland Yellow-throat (Geothlypis trichas trichas) started 
its decline with the above two species on the seventeenth, but the 
diminution in this case was remarkably rapid, and the last song 
was recorded on the twenty-second, and that performance was 
short and feeble. 

The Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitiLs) was often heard 
calling in the woods through the early part of July. After the 
tenth the rapidly repeated roll calls became less frequent, and the 

° ■ 1916 J Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. 35 

last record for one is the fifteenth. The single note whistles did 
not diminish till the seventeenth, and from that date they gradu- 
ally decreased, but were heard occasionally throughout the re- 
mainder of the period. 

Data on the Cowbird {Molothrus ater aier) are very scant for 
they were few in number. Their Starling-like calls were heard at 
intervals up to about July 17. Whether or not any diminution 
had begun before the first covild not be determined, but probably 
not. After the seventeenth they were rarely heard and the last 
record is on the twenty-third. 

The first song of the Goldfinch (Astragalinus tristis trisUs) 
was not noted till the seventeenth of July, though in all probability 
it could have been heard occasionally prior to that. By the 
twenty-third it was singing quite frecpently though at no time 
did it become common, and this condition continued throughout 
the remainder of the period. Since the decline set in some time 
after August 10, there are no data concerning the matter. The 
flight calls were heard occasionally from the beginning, and when 
the period of song began, they increased in frequency. 

The Yellow-throated Vireo (Lanivireo flavifrons) remained in 
full song till about the nineteenth, when the diminution began 
which continued to the middle of the first week of August. The 
song did not cease altogether, however, and throughout the rest 
of the period it was heard almost every day, though infrequently. 

The decline of the House Wren's song (Troglodytes aedon aedon) 
is about the same as that of the Yellow-throated Vireo. The dimi- 
nution began about the nineteenth and continued till the thirtieth. 
The low ebb of song reached then about held its own through the 
rest of the period, and it was heard only once or twice each day 
after the last week of July. 

The W'ood Pewee (Myiochanes virens) began its decline almost 
imperceptibly around July 20, and from that day it gradually 
became less and less, though the daily diminution was scarcely 
evident. August 10, when the studies came to an end, it could 
still be heard quite frequently in sunny spots in the woods. 

The story of the Red-eyed Vireo (Vireosylva olivacea) is almost 
identical with that of the Pewee, though perhaps its diminution 
is a trifle more marked. It too, gradually began to lessen in volume 

36 Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. [j 



about July 20, and the falling off continued bit by bit throughout 
the rest of the period. On August 10 it was singing infrequently. 

The Song Sparrow {Melospiza melodia melodia) began to lose 
in volume and frequency about the twenty-first. Its decline, like 
that of the Pewee and Red-eyed Vireo, was very gradual, and there 
were days after the twenty-first when its cheering song could be 
heard quite often, but by August 10 it was singing only occasion- 

The data for the Meadowlark (Sturnella magna magna) are not as 
full as for most of the other species, and at best it was heard but 
seldom. Since only a few were seen at intervals it is difficult to 
determine whether or not the species was still in full song July 1. 
The frequency with which it sang the first week remained about 
constant till around the twenty-first, and after that it was heard 
but rarely. The last song recorded is on August 7. 

The trill of the Chipping Sparrow {Spizella passerina passerina) 
began to diminish July 22. The decline was not rapid, and like 
the Song Sparrow, it could be heard daily throughout the remainder 
of the period, but each week witnessed a decided lessening, and 
during the last few days it was heard but seldom. 

The Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthahnus) was 
heard frequently, though locally, in song and call to the twenty- 
third. From that date the decline set in, though gradually, and 
both song and call were noted occasionally, during the remainder 
of the period though each week becoming less. 

The Black and White Warbler {Mniotilta varia) did not begin 
its song decline till July 26. The diminution was not rapid and 
was scarcely perceptible day by day. August 10 it was heard 

The Flicker (Colaptes auratus luieus) was heard calling daily 
throughout the entire period, though after Jul}^ 25 it was not quite 
as much in evidence. This date marked a diminution, but a very 
slight one, and the calls at the close of the studies were almost as 
frequent as during the first week. 

The calls of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) were 
observed frequently, though locally, to the twenty-sixth, when a 
rapid decline set in, and it was last heard August 2. 

Data on the Barn Swallow {Hirundo erythrogastra) are rather 

° ■ 1916 J Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. 37 

scant. The calls did not begin to lessen till about the twenty-sixth, 
and from that point on the decline was gradual, and it was still 
heard occasionally August 10. 

The song of the Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla imsilla) began 
diminution about the twenty-eighth, though it may have started 
earlier as in this case the data are not satisfactory. At most it 
was heard infrequently all summer and only in certain regions, but 
after the twenty-eighth the songs became more occasional. The 
diminution was gradual, however, and it was heard a little each day 
to the end of the period. 

There are also but few data on the Grasshopper Sparrow {Amvio- 
dramus savannarum, australis). It was heard infrequently and 
locally to the end of July, the thirty-first probably witnessing the 
beginning of a gradual decline, though it may have started some- 
what earlier. It was noted occasionally throughout the remainder 
of the period. 

The rattle-calls of the Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon alcyon) were 
heard daily throughout the entire period, though after August 1 
it was not nearly so noisy. 

The following eight species underwent no decline. The scold- 
notes of the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata crisfata) were heard 
occasionally each day, as were the "caws" of the Crow (Corvus 
brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos), and the calls of the Downy Wood- 
pecker (Dryobates pubescens medianiLs). The English Sparrow 
{Passer domesticus domesticus) was heard continually about barns, 
and the twitterings of the Chimney Swift {Chaetura pelagica) were 
a common sound throughout the period. The Chickadee (Pen- 
thestes atricapillus atricapiUus) put in an occasional appearance, 
and the Starling (Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris) was heard every few 
days. The Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) was heard giv- 
ing its "peent" calls, whenever near its haunts. When August 10 
came all of these were as much in evidence as they had been on 
July 1. 

All of the birds thus far discussed are included in the graphical 
chart. The following seven were omitted as their data are scant 
and unsatisfactory, and further study is necessary before any 
conclusion can be reached concerning them. 

The Black-throated Green Warbler {Dendroica virens) was re- 

38 Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. [j,^, 

ported only six times — July 5, 9, 17, 20 and 22, and August 3. 
Each time the song was full and rich. 

The White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseiis grueus) was recorded eight 
times — July 6, 15, 16, 20, 22, 29 and 31, and August 7. In each 
case the songs were full, though perhaps the last one heard showed 
a slight diminution. 

The Phoebe {Sayornis phoebe) was heard but three times — July 
9 and 20, and August 1, and on each occasion it was giving the 
"phoe-be" call repeatedly. 

There are three song records for the Purple Finch (Carpodacus 
purpureus purpureus) — July 4 and 16, and August 3. The song 
was full on all three occasions. 

The Carolina Wren {Thryothorus hidomcianus ludovicianus) 
was heard but rarely after 6.00 a.m., though in a certain locality 
it was heard daily in full song about 4.00 a.m., up to August 1. 
Since no 4.00 a. m. observations were made after that date, it is a 
question whether or not the early morning matins were continued. 
The data are not sufficiently full to allow any conclusion. 

The two-note warble-whistle of the Baltimore Oriole {Icterus 
galbula) was heard throughout the period, as was the scold-note 
The song had declined before July 1, leaving as a residue the two- 
note whistle which remained about constant throughout the period, 
hence no statement can be given. 

The Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) was seen a number of 
times, but only his harsh call-note was heard. 

The list following contains those birds, included in the graphical 
chart, on which the observations were not quite as full as was 
desired, and therefore statements concerning their decline have 
been made with some caution: — 

Kingbird Barn Swallow 

Cowbird Field Sparrow 

Meadowlark Grasshopper Sparrow 

There is some doubt concerning the following birds, as to whether 
or not any decline in their song had begun prior to July, first : — 

(Robin) Cowbird 

Kingbird Meadowlark 

Red-winged Blackbird 

1916 J 

Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. 


The following species underwent a rapid decline : — 

Ovenbird 7 days. Maryland Yellow-throat 6 days . 

Kingbird 6 " ? Cowbird 7 " ? 

Scarlet Tanager 12 " Acadian Flycatcher 8 " 

The following underwent a gradual decline: — 


Red-winged Blackbird 



Wood Thrush 

Yellow Warbler 

Crested Flycatcher 

Yellow-throated Vireo 

House W^ren 

Wood Pewee 

Red-eyed Vireo 

Song Sparrow 


Chipping Sparrow 


Black and White Warbler 


Barn Swallow 

Field Sparrow 

Grasshopper Sparrow 


The following had a revival of song: — 

Yellow Warbler 

The following did not reach the period of full song till near 
the middle of July: — 

White-breasted Nuthatch. 

The following were singing regularly, though occasionally, at 
the close of the period studied, August 10: — 

W^hite-breasted Nuthatch 


Yellow Warbler 
























































40 Fry, Seasonal Decline in Bird Song. [j"n 

(Crested Flycatcher) 


(Yellow-throated Vireo) 
(House Wren) 

Wood Pewee 

Red-eyed Vireo 

Song Sparrow . ; 

Chipping Sparrow 


Black and White Warbler 


Barn Swallow 

Field Sparrow 

Grasshopper Sparrow 


The following eight species underwent no decline : — 

Blue Jay 


Downy Woodpecker 

English Sparrow 

Chimney Swift 



Spotted Sandpiper 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate II. 

~ « ^ V V . •« ^ 

Nesting Site and Nest of the Brown-capped Rosy Finch 
{Leucosticte a^^stralis). 

^ ' 1916 J Lincoln, Nest of Leucosticte australis. 41 



Plate II. 

It has become the pleasure of the writer to place on record the 
discovery of the first nest and eggs of the Brown-capped Rosy 
Finch {Leucosticte australis), known to science, together with an 
account of the incidents contributary to their discovery. 

The work, which it was hoped would bring to light the eggs of 
this species, was undertaken jointly by the Colorado Museum of 
Natural History and Mr. William C. Bradbury of Denver, now 
widely known among oologists as a patron of The Colorado Mu- 
seum, through whose interest and generosity the superb collection 
of North American birds eggs has been placed on exhibition at 
this institution. 

Mr. Bradbury had planned to take personal charge of the task 
but was disappointed through the necessity of a surgical operation, 
and the work accordingly devolved upon the writer, with Mr. 
Harold R. Durand of Littleton, Colorado, as Mr. Bradbury's 
personal representative, and Mr. A. H. Burns of the museum staff. 

Through a former somewhat superficial experience with this 
species, I had become convinced of the lateness of its nesting and 
commenced the search from the old mining town of Alma, Colorado, 
on July 9, 1915. In this connection it may be noted that other 
arctic-alpine birds such as the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagop'us I. 
leucurus) and Pipit {Anthus rubescens) had hatched their eggs at 
this date. No eggs of any other species were found. 

The nest was discovered July 11, 1915, on the southwest ex- 
posure of the south peak of Mt. Bross, Park County, Colo., at 
an elevation of 13,500 feet, or within 600 feet of the summit, the 
elevation of Mt. Bross being 14,100 feet. This altitude of the 
nest site here marks the limit of plant growth, the remaining 600 
feet, being bare rock, either slides or in the form of outcroppings 
or small cliffs. 

42 Lincoln, Nest of Leucosticte auslralis. [jg'J, 

It was in one of these latter that the nest was found, a short 
cUff about forty feet in height, of Lincoln porphyry, protruding 
through the upper edge of the schists and shales which occur just 
below the granite cap. The face of this cliff had suffered consider- 
ably from erosion, resulting in "chimneys" and cavities from a 
few inches to several feet in diameter, and in one of the smaller of 
these the nest was placed. The hole, forming the upper terminus 
of a vertical crack, ran back twelve or fourteen inches and was 
about forty inches from the base of the cliflf. 

The nest was discovered by flushing the female, which proved 
to be extremely solicitous, returning repeatedly despite our pres- 
ence, thus affording me an opportunity to photograph her at the 
nest entrance. Both male and female were secured — C. M. N. H. 
Nos. 4723 and 4728. 

The bulk of the nest was of dry grass and flower stems neatly 
and compactly woven together with a considerable quantity of fine 
moss, and lined with a fine yellow grass and a few feathers from 
the bird's body, with one White-tailed Ptarmigan feather. It 
rested well into the silt which covered the bottom of the hole, and 
the cup was placed to one side, thus giving walls of unequal thick- 
ness on two sides. This inequality did not, however, change the 
general exterior shape wliich is practically round measuring 4.75" 
in diameter with a depth over all of 3.00", while the cup measures 
2.50" in diameter with a depth of l.GO". 

The eggs, three in number, are pure white, slightly glossy, un- 
marked; ovate pyriform in shape; fresh; measurements in inches : 
— .91 X .60; .95 X .63; .97 X .62. 

Vol. ^^"^] Thayer and Bangs, Birds of Saghalin Island. 43 



In the late spring and early summer of 1914, Prof. L. Munster- 
hjelm visited Saghalin Island, gathering there specimens of natural 
history of various kinds. During his stay in the island he collected 
about a hundred and fifty birds, at three places only, namely 
Sakachama, Haktshoko and Otomari, and on dates running from 
May G to July 14. 

This collection was soon afterward acquired by Thayer and 
presented to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, a few skins 
only being retained for the Thayer Museum at Lancaster, Mass. 

Prof. Munsterhjelm's choice little collection, of course, far from 
completely represents the ornis of Saghalin, still it contains many 
nice things, and adds somewhat to the knowledge of the bird fauna 
of that island. We therefore presume to give a full list of it. 

In 1908 Prof. Lonnberg ^ published a long and very excellent 
account of the birds of Saghalin, the basis of his paper being a 
large collection made in the island by Prof. Ijima in 1906. 

We have marked with an asterisk all species contained in Prof. 
Munsterhjelm's collection that are not to be found in the body of 
Lonnberg's list. Some of these are not new to the ornis of Sagha- 
lin, having been previously recorded by Nikolski in a paper written 
in 1889 in Russian, and are enumerated in Lonnberg's 'A List of 
Birds known from Saghalin, at the end of his article (pp. 60-66). 
A few, however, appear to be first records for the island. Even 
in a small collection, such as the one made by Prof. Munsterhjelm 
who failed to secure no end of species that were taken by Prof. 
Ijima, there are fourteen species that Prof. Ijima's collection did 
not contain. It would therefore seem, as prophesied by Lonnberg, 
that there are many species of birds yet to be added to the list 
of those found in Saghalin. 

. Contributions to the Ornis of Saghalin. Jour, of the College of Sci.. Imp. 
Univ. of Toliyo, Vol. XXIII, Article 14, 1908. 

44 Thayer and Bangs, Birds of Saghalin Island. [j^JJi. 


Turtur orientalis (Lath.). — ^One cf, full grown but still in the im- 
mature plumage, July 8, 1914. Sakachama. 


Rallus aquaticus indicus Blyth. — Two adults, d' and 9 , July 7, 
1914. Sakachama. 


Podiceps griseigena holboelli Reinhardt. — Three adult females, 
May 14, June 6 and 14, 1914. Sakachama. 


Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan). — Two specimens. A male and a fe- 
male adult. Sakachama, June 10. 


* Hydrochelidon leucoptera grisea (Horsfield). — Two adult females, 
May 28, 1914. Sakachama. 

Mathews contends that there is an eastern subspecies of the white-winged 
black tern, worthy of recognition by name. He must have had access to 
adequate material, so we with much hesitation adopt the name he uses for 
this form. 

We ourselves can detect no differences whatever between the present two 
skins and numbers of western specimens with which we have compared 
them. The two Saghalin skins afford the following measurements: — 










9 ad. 






9 ad. 





Sterna longipennis Nordm. — Three adults, two males and a female, 
May 18, June 4 and June 26. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 

Sterna aleutica Baird.— Eleven adults, nine males and two females. 
All taken June 23, 1914, except one male, collected June 24, 1914. 
Sakachama. Judged by the dates upon which these specimens were taken 
they must of course have been breeding. 

*Larus schistisagus Stejneg. — One adult 9, May 11, 1914. Saka- 

*Larus vegae Palmen. — One adult 9, and one immature cf, June 
2, 1914. Haktshoko. 

* Rissa tridactyla poUicaris Ridg. — Two specimens, d' and 9 , both 
immature, June 26 and July 3, 1914. Sakachama. 

^°'' 19?6^"^] Thayer and Bangs, Birds of Saghalin Island. 45 


* Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.). — One adult d', July 6, 1914. 


Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scop.)- — Three adults, two males 
and a female, May 20 and 27, 1914. Sakachama. 

* Tringa stagnatilis horsfieldii (Sykes.). — Two adult males. May 14, 
1914. Sakachama. 

As Mathews suggests, eastern birds do appear to be just perceptibly 
paler than western ones. 

* Tringa glareola (Linn.). — Five adults, both sexes, May 21 and 29, 
1914. Sakachama. 

Heteractitis brevipes (Vig.). — One adult 9, May 16. Sakachama. 

Actitis hypoleucus (Linn.). — Two adults, cf and 9, July 6, 1914. 
Sakachama. Eastern and western specimens appear to us quite alike. 

Pisobia minuta ruficoUis (Pall.). — - Ten adults, seven males and 
three females. May 15-18. Sakachama. 

Pelidna alpina sakhalina (Vieillot). — Eight adults, both sexes, 
May 14 to 18. Sakachama. These skins, topotypes of the subspecies, 
represent a different form from the American Dunlin to which it has lately 
been referred by American ornithologists. 

Gallinago stenura (Kuhl.). — One adult 9, May 29, 1914. Saka- 

Lobipes lobatus (Linn.). — Two adult females, May 27, 1914. Saka- 


*Ixobrychus sinensis sinensis (Gmel.). — Two adults, cT and 9, 
June 25, 1914. Sakachama. 

These two skins agree closely with our specimens from China. 


Anas plat3rrhynchos Linn. — Three adult females, and one young, 
May 11 and June 30. Sakachama. 

Nettion crecca (Linn.). — Four adults, two males and two females, 
June 4. Sakachama. 

* Dafila acuta acuta (Linn.). — Two adult males, May 12. Sakachama. 
The American Sprig-tail has been formally separated by Reichenow, 

Ornth. Monbr. Vol. IX, p. 17-18, 1901, under the name Anas acuta ameri- 
cana (Bp.). The American bh-d is slightly different from the Eurasian, 
D. acuta acuta, besides the characters mentioned by Reichenow the Ameri- 
can form has in the adult male plumage a longer tail. It also averages 
larger than the Old World Sprig. 

46 Thayer and Bangs, Birds of Saghalin Island. [j "^ 

The name americana is untenable if used with Anas, there being several 
earlier Anas americana, applied to various Anatidce. Bonaparte's name, 
Dafila acuta a. americana, Compt. Rend, xliii, p. 650, 1856, just escapes 
being a nomen nudum, on account of the reference to acuta of Wilson, — 
the American bird, and could be used so long as the genus Dafila is main- 
tained. We, however, believe that the American Sprig will have to be 
known by the name Dafila acuta tzitzihoa (Vieill.) N. D. v. p. 163, 1816, 
based on Hernandez. The original plate and description are both bad, 
but without doubt were meant to represent the Sprig which is a common 
migrant in Mexico. 

*Marila fuligula (Linn.).— One adult male, May 12. Sakachama. 


Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (Linn.). — One adult cT, May 17. 
Sakachama. This skin, presents no differences, that we can detect when 
compared with European examples. It is, however, rather small, smaller 
in fact than other east Siberian examples. 


Chaetura caudacuta caudacuta (Lath.). — Two adult females, June 
11, 1914. Sakachama. 


Cuculus canorus telephonus Heine. — Three adults, two males and 
female. June 24 to Ju y 8, 1914. Sakachama. 


Dryobates minor kamtschatkensis Malh.). — One adu c?, 
May 23, 1914. Sakachama. This specimen seems referable here rather 
than to either amurensis or minutillus of Butur in, both of which forms 
however, are so very poorly characterized that without much more material 
than is available to us we cannot 1 - certain. 

Jynx torquilla japonica Bp. — Five specimens, both sexes. May 9 to 
June 13, 1914. Sakachama. 


Riparia riparia ijimse (Lonnb.).^ Eight adults, both sexes, June 10 
to June 30, 1914. Sakachama. 

This form, as Hartert has already pointed out, is a very strongly marked 
one. The upper parts are very dark, in some skins almost blackish, and 
the pectoral band is very dark. The pale edges of the upper tail coverts, 
scapulars, and feathers of the lower back and rump stand out in marked 
contrast against this dark ground color and give the form a very charac- 

** ' 1916 ] Thayer and Bangs, Birds of Saghalin Islmid. 47 

teristic appearance. We also find, as Hartert did, that while most Ameri- 
can specimens are quite like Old World examples of true riparia, some (in 
any large series) approach ijimce. 


Xanthopygianarcissinanarcissina (Temm.). — Two adults, cf and 9, 
June 3 and July 8, 1914. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 


Turdus chrysolaus Temm. Two adult males, July 6 and July 10, 
1914. Sakachama. 

These are in the white-throated plumage, referred to by Lonnberg, and 
thought to represent immature though breeding birds. 

Luscinia sibilans (Swinh.). — One adult cf, May 29, 1914. Saka- 
chama. We follow Hartert in associating this species with the Nightin- 
gales rather than with the Robin Red-breasts. If a special genus is not 
used for it this seems to be its proper place. 

Calliope calliope calliope (Pall.). — Four adults, two males, two 
females, June 3 to July 2. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 

These specimens are all extreme of the small race, none of them approach- 
ing Kamchatkan examples in size. 

Sylviidse. / 

Locustella ochotensis (Midd.) — Eight specimens, both sexes, May 
27 to June 25, 1914. Sakachama. 

Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Swinh. — Fom- specimens, all males, June 
26 and July 8 and July 14, 1914. Sakachama and Otomari. 

Herbivocula schwarzi (Radde.). — One adult cf, July 1, 1914. Saka- 

Reguloides proregulus proregulus (Pall.). — One adult cf, May 19, 
1914. Sakachama. 

*Acanthopneuste tenellipes (Swinh.). — Two adults, cT and 9, 
May 23 and 29, 1914. Sakachama. 


Periparus ater pekinensis (David). — One adult 9, May 31, 1914. 


Motacilla lugens Kittl. — Five specimens, both sexes. May 6 and 7. 

Bud3rtes flava taivanus Swinhoe. — Eight specimens, both sexes, May 
12 to June 27, 1914. Sakachama. 

48 Thayer and Bangs, Birds of Saghalin Island. [jan. 

One adult cf in this series, No. 66163, has the forehead gray and the frontal 
part of the superciliary stripe, nearly back to the eye, white, contrasted 
abruptly with the yellow posterior part of the supercihary. 

Anthus hodgsoni Richmond. — Four specimens, both sexes, May 13 
to June 29. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 


Alauda arvensis pekinensis Swinh. — Six specimens, three adult 
males, and three young males apparently just out of the nest. The adults 
all taken May 9 and the young June 24. Sakachama. 


Chloris sinica ussuriensis Hartert.^ Three specimens, an adul t 
male and two adult females. May 6, 8 and 9, 1914. All from Sakachama. 

Uragus sibiricus sanguinolentus (T. & S.).— Eight specimens, both 
sexes, taken from May 7 to June 2, 1914. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 

Emberiza aureola Pall. — Eight specimens, both sexes. May 27 to 
June 25, 1914. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 

Emberiza spodocephala personata Temm. — Eight specimens, both 
sexes. May 10 to June 24, 1914. Sakachama and Haktshoko. 

We can confirm what Lonnberg has already said, with this series, the 
skins being inseparable from Japanese ones. 


*Spodiopsar cineraceus Temm.— One immature d', July 7, 1914. 

Sturnia violacea (Bodd.). — One adult cf, May 27, 1914. Sakachama. 

° ' 1916 J Bryan, A Species of Drepanididce. 49 



What will probably prove to be the last species of land bird to 
be recorded from the Hawaiian Islands has recently been found 
living in a small colony on the island of Nihoa, a small isolated 
remnant of rock situated in the northwest or leeward chain of the 
Hawaiian group, and is here noted for the first time. 

For a number of years it has been my desire to visit this island, 
which is in reality a small remaining part of what was undoubtedly 
a much larger volcanic point in former time, — for the purpose of 
studying its geology and collecting its fauna and flora. Although 
I have made three round trips along the Leeward chain, "as far as 
Laysan and Midway Islands, I have never been able to land on 
this forbidden spot owing to unfavorable weather conditions and 
the dangers which attend the making of a landing there, even in 
the most favorable weather. With one or two exceptions other 
naturalists who have visited this chain of islands have also been 
unable to land and have been obliged to be content with viewing 
it as I have done — from a distance. 

It is, therefore, with much satisfaction that I am able to report 
that at my suggestion Captain James H. Brown, in command of 
the U. S. Revenue Cutter "Thetis", was able to make a landing on 
the island on the occasion of the April, 1915, cruise of the "Thetis" 
to patrol the Hawaiian Island Bird Reservation. It is from 
information supplied by him and the members of his crew that I 
am able to report that my surmise with reference to the presence 
of land birds on the island has proved to be correct. 

Owing to unexpected heavy weather the landing party was so 
unfortunate as to have their whale-boat wrecked on the shore 
after a safe landing had been made. One member of the crew 
was seriously injured, but fortunately no lives were lost. Once 
on shore it was with much difficulty and danger that the party 
was able to leave the island; having to swim through the angry 
breakers to a second boat sent out to rescue them from their 

50 Bryan, A Species of Drepanididce. [ 


unhappy situation. For this reason, if for no other, no specimens 
of any kind save a few palm (Pritchardia remota Becc.) seed were 

The only species of land bird seen by them, and the only species 
believed to be precinctive to the island, was a small Drepanididoe, 
undoubtably belonging to the genus Telcspiza. This genus was 
established for a single species {Telesjnza cantans) from Laysan 
described originally by Mr. Scott B. Wilson (Ibis, 1890, p. 341). 
The female of the species from the same island was described by 
the Hon. Walter Rothschild from Palmer's collection as Tclespiza 
flavissima (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. X, 1892, p. 110) two years 

It is only for want of a specimen in hand that I withhold a new 
name for this bird which doubtless occurs only on the island of 
Nihoa and appears to be heretofore unknown and unnamed, and, 
moreover, to be the last of the Hawaiian avifauna liable to be 
discovered in the group. 

Captain Brown is well acquainted with the Laysan "Finch" 
having seen the species at Laysan and also the colony from there 
that has been established on Midway Island. He believes the 
male Nihoa bird to be a trifle larger and perhaps yellower over the 
breast than are the males of the Laysan species. As Nihoa is one 
of the islands included in the Hawaiian Island Bird Reservation 
no attempt was made to secure a cabinet specimen; though speci- 
mens could easily have been collected as the birds like their Laysan 
cousins are exceedingly inquisitive as well as fearless. He states 
that specimens could be taken with an ordinary hand-net. It was 
estimated by the party that there are perhaps a thousand specimens 
of the 'Nihoa Finch' on the island. 

When Mr. Garl Elschner visited the Island in 1914, for a few 
hours only, he was engaged chiefly in geologic and chemical investi- 
gations and made no attempt to study its fauna or flora. 

The "Albatross", during the investigation of the aquatic resources 
of the Hawaiian Islands, was in the vicinity of Nihoa on two 
occasions during the voyage to the Leeward Islands of the group 
in 1902, but the scientists were unable to land. Dr. Walter K. 
Fisher in his report on the "Birds of Laysan and the Leeward 
Islands" (Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., Vol. XXIII, pt. Ill, p. 778) 

^°'i9i^"^] Bryan, A Species of Drepanididce. 51 

says that on "June 1st we sighted Bird Island rising Hke a citadel 
into a hazy skyline and the "Albatross" came to anchor at dark 
off the south side. Although we could see nothing of the island, 
birds were in evidence by their cries. An Oceanodroma fuligmosa 
flew aboard, attracted by the glare of the deck light and on the 
following evening Bulweria and 'Puffinus cuneatus were similarly 
lured in some numbers. 

"From our anchorage Bird Island appeared like a very steep 
half -funnel shaped hillside with several bold rocks and cliffs rising 
from the general slope. Two sulcuses, on the east and west haloes, 
divide the slope into three ridges and in each valley there is a group 
of palm trees. The peak to the west rises 903 feet. The whole 
of the south slope is covered with a growth of bushes and rank grass. 
This portion of the island suggests the half of an old crater. The 
west, north and east sides rise as a wall of naked rock straight and 
sheer to an imposing height. The west face is black and menacing 
and perfectly perpendicular. 

"We were in the vicinity of Bird Island two days but the sea 
was too heavy for landing. In fact, a safe landing can be made 
only in very quiet weather. The shore on the south side is so rocky 
that even a small swell causes considerable commotion. Birds 
nest all over the island. Those species which love the cliff find a 
congenial home on the precipices and in the escarpments of the 
south side, while the boobies and man-o'-war birds live among the 
bushes on the grassy slopes. In fact, the whole mountain seemed 
alive with Sula cyanops, Sula piscator, and Sula sula. The last 
species lives along the top of the low escarpment which rises out 
of the sea along the south side. These three species and man-o'- 
war birds were continually flying around the vessel, as were like- 
wise the various terns. We noted with pleasure Procelsterna 
saxatilis, which was common. We saw only one or two Diomedea 
immutahilis west of the island some miles, but a number of nigripes. 
Birds collected or otherwise identified are: Sterna fuliginosa, Sterna 
lunata, Anous stolidus, Micranous hawaiiensis, Procelsterna saxa- 
tilis, Gygis alba kittlitzi, Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedia nigripes, 
Puffinus cuneatus, Puffinus nativitatis, Bulweria bulweri, Oceano- 
droma fuliginosa, Phaethon rubricauda, Sula cyanops, Sula piscator, 
Sula sula, Fregata aquila, Charadrius dominicus fulvus, Arenaria, 

52 Bryan, A Species of DrepanididcE. [j^„ 

The second visit of the Albatross was on August 5. It remained 
in the vicinity four days without being able to land. "Although 
a landing might possibly have been made with considerable risk 
when we first arrived, the problem of leaving the island proved 
scarcely reassuring, so that we had to be content with again observ- 
ing the birds from a distance." 

The islands of Nihoa and Necker are of interest to ethnologists 
as well as to ornithologists since they were visited by natives in 
former times in search of feathers. From the plumage of certain 
species they made some of the remarkable feather-work objects 
for which the ancient Hawaiians were famous. As the journey 
thither had to be made in their curious outrigger canoes, it is doubt- 
ful if it was frequently undertaken as to visit Nihoa from Niihau, 
which is the nearest inhabited island, entailed a journey of 120 
miles over the open ocean; while Necker Island is at least 150 
miles farther on in a northwesterly direction. 

Nihoa is the highest island in the Leeward chain and is about a 
mile in length by 2000 feet in breadth which gives it an area of 
about 250 acres. As has been indicated it is most probably the 
eroded remains of a deeply subsided crater the outer slopes of which 
have been worn away by the sea, leaving only a portion of the vol- 
canic bowl. The material of which it is composed is similar to that 
of the high islands of the group and there is evidence that it is 
even more ancient than Kauai. 

Perhaps this hoary remnant of the past may at one time have 
been a stately island, like those of the inhabited group with which 
we are familiar. Perhaps the island has been cut off and isolated 
by subsidence and but this single hardy bird was able to withstand 
the hardships and vicissitudes through which this lonely bit of 
land has passed since the island was severed from a pan-Hawaiian 
land. At any rate, it is of interest to find here a species of Drcpani- 
didoe differing specifically at least, from its next of kin now living 
on Laysan which is at least 500 miles distant from Nihoa. It is 
a satisfaction to know that this rare and remote species is guarded 
by its rugged and isolated environment no less than by the pro- 
tection afforded by having the island included in Hawaii's great bird 



J Allen, Xe.sting of Ihc Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 53 



In the spring of 1914 I watched a nesting of the Rose-breasted 
Grosbeak (Zamclodia ludoviciana) in West Roxbury, Mass., and 
though my notes are not so complete and detailed as I could wish, 
they are perhaps worth recording, and I offer them for what they 
are worth. 

On May 23 I observed a female Grosbeak building in the top of a 
pear tree which stands about twenty feet from a veranda of my 
house. The nest, which was only just beginning to take shape, 
was in plain sight from our upper windows. From that time till 
incubation began the male bird was never seen at the nest, though 
he often sang near by. I think he took no part in the building. 
The female had a habit of uttering a few high-pitched and faint 
notes, rather prolonged, ee ee ee, while on and about the nest. 
They were, perhaps, addressed to her mate, though he seemed 
never to respond in any way, and, in fact, during this period of 
nest-building I never saw him near when these notes were uttered. 
It is hard to see of what value such a habit could be ^o a bird, for 
the notes would serve only to betray the presence of the nest; 
but they impressed me as a sort of crooning of satisfaction over the 
preparations going forward, — though the word crooning would not 
apply to the quality of the notes, which were high-pitched, as stated. 

On May 28 I saw the bird moving about on the nest and judged 
that it was completed. As I did not go up to the nest at this period, 
I do not know just when the eggs were laid, nor did I note just 
when incubation began, but on June 7 the birds had been sitting 
for several days. The male assisted his mate in the work of incu- 
bation, but the female appeared to do most of it. The male took 
his cares lightly and sang habitually while incubating. The song 
thus given was shorter and less loud than the ordinary song of the 
species, but, though somewhat subdued in tone, it was not identical 
with the very soft and subdued song which is sometimes heard from 

1 Read before the Nuttall Ornithological Club, December 7, 1914. 


54 Allen, Nesting of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. [j"^ 

this species and which is, I think, generally if not always more 
prolonged than the ordinary song. It began with three or four 
repetitions of a phrase like ti'wee and concluded with a warble. 
The female kicked a good deal on the nest, but for some time I did 
not hear what I have called the "crooning" notes. 

On the afternoon of June 14 I watched the nest for a time from 
the ground below and at a short distance. 

At 2.20 the male sang at the nest and was relieved by the female. 
At 2.33 the female called ee ee ee (the "crooning" note) and was 
relieved by the male. 
At 2.42 the male sang. 

At 2.43 he sang again and was relieved by the female. The male 
called ee ee ee as he flew off. I think this was the only time I heard 
this note uttered by the male. 

At 3.07 the female flew off with ee ee ee. Probably the male 
approached the nest at the same time and without my seeing him 
from where I sat, for, after waiting some time for him to appear, 
I went to the upper veranda and from there could see him perched 
on the edge of the nest, shading it with wings half spread. This 
was at 3.29. 

At 3.34 the male sang and was promptly relieved by the female. 
A single ee was uttered by one of them. The female at once began 
feeding young, and this was the first intimation I had had that the 
young had hatched. They must have hatched that day, for on the 
day before, and I think on the morning of that day (June 14), the 
parents appeared to be still sitting. 

On June 18 I noted that the young, of which there were three, 
were covered, or partly covered, with a whitish down which stood 
out from the body and up from the top of the head. They had a 
fine, high, rather sweet hu'ee with a slightly husky quality, which 
they uttered while being fed. I have heard this same note, but 
louder, uttered by a fully fledged bird, possibly an adult female 
(July 29, 1908). 

On June 20 the note of the young was louder and usually a plain, 
unmodulated hu, though occasionally there was a suggestion of 
the rise in pitch at the end. Once or twice I heard a quavering 
hu' wl-ivi. The young then cried before the mother came to the 
nest as well as while being fed. The female took the entire care of 

1916 ] Allen, Nesting of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 55 

the young, and after the 14th, when the young were just hatched, 
I never saw the male at the nest. For several days he had sung 
but little, but on the 20th he recovered his volubility and sang long 
and loud and frequently. On the next day he was still voluble. 

On June 22 I went up to the nest to band the young birds. One 
of them flopped out as I reached up to the nest from the ladder, 
and fell fluttering to the ground, where it landed on its back and 
lay. motionless. When I reached it and picked it up it remained 
motionless in my hand, but did not appear to be dead or dNang, 
and I concluded that it was "playing possum." I banded it and 
put it back in the nest, where it stayed quietly. Another of the 
young, which I banded, also "played possum." I could not find 
the third young bird by feeling about, — the nest was above my 
head, — and I think it may have disappeared, or possibly it was 
underneath the other two. I refrained from poking about in the 
nest much for fear of hurting the young. 

While I was at work at the nest, the female kept up an anxious 
hick-ing near by and at one time uttered a rapid succession of 
frantic hicks within a few feet ; but the male sang cheerfully through 
it all and appeared not to notice what was going on. One may 
imagine, of course, that he was merely trying to reassure his mate 
or keep up her courage. He was especially voluble that morning, 
particularly early in the morning, before I went up to the nest, 
when his songs were unusually long and succeeded one another 
with only very short rests between. 

On June 24, two days later, the male, which had been as voluble 
as ever the day before, was not heard at all, and as the nest appeared 
to be deserted, I went up to it and found it empty except for a dead 
young one, one of those that I had banded and probably the one that 
had fallen. Later I heard a surviving young one calling about a 
hundred yards off, and saw the mother, which answered her off- 
spring -with, the familiar hick note. 

I took the nest, which hung together remarkably well, consid- 
ering the apparent looseness of its construction, and was easily 
removed intact. It is difficult to assign any precise dimensions 
to it, on account of its straggling character, but it may be called 
eight inches in external and three and one-half inches in internal 
diameter, and about four and one half inches deep externally and 

56 Allen, Nesting of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. [j^n. 

two inches internally. It was composed of slender twigs of vari- 
ous kinds, the exterior largely dead hemlock twigs, which from 
their roughness held together well and kept the structure intact. 
The lining was of finer twigs, largely spiraea from the garden. The 
nest was set in a crotch near the top of the pear tree and about 
seventeen and one half feet from the ground. 


Summarizing these observations, we find that the female bird 
built the nest, apparently without help from her mate; that the 
male assisted in incubation and habitually sang while on the nest, 
the song seeming to be sometimes, if not always, a signal to the 
female that he was ready to be relieved; that the male appeared 
to take no part in the feeding of the young; that the female had a 
special note which she uttered when about the nest and sometimes, 
apparently, as a signal that she was ready to be relieved from her 
duties, — a note that was rarely uttered by the male; that the 
young, as is the case with most birds, had a peculiar note of their 
own, a food-call, which changed as they developed; and, finally, 
that young Rose-breasted Grosbeaks should be banded not later 
than a week after hatching if the risk of frightening them out of 
'the nest is to be avoided. 



] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 57 



QUEBEC — 1911-1915. 


As far as I have been able to gather very httle if anything has 
been pubhshed on the birds of this particidar part of the country, 
and it may be well therefore to give some indication as to the exact 
location of Hatley and the County of Stanstead, of which the 
former forms one of the northern divisions. Looking at the map 
the county of Stanstead will be found stowed away as it were 
almost in the extreme southeast corner of the Province of Quebec; 
the southern border adjoining the State of Vermont, whilst the 
nearest point on the eastern side is within ten miles of the borders 
of New Hampshire, and thirty of Maine. The entire county 
comprises an area of about 410 square miles or 263,000 acres. 
Few parts of the country present a greater variety of surface than 
Stanstead County. The land on the eastern shore of Lake Mem- 
phremagog (a large sheet of water some 33 miles in length and from 
one to three miles in width) and extending through Hatley on the 
west side of Lake Massawippi is hilly and broken, the most promi- 
nent elevations being the Bunker and Massawippi hills, the latter 
rising to about 1400 feet above the sea level. The courses of the 
four principal rivers, the Barlow, Negro, Coaticook and Massa- 
wippi (none of which are of any great size or importance) are 
marked by uneven banks and hilly ground which generally extends 
for about a mile on each side. The three first have their source in 
the State of Vermont from which they flow in a northerly direction, 
the Barlow and Negro on the left hand side of the county and the 
Coaticook on the right side, the two former emptying themselves 
into Lake Massawippi at its soutliern extremity and being conveyed 
away at the northern end by the Massawippi river; which after 
flowing in a northeasterly direction for about eight miles joins the St. 
Francis near Lennoxville the same as the Coaticook river does on 
the east side, and thus the waters of these four rivers eventually 
find their wav into the St. LawTence bv means of the St. Francis, 

58 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 


about midway between Montreal and Quebec, this waterway, no 
doubt, forming at least one of the minor highways of migration if 
not a principal one. The greatest elevation in the eastern part of 
the county is Barnston Mountain. In many places the surface is 
undulating and resembles the rolling prairies of the west, with no 
prominent hills. With the exception of some marshy ground and 
about 800 acres known as the "Burnt District," both near Lake 
Massawippi there is but little waste land in the county, the greater 
part of the hilly ground being adapted to cultivation or pasturage. 
The soil in its native state was highly fertile and productive, the 
hills and higher grounds being covered with a heavy growth of 
maple, beech, birch, hop hornbeam, and white ash, whilst the lower 
grounds produced elm, basswood, cherry, butternut, poplar, 
hemlock, spruce, pine, cedar, fir and tamarack, but in their mis- 
taken idea that the strength of the soil would always continue, the 
earlier settlers devastated the County of most of its valuable 
timber, until at the present day many of the farms have barely 
sufficient trees left for firewood and building purposes and to form 
sugaries. The County is divided into five townships, of which 
Hatley forms the principal northern one, the village being situated 
between latitude 45° 10' and 45° 12' north and longitude 71° 55' 
and 71° 57' west, and deriving its name from a village in England, 
no doubt that of East Hatley in the Diocese of Ely Cambridge- 
shire. The survey determining its original boundary was made in 
1792 and subdivision into lots in 1795 and by 1815 it had become a 
place of some little business and importance, but now owing to the 
fact that the nearest railway station is between three and four miles 
away, the business done in former days when railways did not 
exist, has been removed to other towns and villages adjacent to 
the centers of transport. Owing to this lack of a railway, however, 
the village at the present day retains most of its original charm and 
beauty. It lies at an elevation of about 1000 feet above the sea 
level, and almost through its entire length there runs a fine avenue 
of maple trees. On the east it is backed by some hilly and well 
wooded ground rising 350 feet or more above the level of the village, 
whilst to the north and west the ground after rising for some dis- 
tance falls away gradually until it reaches the level of Lake Massa- 
wippi, a fine sheet of water nine miles in length, with an average 

^°'' 19H5^'"] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 59 

width of about a mile. This lake together with that of Magog a 
little further north, and Lake Memphremagog to the south, are the 
three principal sheets of water in the County, affording excellent 
fishing at times, as well as a resting place for large flocks of ducks 
in the autumn. In years gone by the St. Francis tribe of Indians 
used to visit Lake Massawippi (even after the advent of the white 
settlers) for the purpose of fishing, trapping mink, coon, otter and 
beaver, etc., as well as hunting moose and deer, all of which were 
then found in abundance, but most have long since disappeared with 
the march of civilization ! On the south side of the village runs the 
main road to Stanstead, the country assuming more of a level aspect 
with Bunkers hills in the distance on the right whilst the high rising 
ground on the east side of Hatley, extends for some considerable 
distance in the direction of what is known as Barnston Mountain. 
The district all round Hatley is entirely an agricultural one, dairy 
farming, hog raising, and the maple sugar industry forming the 
farmers' principal source of income. In addition to the maple 
trees there still remains a fair sprinkling of elm, beech, birch, 
cherry, butternut, poplar, hemlock, cedar, fir, pine and tamaracks, 
which with numerous small streams and the undulating nature 
of the country, form an excellent home for the various breeding 
birds, and resting place for the migratory ones that visit the 

Although the list contains some 122 species, 63 of which have 
actually been found breeding (besides another 17 some of which 
are known and others believed to breed more or less frequently, 
but whose eggs have not yet been found), it must not be assumed 
that it is by any means complete, as very little has been done with 
regard to the Hawks and Owls, most attention having been paid to 
the Sandpipers, Sparrows and Warblers. 

The position of Hatley makes its avifauna interesting lying as it 
does at the mouth of a "cul de sac" so to speak of the Canadian 
Zone, which has its termination in the States of Vermont and New 
Hampshire, with spurs of the Transition zone extending north on 
each side of it, the one on the right hand into southern Maine to 
about latitude 45°, whilst that on the left extends still further 
north, or to about latitude 47°. It follows naturally that the fauna 
is chiefly Canadian with a good deal of Transition or Alleghanian, 

60 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. [j^n_ 

and a slight sprinkling of Hudsonian. Of the Canadian species 
such characteristic ones as the White-throated Sparrow and Winter 
Wren are getting very near their extreme southern breeding limits, 
whilst of the Transition forms, Hatley apparently, lies outside the 
regular breeding area of the Sora, Indigo Bunting, Red-breasted 
Grosbeak and Cowbird, the latter of which until the present sum- 
mer (1915) was almost unknown even as a transient visitor. 

In that charming book the " Birds of Maine" Mr. Ora W. Knight, 
on page 507, speaking of the Myrtle Warbler says, " The scattered 
flocks pass on leaving here and there a pair of mated birds, in many 
instances individuals being found frequenting the very same locali- 
ties from year to year under conditions which would almost 
warrant the assumption that the very same individual birds had 
returned to their summer homes." With regard to this most inter- 
esting subject I will say that my five years' observations over a 
restricted area (mentioned hereafter) have more than "almost 
warranted" as the late Mr. Knight says, the assumption, they 
ha^'e entirely convinced me of the fact that the very same birds 
do come back year after year to the site endeared to them by the 
previous year's associations. If this is not so how can the following 
instances be lightly put on one side and explained away. In May, 
1914, in a particular corner of the marsh I took a set of Swamp 
Sparrow's eggs, of a very handsome type, differing from any other 
set in a most marked degree. Visiting the same locality the 
following year I flushed a bird from another set of eggs, almost 
identical to those of the previous year. Again a set of Spotted 
Sandpiper's was taken on May 20, 1912, the earliest set ever found, 
and much below the average size, being in fact the smallest set I 
have ever seen or can hear of, the average dimensions being 1.18X 
.92 in. only. In the following year on the same side of the marsh 
and not far from the other nest, I found on May 25 (also the earliest 
date for that year) another set identical in size, 1.19 X .91 in., 
shape and markings, to that of the previous year. Finally a set of 
the White-throated Sparrow was taken in May, 1914, on the out- 
skirts of a small damp wood, the birds building another nest almost 
at once close by, under the drooping branch of a small cedar bush, 
which I did not molest. 

Visiting this same bush the following year another nest was 

^°''m6^"^] MouSLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 61 

found within one inch of the other, in fact it was only the bough 
of the branch resting on the ground that divided the two nests. 
Am I in this case to believe that a strange pair of birds not only 
selected this same wood, but also the same part of it, and moreover 
the very identical bush in it, and spot under that bush, to build 
their nest in, if so ; then I can only say it seems to savour of the un- 
canny. If space permitted I could enumerate many other similar 
instances to the above, with regard to the Myrtle Warbler, Robin, 
Chipping Sparrow, Bluebird and others. Of course I do not be- 
lieve that in every case both birds can return, in some no doubt 
they do, in others it may be the male or female only, but which ever 
it is, that one, after selecting a new mate, will no doubt lead him or 
her as the case may be to the locality of the old nesting site. At all 
events this is the light in which I prefer to look upon it, leaving 
others to enjoy their own views on a subject, which, after all, is 
perhaps too deep for any of us to fathom with certainty. 

In conclusion I may say that nearly all of my records have been 
made on some six farms (the smallest of which only some 75 acres 
in extent has produced 100 out of the 122 species enumerated and 
47 of the 63 breeding records) one and one half miles south of the 
village consisting of about 1000 acres, on which is situated the little 
marsh so often referred to, especially in the case of the Sandpipers 
as " the marsh." This was originally a wood through which a small 
stream flowed, and lying in a natural hollow it was an easy matter, 
when the timber was cut down, to form a dam at the lower end 
and thus spread the water from the stream and surrounding sloping 
ground, over a surface of about 15 acres. In the summer time 
owing to the little rainfall and a bad leak near the dam the water 
level gets very low, leaving large beds of silt and mud exposed, 
with patches of cat-tails, forming an excellent feeding ground for 
marsh and shore birds, so much so that although there are several 
other small marshes in the neighbourhood, none of them present 
anything like the attraction that this one does (owing to its espe- 
cially large mud beds) at all events to the Sandpipers, very few of 
which I have found anywhere else. The following synopsis will 
show at a glance to the best of my judgment the number in each 
order, and status of the 122 species enumerated in the text. 


MouSLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 



Wood Warblers 
Flycatchers and 



No. of 



No. of 




No. of 


No. of 

Known, or 
believed to 
Breeding, breed but 
nests & eggs no eggs 
actually found found 
No. of No. of 
Species Species 














































1. Anas rubripes (Brewster). Black Duck. — Common transient; 
(April 11) Aug. 6 to Oct. 17; (Nov. 25). Average date of arrival (for two 
years) Aug. 15; of departure (for two years) Oct. 14. Small flocks of this 
duck usually visit the marsh during the months of August to October, the 
date in April being for a pair only, and that in November for a single. 
They fly high as a rule with no fixed formation, and are very wary and diffi- 
cult to approach when settled on the water. The total number of birds 
observed during the fall of 1914 was 95, the largest flock consisting of 
eighteen, as against 21 for the present year with a total of 93 birds. 

2. Nettion carolinense (GmeUn). Green-winged Teal. — Rare 
transient; Oct. 11. The above date of the pre.sent year, 1915, is the only 
one on which I have shot (or seen to identify) an example of this smallest 
of ducks, although on April 18 of this same year, I have an entry in my note 
book as follows, viz: " Small duck seen in the distance probably a teal?" 
I feel pretty sure now that it was one of this species. The present one was 
a female and alone, and when weighed just turned the scales at thirteen 

3. Chen hsrperborea nivalis (Forster). Greater Snow Goose. — 
Rare transient; April 6. A flock of fifteen of these fine birds passed over in 
the afternoon of the above date, 1914. They were heading north spread out 
in a gentle curve, and not in a sharp defined V shape. As no specimen was 
obtained I have adopted the generally recognized rule, that birds passing 


^°''i9i6^"'] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 63 

to the breeding grounds in the far north by waj- of the eastern side of the 
Mississippi valley, belong to this species and not to the Lesser Snow Goose. 

4. Branta canadensis (Linnaeus). Canada Goose. — Common tran- 
sient; April 25 to May 2; Oct. 16 to "Nov. 25. Flocks of from 20 to 30 of 
these geese can usually be seen both during the day and night, heading 
either north or south as the case may be, and generally spread out in a well 
defined V shape. 

5. Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu). American Bittern.^ Fairly 
common summer visitant; April 24 to Sept. 29. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) April 27; of departure (for three years) Sept. 28. Eggs: 
May 29 to June 14. A pair of bitterns visit the marsh every year, but I 
have only succeeded in finding their nest on two occasions, the eggs on 
June 14 being heavily incubated, and hatching out some few days later. 
Of all the ugly little spitfires young bitterns beat anj^thing I have ever seen. 
I suppose I must consider myself lucky in having been able to watch a male 
bittern boom for nearly half an hour, although the spectacle was not very 
edifying, reminding one somewhat of a person in the throes of seasickness. 
However, I suppose his lady love thought otherwise, and no doubt was duly 
impressed by the ceremony. 

6. Ardea herodias (Linnaeus). Great Blue Heron. — Fairly com- 
mon transient; April 19 to May 31; July 25 to Nov. 13. Average date of 
arrival (for four years) April 26; of departure (for three years) Nov. 8. 
One or two of these handsome birds can be found at most times on the 
marsh during the above dates. 

7. Rallus virginianus (Linnaeus). Virginia Rail.— Rare transient 
visitor; July 22 to 24. On the first of the above dates in the present year 
(1915), I saw (and shot for identification) my first example of this rail, and 
on the latter date saw another in about the same place, on the edge of the 
reeds, which no doubt was its mate. 

8. Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus). Carolina Rail or Sora. — Rare 
summer visitant; May 23 to Oct. 12. Eggs: July 22. Up to July of the 
present year (1915) I had only seen two examples of this rail in October, 
and it was with much surprise therefore, whilst walking through a bed of 
cat-tails in the marsh on the above date in July, that I came across a nest 
containing six young birds which had just hatched and two addled eggs, 
which latter I was able to preserve as cabinet specimens. The nest was 
composed entirely of old dry cat-tail leaves, and when found the top was 
five and one half inches above the surface of the ground, upon which it 
rested, the water in the marsh being nearly all dried up at this date. 
There was a well defined approach from the gi'ound to the summit of the 
nest, but apparently no canopy. 

9. Philohela minor (Gmelin). American Woodcock. — Rare tran- 
sient; May 7 to 10. After three years repeated failure to find any traces 
of this bird, I flushed one on the first of the above dates in 1914, from under- 
neath a cedar tree, and came upon it again three days later, whilst it was 
standing dozing at the edge of a little alder run, not far from the spot 
where I first put it up. 

64 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. [j^^ 

10. Gallinago delicata (Ord). Wilson's Snipe. — Faii-ly common 
transient; (Aug. 30, Sept. 14, 20); Oct. 2 to Nov. 9. The usual date of the 
fall arrival here seems to be about the first, or beginning of the second week 
in October, only a single bird in each case having been observed on the dates 
in August and September. During the fall of 1914 I counted thirty-nine 
between the above dates in October and Novemlaer, as against only about a 
sixth of this number for the corresponding period of the previous year; 
fourteen being the greatest number seen in a single day. This year 15 
examples have been noted. I am unable to give a spring date not having 
3'et observed the l^ird at that season. 

11. Pisobia maculata (Vieillot). Pectoral Sandpiper. — Fairly 
common transient; July 22 to Oct. 21. I have only seen thirty-five ex- 
amples of the Pectoral Sandpiper so far, two in July, five in August (one of 
which was in the company of two Lesser Yellow-legs), fourteen in Sep- 
tember, and fourteen in October, most of which latter were feeding with 
Wilson's snipe. At times they are not at all shy, and I have watched them 
feeding on several occasions within quite a short distance. In this species 
the males, contrary to the general rule amongst the Sandpipers, are the 
larger, one I shot weighing five ounces and taking just two females to 
balance the other side of the scales. They make excellent eating when 
properly cooked like snipe. I am unable to give a spring date, not having 
yet observed the bird at that season. 

12. Pisobia minutilla (Vieillot). Least Sandpiper. — Common 
transient; May 23 to June 2; July 10 to Sept. 4. Of all the Sandpipers 
enumerated this is the most abundant, as I find from my notes that during 
the past and present year (1915), 114 examples have been seen, and with 
four exceptions (three of which numbered between twelve and eighteen 
and the other twenty-five) they did not exceed six in a flock, and on many 
occasions singles only were observed. In the case of this species as well as 
in that of all the other shore birds observed here, the autumn migration 
produces by far the greatest number of birds. 

13. Ereunetes pusillus (Linnaeus). Semipalmated Sandpiper. — 
Fairly common tran.sient; May 23 to 29; July 22 to Sept. 4. This elegant 
little Sandpiper is not nearly so plentiful as the Least, in fact I have never 
seen a flock composed entirely of them, they were always in the company 
of the latter. By carefully examining these mixed flocks and taking the 
same dates as mentioned in the account of the Least Sandpiper, I find only 
thirty-five were observed as against the 114 of the latter, thus giving a 
proportion of about three to one. 

14. Tetanus melanoleucus (Gmelin). Greater Yellows-legs. — 
Rare transient; May 11 to 12; Aug. 3 to Oct. 24. Judging from the few 
examples seen of this bird, one in the spring and eight in the fall, it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that they are merely stragglers, and that Hatley 
lies outside the usual hne of migration. When disturbed I noticed these 
birds had a habit of alighting on dead tree stumps (of which there are many 
in the marsh) where they would remain for long periods at a time, and from 

"^°'" ™"^] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 65 

which no doubt they were better able to keep a sharp lookout for any- 
approaching danger. 

15. Totanus flavipes (Gmelin). Lesser Yellow-legs. — Rare 
transient; July 9 to Aug. 10. I have only seen seven examples of this bird 
so far, four in July and thi-ee in August, so that no doubt Hatley, as suggested 
in the case of the Greater YeUow-legs, lies outside the general line of migi-a- 
tion. When disturbed these birds only gave vent to a single " when " as 
against the thi-ee uttered in succession by their cousin the Greater Yellow- 
legs, whose notes are also louder and harsher. I have never seen them 
alight on anything but the ground. 

16. Helodromas solitarius (Wilson). Solitary Sandpiper. — Com- 
mon transient; May 9 to 31; July 18 to Oct. 21. Average date of arrival 
(for three years) May 19; of departure (for two years) Oct. 7. On a few 
occasions only have I seen this Sandpiper in the company of others, and 
then generally the Least was its companion. It is particularly fond of wad- 
ing about in the water up to its belly, but only on two occasions have I seen 
it swim. On the first of these a bird deliberately waded out of its depth, and 
then took to swimming about for half a minute or so, in the most matter of 
fact way, and on the second a wing tipped bird swam half way across the 
marsh before being able to reach a little mudbank on which it alighted. Dur- 
ing the past two years I have observed seventy of these birds, the largest num- 
ber seen together being six on one occasion only, whilst three, four and five 
have been noted several times. Only once have I seen it alight on the top 
of a tree stump, the ground or a log in my experience being the usual place. 
I see no reason why some day they should not be found breeding here, as 
the ponds they frequent with the surrounding woods seem likely enough 

17. Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein). Bartramian Sandpiper. — 
Rare summer visitant; May 10 to Aug. 20. Eggs: May 24. It was on 
the 24th of May, 1913, that I received word of a bird of this species, having 
been shotat close range, as it rose suddenly from the ground late the pre- 
vious evening. Naturally I was not long in visiting the farm, which was 
only some few miles away, and being shown the field and place near where 
the bird had risen, I soon came across the nest, which was a natm'al depres- 
sion in the ground in the centre of a bunch of buttercups, lined with dry 
grasses only, and contained a beautiful set of four evenly spotted eggs 
(average size 1.72 X 1.23), one being of a much lighter ground colour than 
the other tliree. The following year I was again notified that a pair of 
birds were about, but on the only two occasions on which I was able to visit 
the locality, I failed to locate their nest, although I have every reason to 
believe, they brought up a brood, as they were seen and heard several 
times again during the remainder of the summer. During the. present 
year (1915) a parent bird with young was seen by two parties in the same 
district in which my set of eggs was taken, although at somewhat widely 
different points, so that possibly the breeding area and number ci^birds is 
larger than I imagined. However this may be, I look upon it as quite 

66 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. Uan. 

my most interesting find, especially in view of the fact that during the past 
few years its numbers are considered to be increasing in northeastern 
United States, and let us hope in eastern Quebec also. 

18. Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). Spotted Sandpiper. — Common 
summer visitant ; INIay 1 to Sept. 24. Average date of arrival (for five j^ears) 
May 4; of departure (for thi-ee years) Sept. 10. Eggs: May 20 to June 21. 
Usually not less than six pairs of this familiar little sandpiper breed on the 
margins of the marsh, and one of the most interesting events I have wit- 
nessed happened with regard to this species. I had shot an immature bu-d 
(for a cabinet specimen) which fell at the edge of the water, but on pro- 
ceeding to the spot to pick it up as I thought was sm-prised to see it wading 
out in the water, where after getting out of its depth it sank to the bottom, 
and I could see it there in the clear water proceeding at a gi-eat pace by 
means of its wings and feet for a small mud liank, where it came to the 
surface and hid in the surrounding rushes. Persistent searching in late 
June and through July has failed to reveal any evidence of a second brood. 
Three eggs in a set are rare, only one out of fifteen nests examined having 
this number all the others containing four. On one occasion only have I 
seen a very excited parent bird with young alight on a cat-tail head, and 
very out of place and uncomfortable it seemed to be. It may not be gen- 
erally known that these birds if flushed whilst constructing their nest 
invariably desert it, at least this has been my experience on four occasions, 
when I have flushed both birds whilst in the act of scooping out or lining 
the hole. In one instance, however, they made a fresh nest within forty-five 
feet of the old one. Most of the birds leave about the end of July or be- 
ginning of August, those remaining into September being immatures only. 

19. Oxyechus vociferus (Linnseus). Killdeer. — Rare transient; 
July 31. The above date of the present year (1915) is the only occasion on 
which I have come across this handsome plover, and then only one was seen 
feeding by itself on the edge of the marsh. By careful stalking and hiding 
in the cat-tail beds I was able on two occasions to get quite close to it. 

20. .ffigialitis semipalmata (Bonaparte). Semipalmated Plover. — 
Rare transient; May 23 to 28; July 22 to Aug. 16. It is only during the 
present year (1915) that I have come across this pretty little plover, and 
then only fifteen examples have been noted between the above dates, the 
greatest number seen together being four on two occasions. In three cases 
they were alone and in the other five Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers 
were their companions. 

21. Canachites canadensis canace (Linnseus). Canadian Spruce 
Grouse. — Rare resident. This is decidedly a rare bird in the immediate 
vicinity of Hatley. I have never shot or even seen one (during the past 
five years) until the evening of Oct. 21 of the present year, 1915, when a 
female was shown to me in the flesh that had been shot in the morning. 

22. Bonasa umbellus togata (Linnajus). Canadian Ruffed 
Grouse. — Common resident; Eggs: May 15 to 30. As far as my ob- 
servations have gone for the past five years, this fine game bird has remained 

^"'"l^Hi^"'] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. 67 

in " status quo " neither increasing nor decreasing. It is by no means 
plentiful at any time but judging from the number of broods seen earlier 
on, the present season, 1915, should prove to be above the average. Nests 
usually contain from eight to ten eggs, only on one occasion have I found 
as many as thirteen. In some cases it is not unusual for a few eggs in a set 
to be spotted, but I have a unique one of ten in which every egg is well 
spotted, not at the larger end as is usual but at the smaller, an uncommon 
occurrence even in the case of a single egg of any bird. I have never had 
the good fortune to catch a male in the act of drumming, although I have 
knowai of several drummmg logs. 

23. Circus hudsonius (Linna;us) . Marsh Hawk. — Common summer 
visitant; April 14 to Oct. 17. Average date of arrival (for four years) April 
18; of departure (for four years) Sept. 22. Although a pair of these birds 
have frequented some low lying overgrown marshy meadows for the past four 
sinnmers, I have been unable so far to locate their nest, but have seen the 
young later on in the season hawking over the locality in company with the 
parent buxls. 

24. Accipiter velox (Wilson). Sharp-shinned Hawk. — Rare tran- 
sient; May 3, Oct. 21. This httle hawk must be rare in the district for 
the above dates of the present year (1915) are the only ones on which I 
have seen examples, notwithstanding I have invariably rapped on every 
evergreen tree containing a likely looking nest, in the hope of putting one 
up during the breeding season. When seen the one in May was flying low 
down and gave me a good view of its long square ended tail, the other in 
October was that of a male shot in the morning and shown to me in the 
flesh a few hours aftei"wards. 

25. Astur atricapillus atricapillus (Wilson). Goshawk.— Rare 
transient; Oct. 21. The above date in 1914 is the only one on which I 
have seen an example of this hawk. It was an adult biixl in fine plumage 
and was shot near a sugar house in some woods early in the morning and 
shown to me the same evening. 

26. Buteo borealis borealis (Gmelin). Red-tailed Hawk. — ^ Rare 
transient; Oct. 29. The only example I have seen of this hawk was that 
of a fine adult bird which (contrary to its general custom) had been robbing 
a hen yard, and was eventually caught in a trap on the above date, and 
shown to me alive the same day. 

27. Buteo lineatus lineatus (Gmelin). Red-shouldered Hawk.— 
Common summer visitant; March 28 to Oct. 25. Average date of arrival 
(for thi-ee years) March 29; of departure (for three years) Oct. 21. This is 
undoubtedly the commonest of the large hawks in this district, and at least 
four pairs nest in the surrounding woods, although not having given much 
attention to them as yet, I can only record having actually found one in- 
habited nest which contained young. On one occasion I witnessed a pair of 
Kingbirds who had a nest in some drowned land on the outskirts of a large 
wood so mob and terrify a young hawk of this species that it seemed to lose 
the power of flight, and floundered about in the water until it became a most 

68 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. [ja^n 

miserable and bedraggled object, and it was not until the Kingbu'ds had 
left him that he ventm'ed to essay a short flight on to a stub, where he dried 
his wings, and at intervals uttered shrill cries as if invoking his parents to 
come to his aid. 

28. Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus (Linnaeus). Bald 
Eagle. — Uncommon transient; Aug. 1. A specimen of this fine eagle was 
shot on the above date in 1914, on a farm just outside Hatley village, and 
was set up by a local taxidermist. I have since had the pleasure of seeing 
the bird and found it to be an immatm-e one in fine plumage. It weighed 
seven and one half pounds so I was told, and the spread of its wings was 
seven feet. 

29. Falco columbarius columbarius (Linnaeus). Pigeon Hawk. — 
Rare transient; Oct. 5. The above date of the present year (1915) is the 
only one on which I have seen an example of this little falcon. When first 
seen it flew just over my head (whilst I was in a cat-tail bed in the marsh 
after snipe) in hot pursuit of a small bird, and I was afterwards able to get 
quite close to it while perched on a dead tree on the lookout for further 

30. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (GmeUn). Osprey. — Rare 
transient; May 3 to 5. Average date of arrival for two years May 4. 
During the above dates in May of this (1915) and last year, a pair of these 
birds have visited the neighbourhood and remained to fish in the waters of 
the marsh, where at intervals they could be seen dropping like an arrow, 
generally rising with a fish in their talons. 

31. Strix varia varia (Barton). Barred Owl. — Fairly common 
resident. Although I have only actually seen this Owl in the flesh on five 
occasions in April, October and November, its hooting has been beard in 
almost every month of the year, and for this reason I think it may be safely 
included under the above heading. I often regi-et the want of a younger 
companion who would help me work up the Owls and Hawks, as there must 
be many more species than I am able to record at present. 

32. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wilson). Black-billed Cuckoo. 
— Fairly common summer visitant; May 26 to Aug. 27. Average date of 
arrival (for four years) May 29. Eggs: June 12 to 21. This is by no means 
a plentiful bird and during the summer of 1914, I was unable to locate a 
single nest, and only saw it on two occasions, both of which were in July. 
Of the five nests found so far none were placed at a height of more than 
seven feet above the ground, and all but one were lined with willow catkins, 
the contents in every case being a set of three eggs, one set containing a 
runt egg, size .87 X .71. 

33. Ceryle alcyon (Linnaeus). Belted Kingfisher. — Fairly com- 
mon transient; May 3 to 22; July 19 to Oct. 7. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) May 1 1 ; of departm-e (for two years) Sept. 30. Every spring 
a pair of these birds frequent the marsh during May, and can generally be 
found perched on a stump or fence rail, from which at intervals they rise 
into the air preparatory to plunging down on some unsuspecting fish that 

^°'i9i6 ] MousLET, Birds of Hatley, Que. 69 

has caught theh eye. In the fall they return again but strange to say 
never accompanied by any of their brood. 

34. Dryobates villosus leucomelas (Boddsert). Northern Hairy 
Woodpecker. — Fairly common resident. Eggs: May 28. With the 
exception of the Pileated this is the rarest of the woodpeckers, being 
somewhat uncommon at all times, and only nesting so far as my experience 
goes in woodlands. As a rule the nest hole is somewhat high up but on 
one occasion I found one which was only thi-ee feet above the ground in a 
birch stub, containing four eggs, the entrance hole being two inches in 
diameter, extreme depth eleven inches and average width two and three 
quarters inches. 

35. Dryobates pubescens medianus (Swainson). Northern 
Downy Woodpecker. — Common resident. Eggs: May 22 to June 9. 
This little Woodpecker is certainly more plentiful dm-ing the spring, fall 
and winter than it is in the breeding season, although it is more abundant 
than the Hairy at all times. I have not yet found it nesting in any of the 
orchards, the favom-ite site in this district being the decayed limb of a maple 
or birch tree in the woods or on the roadside, at almost any height above the 
groimd. The average dimensions of three nesting holes examined are as 
follows, viz.: entrance hole Ij inch diameter, extreme depth 8 inches, and 
width 2f inches. 

36. Spyrapicus varius varius (Linnaeus). Yellow-bellied Sap- 
sucker. — Common summer visitant; April 19 to Oct. 8. Average date of 
arrival (for four years) April 22; of departure (for four years) Sept. 22. Eggs: 
May 18 to 20. During the spring and fall migrations this is certainly the 
most abundant woodpecker of all, and in the breeding season is not far be- 
hind the Flicker for first place. Like the latter bird it often nests year after 
year in the same tree (but not necessarily in the same hole) the favourite 
ones here being ehn, poplar and butternut. In April it is particularly fond 
of drumming on the buckets hung on the maple trees to catch the sap. Of 
two nests examined the average dimensions are as follows, viz.: entrance 
hole If inches in diameter, extreme depth lOf inches, and width 2| inches. 

37. Phlceotomus pileatus abieticola (Bangs). Northern Pile- 
ated Woodpecker. — • Fairly common resident. This large and handsome 
Woodpecker is by no means very plentiful, and covering a large area of 
ground in its daily round in search of food it is more or less by accident that 
one comes across it. During the breeding season it frequents the larger 
and deeper woods and as yet I have not been able to locate a nest. From 
my notes I find thirty-four have been observed in the past five years, and 
on one occasion a party of five were together, a sight not easily forgotten. 
Of the above number, fourteen, or nearly one half, were observed during 
the months of March, April and May, the balance occurring in the fall 
and winter. 

38. Colaptes auratus luteus (Bangs). Northern Flicker.^ 
Common summer visitant; April 19 to Oct. 12. Average date of arrival (for 
five years) April 21; of departure (for four years) Sept. 28. Eggs: May 18 

70 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. [j"^ 

to June 2. Decidedly the most common of all the woodpeckers nesting 
year after year in the same tree (generally a birch or maple) but not always 
occupying the previous year's hole, which as a rule does not exceed fifteen 
feet above the ground. The average dimensions of five nests examined 
are as follows, viz.: entrance hole 2f inches in diameter, extreme depth 
17^ inches, and width 5| inches. The number of eggs in a set varies a 
good deal, six about here appearing to be the most usual, although on one 
occasion I found as many as eleven. 

39. Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmelin). Nighthawk. — 
Rare transient; Sept. 1 to 2. I have only seen eight examples of this bird, 
four on the evening of Sept. 2 of last year, and the same number curiously 
enough on the evening of Sept. 1 of the present year, 1915. On both oc- 
casions the evenings were very sultry and the birds were hawking over the 
marsh, at intervals emitting then- loud nasal " peents." 

40. Chsetura pelagica (Linnaeus). Chimney Swift. — Common sum- 
mer visitant; May 13 to Sept. 7. Average date of arrival (for four years) 
May 15; of departure (for two years) Sept. 1. Eggs: June 15. A pair of 
Chimney Swifts have nested for several years in the chimney stack of my 
landlord, which during the summer months is not used. I have also found 
their nest attached to the inside of the perpendicular l)oards at the gable 
end of a hay barn. 

41. Archilochus colubris (Linnteus). Ruby-throated Humming- 
bird. — Fairly common summer visitant; May 23 to Sept. 21. Average 
date of an-ival (for four years) May 26; of departure (for four years) Sept. 14. 
At the flowers of a row of scarlet runners or the trunk of a certain birch tree 
(well pierced with sapsucker holes) I am always sure of finding one if not a 
pair of hummingbirds. It is a curious medley that gathers at the latter 
place, butterflies, moths, beetles, flies. Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers and Hum- 
mingbirds are all to be found at this one particular tree regaling themselves 
on the sap that has gathered in the little holes. I have often watched the 
birds on hovering wings extracting the nectar or flies from the scarlet 
flowers of the beans, and then perch on some adjacent runner, where resting 
they would insert their l^ills into the nearest flowers and go on feeding. 
This is another of the few summer visitants whose nest I have so far failed 
to discover notwithstanding persistent searching. 

42. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus). Kingbird. — Common summer 
visitant; May 3 to Aug. 25. Average date of arrival (for five years) May 8; 
of departure (for three years) Aug. 22. Eggs: June 3 to July 15. Probably 
every orchard has its Kingbirds, a pair having nested in one near my house 
for four consecutive years if not longer, repairing the nest each yeai;. In 
1912 they were robbed of two sets of eggs and in desperation forsook the 
apple tree and took possession of an old Baltimore Oriole's nest in the top 
of a maple tree in front of my house, in which strange home they laid a 
third set of eggs and brought up a brood. The following year they repaired 
the old nest in the apple tree again, thus showing what a strong attachment 
these birds have for a nesting site once selected. The pair of birds that so 

^°''i9l6^"^] Movshi^Y, Birds of H alley, Que. 71 

mobbed the young Red-shouldered Hawk had their nest on the top of a 
small stump in the center of the drowned land, and another curious situa- ' 
tion selected by a pair of birds was right on the top of a small bush in the 
centre of a field. About here three and four, more generally three, seem 
to be the usual number of eggs in a set; five I have never found and only 
once a set of two. They are fond of hawking over the marsh and I have 
seen them strike the water like a swallow on one or two occasions. 

43. Myiarchus crinitus (Linnajus). Crested Flycatcher. — Fairly 
common summer visitant; May 10 to Sept. 9. Average date of arrival 
(for two years) May 12; of departure (for two years) Sept. 5. Eggs: June 25 
to July 10. Previous to the spring of 1914, 1 had not observed this handsome 
flycatcher, but am glad to say that since then it has been fairly plentiful, 
although I have only been able to locate two nests, the one on the above 
date in July containing the remarkable small set of two eggs only. The 
nest was in an old woodpecker's hole and when found the female was on the 
nest, the eggs being somewhat well incubated. In addition to the usual 
materials this nest contained a large quantity of human hair combings, 
but no trace of snake skins could be found, which remark also applies to the 
other nest, which contained a set of five eggs, and was placed also in an old 
woodpecker's hole twelve feet up in a birch tree in the centre of a field. 

44. Sayornis phoebe (Latham). Phcebe. — Common summer visi- 
tant; April 13 to Oct. 13. Average date of arrival (for five years) April 
14; of departure (for four years) Sept. 28. Eggs: May 14 to June 26. 
Bridges not being very plentiful in this part of the country, the Phoebe has 
to content itself with the beams of outbuildings and ledges of verandas for 
nesting sites, and in the woods the sugar houses are made use of. At one 
farm house I counted over eight nests in close proximity to one another. 
This year (1915) a pair built on toy veranda and a set of eggs was laid by 
May 14. These I took at nightfall and substituted three addled Bluebird's 
eggs with a view of seeing what the Phoebe .would do when they failed to 
hatch out at the proper time. On these substitutes she sat steadily for the 
first fortnight, then began to leave the nest at intervals, but it was not 
until after June 16 that I noted a change, when both birds appeared to 
be taking building material again to the nest. Naturally I became very 
much interested but not wishing to disturb them, did not inspect the nest 
again until the 26th, when I found what perhaps has never before been 
described of this species, viz.: that it had raised the outside of the nest and 
had built over the offending blueliird's eggs, thus forming a two storied nest 
similar to a Yellow Warbler when she builds over a Cowbird's egg. At 
the date mentioned the Phoebe had laid a fresh set of four eggs, which 
hatched out on July 12, and the young birds left the nest on or about the 
29th. I have two sets in which spotted eggs occur. 

45. Myiochanes virens (Linnceus). Wood Pewee. — Fairly common 
summer visitant; May 25 to Sept. 16. Average date of arrival (for four 
years) May 29; of departure (for three years) Sept. 8. — This is one of the 
few summer visitants whose nest I have not yet succeeded in finding, but 

72 MoxJSLEY, Birds of Hatley, Que. [j "„ 

this perhaps is not so surprising when one considers how well it harmonizes 
with its natviral surroundings, and that the bird is by no means plentiful 
here, and seems to confine itself to the woods in preference to orchards and 
roadsides like the Kingbird and Least Flycatcher. 

46. Empidonax trailli alnorum (Brewster) . Alder Flycatcher. — 
Ck)mmon summer visitant; May 16 to Aug. 19. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) May 21; of departure (for three years) Aug. 17. Eggs: 
June 8 to July 17. It is only by nest hunting that one can gain any idea of 
the abundance or otherwise of this species, as the bu'd is most secretive and 
one rarely gets a good view of it in the open. It is fairly common here and 
I have had no difficulty in locating some five or six nests each season. A 
fuU set of eggs consists quite as often of thi-ee as four, but on one occasion 
I came across one of two only. In tliis case I had the nest under observa- 
tion from the first day it was started and only took the eggs after incubation 
had been in progress some few days. Dr. Coues is the only author that 
I have noticed so far who mentions the fact of this bird sometimes laying 
two eggs in a set only. 

47. Empidonax minimus (W. M. & S. F. Baird). Least Fly- 
catcher. — Common summer visitant; May 9 to Aug. 20. Average date 
of arrival (for four years) May 13; of departure (for three years) Aug. 17. 
Eggs: June 1 to July 19. Most orchards contain their pair of " Chebecs," 
and one adjoining my house has been the home of a pair for the past four 
years. Only on one occasion have I found the birds nesting in the woods, 
and then it was a small one, and not far from a house. The late date of 
July 19 is for a second set of eggs, the first having been destroyed. In this 
case the bird built her second nest not only in the same tree, but in the 
very same fork as the first one had been placed in, surely a most unusual 

48. Otocoris alpestris praticola (Henshaw). Prairie Horned 
Lark. — ^ Fairly common summer visitant; March 7 to June 22. Average 
date of arrival (for four years) March 15. Eggs: April 14 to 23. It was 
not until April of the present year (1915) that I discovered this interest- 
ing species breeding here, four nests being located during the month. So 
many new facts were noticed with regard to its nesting habits that I have 
written a special article (which will appear in this Journal) dealing fully 
with the subject, and showing a nest with " paving ", a trait which hitherto 
I believe has onlj^ been noted with regard to the Desert Horned species. 
Contrary to the generally accepted idea that it never perches in trees, I have 
seen it do so on many occasions, but this has been dealt with also in the 
aforesaid article. Of the fom- nests located all were warmly lined with the 
flower heads and plant down of the pearly everlasting (Annphalis marga- 
ritacea) a plant which is most abundant here. Three contained a set of 
four eggs each and the remaining one thi'ee young birds, this latter nest 
being in a very damp situation, and the paving consisting of very small 
flat stones instead of cow-chips as in the others, which were all in dry 

^°'"l9i^"^] MousLEY, Birds of Hatleij, Que. 73 

49. Pica pica hudsonia (Sabine). Magpie. — Very rare accidental 
transient; Oct. 17. Well acquainted with the Magpie in England I was 
pleased to make its unexpected acquaintance again on the above date of 
the present year (1915), when a pair passed in front of me and flew right 
across the marsh, thus giving me a long uninterrupted view of them. In 
an interesting letter received from Mr. Taverner he says " I understand 
that many years ago some European Magpies were liberated at Levis 
opposite Quebec, and I have always surmised that these scattered records 
(of which we have a fair number in this end of the Dominion well supported 
by everything but specimens) are the progeny of these bu-ds." Unfortu- 
nately the above date was a Sunday and consequently I had no gun with 
me as usual, otherwise I should certainly have shot an example, which 
might have solved this most interesting question, although the European 
bird is hardly to be distinguished from the American subspecies. 

50. Cyanocitta cristata cristata (Linnajus). Blue Jay. — ^ Common, 
resident; rare in summer, common in spring and fall, less so in winters 
Eggs: May 24. Evidently the Blue Jay betakes itself to very secluded 
spots during the breeding season, as I have only succeeded so far in finding 
one nest, in May of the present year (1915), and had never seen the bird 
before during the months of June, July and August. It is most abundant 
in the spring and fall, becoming scarcer during the winter months. The 
above nest was placed thirteen feet up in a small fir tree on the borders of a 
swampy wood, and consisted outwardly of twigs and rootlets, fined with 
fine black rootlets only, and contained four eggs. 

51. Perisoreus canadensis canadensis (Linnajus). Canada Jay. — 
Rare transient; Oct. 21. There is no doubt about the Canada Jay being 
a rare bird in this district, the only example I have seen in five years is that 
of a bird shot on the morning of the above date in the present year (1915), 
and shown to me in the flesh the same evening. 

52. Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos (Brehm). Crow. — 
Abundant summer visitant; March 10 to Nov. 15. Average date of arrival 
(for five years) March 9; of departure (for three years) Nov. 8. Eggs:- 
April 23 to May 14. In this district the favourite nesting site is usually at 
the top of some thick fir tree, where the nest is well hidden from view. 
Apparently there is some large roost to the northeast of Hatley, as large 
flocks of the birds can be seen every evening during the fall wending their 
way there for the night. I have seen a crow descend on a hen coop, seize 
a young chick which was outside and fly off with it in its claws. 

(7^0 be concluded.) 

74 TowNSEND, New Race of Hudsonian Chickadee. 




Penthestes hudsonicus nigricans, subsp. nov. 

Siibsp. Char. — Midway in size between Penthestes hudsonicus hudsonicus 
and P. hudsonicus littoralis, bill as short as that of littoralis and as thick as 
hudsonicus. Darker than.either on back and sides and much less brown. 

Type. — No. 1420, coll. C. W. T. cf ad. Shekatika, head of inlet 
Saguenay County, Quebec, Canadian Labrador, July 23, 1915; collected 
by C. W. Townsend.i 

Range. — So far as known, forested region of Labrador Peninsula. 

Description of adult. Sexes alike. Crown, nape and back mouse-gray 
slightly tinged with hair brown; wings and tail dull slate-color; throat 
black, car coverts, sides of neck, breast and belly white; sides brownish 

Measurements cT (type) wing 66, tail 64, tarsus 15, bill, culmen, 8.5, 
depth at base 4.5. 

9 wing 62, tail 62, tarsus 14, bill, culmen, 8, depth at base 5. 

Remarks. The short, stout bill and dark back almost devoid of 
brown tint as well as the absence of a strong brown tint on the sides 
make this a well marked subspecies. In its dark sooty tendency it 
resembles other birds of the forested regions of the Labrador 
Peninsula such as the Labrador Horned Owl and the Labrador Ja^'. 
This region abounds in water in the bogs, lakes and rivers and its 
climate in summer is humid. A number of other birds of this 
region appear to have a tendency to darkness in plumage, e. g. 
Red-tailed Hawk, Flicker, Night Hawk and Water-Thrush. 

It is probable that the Hudsonian Chickadees of the treeless or 
scrub Arctic arid Subarctic area in Ungava Labrador and New- 
foundland Labrador are P. hudsonicus hudsonicus. Specimens 
from Lance au Loup taken in May belong to this latter form. 
The Ungava form described by Rhoads in 1893 (Auk, X, 1893, 
p. 328) has the brown coloration of hudsonicus. I am greatly 
indebted to Mr. Outram Bangs for his assistance in preparing this 

1 1 have since given the type specimen to the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Cambridge, Mass., and it now bears the number 69431. 

^"S™""] G^^neral Notes. 75 


An Accomplishment of the Red-throated Loon. — While on the 
southern end of Puget Sound in November and December, 1914, and 
particularly on Oyster Bay, Wasliington, the writer had opportunity of 
making observations on the Red-thi'oated Loon {Gavia siellata). This 
small Loon is noticeably handier on the wing than G. imber, but differs 
especially from that species in its ability to get under way from a position 
in the water. When the waves are rolling it must splatter through the 
crests of a number of them before it gets clear, but from still water the Red- 
throated Loon can spring into the au" and proceed directly into normal 
flight, an accomplishment in striking contrast to the limitations tradition 
ascribes to powers of flight in the Loon kind. — W. L. McAtee, WasJdngton, 
D. C. 

The Long-tailed Jaeger in Indiana. — While collecting along the beach 
east of Millers, Indiana (near Dune Park), Sept. 21, 1915, I shot an adult 
male Long-tailed Jaeger {Stercorarius longicaudus) . The bird was on the 
beach in the vicinity of a small flock of Ring-billed and Herring Gulls. 
The Gulls arose out of gunshot and flew out over the lake, but the Jaeger 
circled around inland as if unwilling to leave the locality, and on concealing 
myself, he soon returned and was secured. This is, I believe, the first 
record for this species from Indiana, and I have been unable to find any 
previous records from Lake Michigan. The specimen is in the collection 
of the Field Museum. — H. L. Stoddard, A^. W. Harris Public School 
Extension of Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, HI. 

Notes on Hybrid Ducks from Long Point, Ontario. — Among a 

number of ducks recently shot at Long Point, Ontario, was an interesting 
hybrid between Anas rubripes and A. platyrhynchos. It was an immature 
male, and every character which normally distinguishes the two species was 
about evenly merged in this bird. It was large, weighing three and a quarter 
pounds, and was the second hybrid of the same parentage to have been 
taken on these grounds. The first was a more mature bird, taken about 
1912 (now mounted at the Long Point Club) showing vermiculation in 
the plumage, which the younger specimen lacks. 

A fine adult male European Widgeon was taken here on October 12, 1914, 
and is also in the club collection. — Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ithaca, N'. Y. 

Early European Widgeon on Long Island. — On Sept. 12, 1915, 
a European Widgeon {Marcca pendopc) was observed by the writers on 
Moriches Bay under the beach meadows at Mastic, Long Island, with 
three American Widgeon {M. americana). It was examined carefully 
through binoculars in sr.fficiently good light to make out its gray dark- 

76 General Notes. [jan. 

tipped bill. The head was chestnut, the sides of the breast cinnamon, and 
as it flew the white in the wing was of course conspicuous. It was probably 
an eclipse male. This is a very early, so far as we know, the earliest 
recorded date for this rare duck. Strangely enough on Sept. 12, 1914, 
at almost exactly the same spot, a reddish headed bird was observed by the 
senior writer among about fifty American Widgeon, which were associated 
with a large flock of Black Duck. This 1914 bird was, however, not 
satisfactorily determined. — J. T. Nichols and Ludlow Griscom, New 
York City. 

A Record of the Golden Plover {Charadrius dominicus dominicus) in 
the State of Washington. — This interesting species has never before, 
to my knowledge, been recorded as occurring in the State of Washington. 
It gives me pleasure, therefore, to announce the capture of an adult female 
at Dungeness, Clallum County, Washington. This bird was taken on 
Nov. 14, 1915, by Mr. F. P. Mclntyi-e, of Tacoma, Wash., who very 
kindly presented it to me and the skin is now in my collection. Mr. 
Mclntyre informs me that he saw about a dozen other plover resembling 
this one, but that he shot no more. It is possible that these, also, might 
have been dominicus, but the Black-bellied Plover {Squatarola squatarola) 
is a common visitor to Washington, so I think there is an equal possibility 
that the other birds seen might have belonged to that species. 

Since obtaining the above mentioned specimen Mr. D. E. Brown, of 
Seattle, Wash., told me of a specimen of C. d. dominicus that was taken 
near there several years ago, but which I think was never recorded. Mr. 
Brown also saw what, owing to the great amount of yellow on the upper 
parts, he feels positive was another of this species a year or two ago on the 
Tacoma Flats. This was in the late spring and the bird was in full breed- 
ing plumage. Needless to say that Mr. Brown is well acquainted with 
S. squatarola in all plumages. 

It seems very possible that certain of our shore birds are much more 
numerous as migrants in Washington than is generally believed. The 
Knot {Tringa canutus), for example, is given in the A. O. U. Check-List 
as rare on the Pacific coast. It is therefore, interesting to note that on 
May 11, 1913, Mr. Ray Gamble, of Tacoma, Wash., saw them in hundreds 
at Willapa Harbor, Wash. Mr. Gamble brought back quite a sufficient 
number to prove the truth of his report. In the spring of 1914, Mr. D. E. 
Brown found the Knots to be by no means rare. 

Another species that has almost invariably reported as rare " on the 
Pacific coast south of British Columbia, except in Lower California " is the 
Pectoral Sandpiper {Pisobia maculata). I consider this species to be prob- 
ably a regular fall migrant in the vicinity of Tacoma, Wash. Some years 
it is common, twenty or more being seen on a morning walk on the Tacoma 

The same thing may be said of the Yellow-legs (Totanus flanpes), which 
is usually recorded as rare on the Pacific coast of the United States. This 

Vol. XXXIIIj g^^^^^i ^^^^^ 77 

species is at times a common fall visitor, Mr. D. E. Brown seeing a flock of 
forty-eight on Aug. 16, 1913. The earliest arrival of which I have a 
record is one that I collected on July 25, 1913. 

The study of the LimicoloE has been sadly neglected in the State of 
Washington, partly because of adverse laws. It may be for this reason 
that literature on the subject is occasionally in error, but it also seems 
possible to me that the shore birds may have to some extent changed their 
route of migration. — J. H. Bowles, Tacoma, Wash. 

Barn Owl in Massachusetts. — On Oct. 21, 1915, a fine full plum- 
aged male Barn Owl {Aluco pratincola) was taken in a trap on my place 
at Wenham, Mass. — John C. Phillips, Wenham, Mass. 

Display of the Purple Finch. — On May 20, while at the path between 
the Flume House and the Flume, Crawford Notch, White Mts., N. H., I 
watched an interesting display of a male Purple Finch. There were two 
pairs of these bu'ds. Close by me were two males and a female feeding on 
the ground, and perhaps twenty-five yards away a single female, also 
hopping about on the ground. Very suddenly one of the males jumped 
up and after a short rapid flight lit about six inches from the lone female, 
and stood bolt upright, and facing her with extended wings. He then 
began to vibrate his wings rapidly, but kept them extended all the while. 
The motion was so fast that the wings were blurred to the eye. I have 
seen a cock silver pheasant display in a somewhat similar way, sitting on a 
perch, only the vibration of the wings did not extend over so wide an arc. 

The male finch kept this up for ten seconds, with perhaps only one or two 
brief intervals of arrested motion. Then the second male bird charged 
him and put him to flight. Evidently it was a case of trespass. — John C. 
Phillips, Wenham, Mass. / 

Late Nesting of the Montana Junco. — On Sept. 1, 1912, while 
working on the western slope of the Teton Mountains of western Wyoming, 
I found the nest of a Junco, apparently belonging to the above species. 
The nest was on the ground among flowers and grass in a straggling gi-ove 
of spruce trees and at an elevation of 9700 feet above sea. It contained 
four newly hatched young birds. As this level is only 200 feet below the 
average elevation of timber-line for the range, winter sets in much earUer 
than in the valleys of the same region. In that particular year a soft snow 
feU on the night of September 1 to a depth of over three inches, and at 
the end of twenty-four hours some of it was still left. Another snow- 
storm followed about five days later. I did not see the nest after the 
snow, but under such unfavorable circuinstances it seems unlikely that the 
pair of Juncos was able to rear its brood to maturity. No doubt this was a 
case of abnormally late nesting, probably to be explained by some accident 
that prevented the birds from rearing broods that they may have had 
•earlier in the summer. — ■ Eliot B.lackwelder, Madison, Wis. 

78 General Notes. [jan. 

Philadelphia Vireo (Vireosylva Philadelphia) in Massachusetts in 
Autumn. — On Sept. 5, 1915, I shot a young male Philadelphia Vireo in 
Harvard, Mass. The specimen is now in my collection (No. 551). 

I am indebted to Mr. Outram Bangs of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology for verifying my identification. — James I>. Peters, Harvard, 

Additional Autumn Records for the Tennessee Warbler {Vermi- 
vora peregrina) in Massachusetts. — I have previously had occasion to 
record (Auk, Vol. XXXI, No. 1, p. 103), the occurrence of the Tennessee 
Warbler in Harvard, Mass., during the autumn migration. I now wish to 
add the following additional instances of its occurrence in this town since 
my last note was published. 

Sept. 25, 1913, a young male shot (coll. J. L. P. No. 415). 

Sept. 11, 1915, an adult male shot (coll. J. L. P. No. 565). 

Sept. 23, 1915, an adult male shot (coll. J. L. P. No. 595). 

Sept. 30, 1915, one seen. 

The lack of records for 1914 is accounted for by the fact that 1 was out 
of the State thi-oughout the autumn. I have no doubt that the species 
occurs sparingly with us every autumn. — James L. Peters, Harvard, 

Orange-crowned Warbler {Vermivora celata celaia) in North Carolina. 

— On Jan. 3, 1915, we discovered an Orange-crowned Warbler in some 
live oaks on Monkey Island, Cmrituck Sound. The bird was collected 
and proved to be a female. It is now in the collection of the American 
Museum of Natural History, catalogue No. 123,791. 

Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson informs us that this is the third record for the 
State. The species is rare in winter as far north as Charleston, S. C. — 
J. T. Nichols and Ludlow Griscom, New York City. 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher at Groton, Mass. — On Nov. 19, 1915, a 
female or immature Blue-gray Gnatcatcher {Polioptila c. coerulea) was 
found dead on HoUis St., in Groton, Mass., by Master Robert F. Cressey, 
seven years of age, a member of the local bird club. The specimen is now 
being mounted for the collection of the Museum Society at Groton School. — 
William P. Wharton, Groton, Mass. 

Notation of Bird Songs and Notes. — I think the importance of this 
difficult subject justifies patient and kindly effort long continued in suggest- 
ing methods and improvements until we approach perfection as nearly as 

The common five-line music staff is good for pitch and rhythm; but it 
seems to me unnecessary to indicate the exact pitch of bird notes since they 
var}' to a great extent. Besides, the notes and songs of a number of indi- 
viduals of a given species differ so much that a music-staff notation of one 
or two birds of most species would present but a small portion of the re- 

^°'i™"^] General Notes. 79 

pertoire of the whole species. We might give, for instance, staff representa- 
tions of twenty, or even fifty in some cases, of different Song Sparrows, and 
yet these would match but few of the next twenty or fifty. Most song- 
birds, too, have different songs and notes in autumn, mostly altered frag- 
ments of their regular spring songs. And yet again, birds of the same 
species vary in different parts of the country. For examples: The Oven- 
bird in New York says teacher, teacher, teacher, while in the Potomac region 
he never says anything like it, but instead, tsit, tsit, tsit, loud and sharp. 
The Towhee in the vicinity of Washington, D. C, sings — tr/1-1-1-1-1, the 
higher part with a charming metallic trill, while in the middle west his song 
is — tr/te-te-te-te-te, neither metalhc nor trilled. The eastern Meadow- 
lark in western Illinois in spring scarcely ever sings his characteristic tin- 
whistle song, but generally, while perched upon a fence-post, utters his 
ground buzzing, castanet rattle with up-and-down variations, prolonged 
to the full length of a Song Sparrow's performance in May. 

Practically I often identify a bird more by the quality ctf style, or both, 
of its utterance than by the number and succession of its notes ; and these, 
the quality and style, can only with difficulty be denoted on the five-line 
staff. These characteristics are generally described at length in the ac- 
companying text. Perhaps this is the best that can be done. Of course, 
a system of sj'mbols can easily be devised to be Avritten under each note in 
the staff, but they would be so numerous that the learner would have to 
practice upon them a long time in order to be able to read them rapidly. 

In my own field practice I use the system already illustrated above, with 
about twenty s>Tnbols underneath to indicate timbre, tin-whistle or fife 
tone, chip, chirp, chatter, trill, warble, squeal, squall, aspirated or wheezy 
character, etc. 

The greatest difficulty imitators encounter in representing upon paper 
the songs and notes of birds is the fact that surprisingly few persons — 
only one in a hundi-ed or a thousand, perhaps — could understand fully 
even the most perfect system of notation that could be devised. Phoneti- 
cians, even those of the highest order, such as are employed in the compila- 
tion of om- standard dictionaries and schoolbooks, often fail to understand 
one another clearly; and but few people, one in a hundi-ed or more, perhaps, 
are musicians far enough advanced to be able to perceive clearly what 
would be meant by some of the characters that would have to be employed, 
even when explained at length. 

An elocutionist and phonetician in Chicago once showed me a very 
elaborate chart which he had compiled of all the phonic elements in the 
Enghsh language, that he was about to pubhsh as " the greatest thing out." 
My glance at it was so short that I read but one item, and that was, that 
long a as in fate was diphthongal. I asked him whether a was diphthongal 
or a compound in the word chaos. That tlii-ew him into a spasm of cogita- 
tion, from which he had not recovered when I last heard from him ! Some 
people imagine they pronounce the r in harder when in fact they say hodda. 
In Hstening to some EngUshmen we vaguely think they pronounce the 

80 General Notes. [f^'^_ 

words more, door, you, your, yours, etc., about right when in fact thej^ say 
maw, daw, yaw, yaw, yaws, etc. 

This most discouraging fact prevents us all from making any attempt at 
the compilation of a text-book of bird songs for popular use; and there are 
not phoneticians, musicians and elocutionists enough among bird students 
to justify the publication of a work of that kind. 

Therefore, so far as I can see now, the best way for all bird students to 
learn bird songs, besides identifying the birds themselves, is to visit the 
wilds in company with experts. This, of course, " knocks out " the idea 
of notation, except so far as one may devise a scheme for his own private 
use.- — EwiNG Summers, Washington, D. C. 

The Tsrpe Locality of Brachyramphus craverii. — The Island of Na- 
tividad, off the west coast of Lower California, has been considered as 
the type locality of Brachyramphus craverii. The species was originally 
described by Salvadori as coming from this island, and in his original 
description he refers to the account that Craveri has left of his visit to the 
Island in 1865. He speaks of it as a low island where were groups of 
Cormorants looking in the distance like platoons of soldiers. He says that 
the soil of this island was sandy, and that all of the island not occupied by 
the Cormorants was excavated by the Murrelets for their nests. 

Anthony visited this island of Natividad in 1900, and found the Cormo- 
rants there, as described by Craveri, and found the gi-ound honeycombed, 
but these burrows all belonged to the Black-vented Shearwater (Puffinus 
o-pisthomelas) , but not a single Mm-relet of any species was found on the 
Island, nor has any one ever found Brachyramphus craverii anywhere along 
the western coast of Lower Cahfornia. 

Craveri gives the latitude as 27° 50' 12" N., which is not at all the lati- 
tude of Natividad Island, but is exactly the latitude of Isla Raza in the 
Gulf of Cahfornia, and it seems probable that this latter island is really the 
place from which the type specimen of Brachyramphus craverii was ob- 

Craveri was seeking for guano, and Isla Raza is a guano island, while 
Natividad Island does not furnish any of this product. Salvadori speaks 
particularly of Craveri having found the Murrelet nesting under the rocks, 
which is exactly what Brachyramphus craverii does at the present time on 
Isla Raza. Salvadori speaks twice of the type specimen of his bird as hav- 
ing come from the Gulf of California. 

From the above facts it seems probably that there has been a mistake 
in the type locality of Brachyramphus craverii. It is probable that Craveri 
visited both Natividad Island and Isla Raza, and that Salvadori has made 
a mistake as to which of these islands was the one on which Craveri obtained 
the type of his Murrelet, and that Isla Raza is the real type locality of 
Brachyramphus craverii. — ■ Wells W. Cooke, Biological Survey, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

V°'- 1^^6^"^] General Notes. 81 

Eye Shine in Birds.— In a recent interesting and valuable article on 
" Nature's Transformations at Panama " (National Geographic Magazine, 
August, 1915, p. 176) Shiras called attention to, and gives his observa- 
tions in studying, the glow seen at night in the eyes of various animals 
when they are facing a bright light. 

The present writer is pleased to contribute to the literature of this sub- 
ject an observation of iiis own. Not long ago, while motoring at night 
through a particularly dark canyon, I noticed far ahead in the illuminated 
road, two small glowing pink spots, which were extinguished when a bird 
flew from the road on the near approach of the car. The bird alighted 
again, some distance ahead in the road, when the pink points reappeared, 
and were identified as the bird's eyes; it was shot, and proved to be a 
Nuttall's Poorwill. This observation fits in well with those of Shii'as who 
recorded this eye shine in Nighthawks. 

It is well here to interject the question as to whether this glow in birds' 
eyes does come from a true tapetum lucidum, as is implied (or stated) by 
Shiras, inasmuch as Casey Wood (a highly qualified authority on compara- 
tive ophthalmology) says " The tapetum is absent in birds, although the 
Ostrich has a glass-like layer in the choroid of lamellated structure capable 
of reflecting light. This arrangement, however, is only a retino-choroidal 
variation, and not a true tapetum " (Am. Encyclop. Ophthalmology, Vol. 
IV, p. 2653). 

The present writer has no desire to split hairs, but merely wishes to call 
attention to a point (one amongst hundreds) awaiting decision. It may 
be that no bii-d has a true tapetum, or if Caprimulgine birds have not yet 
been examined for this structxxre, it is equally possible that birds of this 
type do have a true tapetum; all this reminds one that there is plenty of 
material still left for original research, or to be used in corroborating or 
disproving earUer work. — W. H. Bergtold, Denver, Colo. 

Weight and Contents of Birds' Eggs.^The following data have been 
collected during the past two years and are here presented as there seems to 
be but little recorded information on the subject. The eggs were weighed 
before and soon after blowing (when thoroughly di-y). The latter weight 
of course, represents the weight of the shell and the difference between the 
two, the weight of the contents. The contents are also given in cubic 
centimeters. In some cases the actual contents were measured, in others 
the shell was filled with water and the water measured. With proper 
instruments it would be possible to determine the specific gravity of the 
contents of the egg. It would be interesting to learn if this would show any 
relation between eggs of species of the same family or order. 

Only averages are given below for each set or series of eggs. 


General Notes. 



e Weight 





Loon (4 eggs) 


)0z. 5 dr. Iscr. 4 dr 

3scr. Ogr. 


Common Tern 

(set of 3) 







(set of 3) 







(set of 3) 






(set of 3) 







(set of 3) 

1. 2. 






Night Heron 

(set of 3) 

1. 1. 







1. 2. 







1. 1. 






Belted Kingfisher 

(set of 3) 







(set of 4) 






(set of 5) 





Chipping Sparrow (set of 4) 





(set of 4) 





Song Sparrow 

(set of 5) 





(set of 5) 





(set of 4) 





English Sparrow 

(set of 4) 





(set of 4) 





(set of 5) 





(set of 5) 





Barn Swallow 

(set of 5) 





(set of 4) 





Bank Swallow 

(set of 5) 
(set of 4) 




(set of 5) 




(set of 6) 



Tree Swallow 

(set of 4) 





CUff SwaUow 

(set of 3) 





Red-eyed Vireo 

(set of 3) 





(set of 4) 






(set of 4) 





Yellow Warbler 

(set of 4) 





(set of 5) 






(set of 4) 





(set of 4) 






(set of 4) 










(set of 4) 






(set of 4) 





— Lt. G. Ralph Meyer, Fort McKinley, Me. 

'^^''iQi?'""^] Recent Literature. 83 


Watson and Lashley on Homing and Related Activities of Birds.' 

— In 1907, Dr. J. B. Watson made some investigations on the homing of 
Noddy and Sooty Terns at Bu-d Key, Tortugas, Florida, which were 
pubUshed as ' PubUcation 103 ' of the Carnegie Institution of Washington^ 
and formed probably the most noteworthy contribution to the subject of 
bird migration that has appeared in recent years. He demonstrated among, 
other things that two incubating Sooty Terns taken from their nests on. 
Bird Key and liberated off Cape Hatteras returned to their nests in five 
days covering a distance (by water) of approximately 1081 statute miles, 
most of it over areas where Sooty Terns do not normally occur and where 
these birds had had no previous experience. 

The present publication describes the continuation of this investigation, 
carried on during 1910, 1912 and 1913. In order to meet a possible ex- 
planation of the Hatteras flight on the ground that the birds followed the 
coast hne southward, experiments were made by Uberating birds at Gal- 
veston and at various intermediate stations in the open waters of the Gulf 
of Mexico. From all of these trials birds retm'ned safely to their nests. 
This disposed entirely of the coasting theory. A fm-ther suggestion has 
however been offered that the birds followed a well-marked water-current 
which sweeps across the gulf from Texas to Tortugas and which differs in 
color from the surrounding water. This is also disposed of by the fact 
that a number of the returning birds were liberated at night and passed 
through rain, haze and cloudy weather when the difference in the water 
would not be noticeable — if indeed it is at any time, from the position of 
the flying birds. 

Therefore as Dr. Watson says the fact has now been established that 
Noddy and Sooty Terns can return, from distances up to 1000 7niles in the 
absence of all landmarks. This materially simplifies the problem of homing 
and what we now need is experimental work of a definite kind to determine 
the sensory mechanism by means of which the birds accomplish their 
return flights. 

This present paper contains valuable preUminary contributions along 
these lines. Mr. Lashley gives an account of his studies of the nesting 
activities of the terns in which he proves that orientation in the neighbor- 
hood of the nesting place — i. e. return to nest, or young, or mate ^ is 
based largely upon visual habits, placing these activities in a different 
category from distant orientation. 

' Homing amd Related Activities of Birds. By J. B. Watson and K. S. Lasliley. 
The Acquisition of Skill in Archery. By K. S. Lashley. Papers from the Depart- 
ment of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institute of Washington. Alfred G. 
Mayer, Director. Volume VII. Publication No. 211. [Distributed July, 1915. t 
pp. 1-128 

84 Recent Literature. [j^'q 

Further proof against the ability of the birds' sight being sensitive to 
objects far distant is given in the mathematical fact that the curvature of 
the earth would necessitate a bird ascending nearly a mile in the air to 
reach rays from a lighthouse 150 feet high and 100 miles distant, granting 
the absence of haze which is almost always present. 

It has moreover, been proven that vision in the chick is much less 
acute than in man and Dr. Watson shows that neither the chick nor the 
pigeon are sensitive to infra-luminous rays. 

In the terns he also proves that there is no special tactual or olfactory 
mechanism in the nasal cavity which could aid homing. The facts pre- 
sented are admittedly negative but Dr. Watson says, " the task of explain- 
ing distant orientation is an experimental one, which must yield positive 
results as soon as proper methods are at hand." While the difficulty of 
explaining it by current theories is admittedly great he does not suggest 
" the assumption of some new and mysterious sense." 

He suggests work on the sensory equipment of homing pigeons saying 
that "it is just possible that these animals possess on certain parts of the 
body (eyelids, ear covering, oral cavity, etc.), sensitive tactual and thermal 
mechanisms which may assist them in reacting to slight differences in 
pressure, temperatm-e, and humidity of air columns." 

This contribution contains also a review of the various theories that have 
been advanced to explain homing, as well as a wealth of detailed investiga- 
tion that cannot be dealt with here. Much reliable information with 
regard to homing pigeons and their flights gathered from practical fliers is 
likewise presented — data which have been in much demand. Ornitho- 
logists would do well to read the paper in its entirety as it is a good ex- 
ample of the methods of the student of behavior in eliminating complicating 
factors and avoiding the unwarranted conclusions into which the untrained 
investigator rushes blindly. While the ' mystery of mysteries ' still re- 
mains unsolved, Dr. Watson has made great advances in showing us what 
factors are not involved in its explanation, and in disposing of a host of 
theories which tended only to obscm-e the problem, thus leaving it clearly 
defined for future investigators. — W. S. 

Thorburn's ' British Birds.' ^ — It might be supposed that there was 
not room for another work on a subject that has received as much attention 
as the birds of Great Britain; but anyone who examines Mr. Thorbm-n's 
work, even casually, will we think concede that he has proved the error of 
this assumption. 

With the wealth of data which is available any competent writer may 

1 British Birds | written and illustrated by | A. Thorburn, P. Z. S. | with eighty 
plates in colour, showing over 1 four hundred species | In foiu" volumes | Vol. 1 | 
Longmans, Green and Co. | 39 Paternoster Row, London | P'ourth Avenue & 
30th Street, New York i Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras | 1915. Large 4°. pp. 
i-viii + 1-143, pis. 1-20. $40 for the set of four volumes, or payable on delivery 
at $10 each. No volumes sold separately. 

^°'m6^"'] Recent Literalure. 85 

compile a good history of the birds of the British Isles, many are also able 
to write entertainingly of their habits, while others can produce creditable 
pictures of the various species. 

No matter how many works may have been produced along these lines, 
however, there is always room for such a series of portraits as Mr. Thorburn 
has given us. Only an artist of great talent and one thoroughly acquainted 
with his subjects could paint such bird pictures as these. 

We are told in the preface that the majority of the figures are based upon 
life studies which the artist has been making for many years past, but it is 
not the beauty and accuracy of the individual figures alone that attract us. 
While it was necessary, as in most such works, to represent a number of 
species on each plate, the figures in Mr. Thorburn's plates are strikingly 
in harmony; a judicious arrangement of the several backgrounds, and the 
introduction of a spray of blossoms to emphasize a desired contrast make 
each plate a work of art in itself, not simply a collection of several small 
paintings on one page. And yet where birds of quite different habits are 
represented on one plate the characteristic surroundings of each are well 
maintained. It is we think this note of harmony in every plate, 
and the masterly handling of the backgrounds which emphasize the beauty 
of the bird portraits and give the charm to these paintings of Mr. 

The plates are printed on cardboard with a neutral gray background 
which brings out the white portions of the birds' plumage with striking 
brilliancy. Both of these features help to make the plates unique among 
bird illustrations. 

We have spoken only of the plates and indeed the author says that his 
first intention was that the book should be " simply a sketch book of Brit- 
ish Birds." He was later induced, however, to add a short letterpress 
with descriptions of the species and notes on their distribution, nests, eggs, 
food, songs, etc. While this is admittedly largely a compilation from the 
leading authorities on British birds it is a very satisfactory accompaniment 
to the beautiful plates, presenting clearly and concisely the facts that the 
general reader will desire. The publishers have done their part well, the 
printing of the " three-color half-tone " plates being remarkably well done. 

Mr. Thorburn's work will appeal to a host of people beyond the ranks 
of the ornithologists or even of nature students in general, for plates such 
as he has produced attract the attention and admiration of lovers both of 
art and of beautiful books. 

Volume I covers all of the Passerine species except the Larks and part 
of the Corvidae, Volume II i treats of these as well as the Picarian families, 
Birds of Prey, Steganopodes and Herons. The work will be completed in 
four volumes, the remaining two being promised in the spring and autumn 
of 1916.— W. S. 

J pp. 1-72, pi. 21-40. 

86 Recent Literature. [jan. 

Grinnell's Distributional List of the Birds of California. ^ — This 
is Dr. Grinnell's third list of CaUfornia birds, the first appearing as ' Pacific 
Coast Avifauna No. 3,' in 1902; and the second, a mere nominal list of 
species, as 'Avifauna No. 8/ in 1912. These contained respectively 491 
and 530 species and subspecies while the present list totals 541. 

The plan of this work is practically that of the 1902 list with the addition 
of many definite records and references covering the extremes of range or 
other critical occm-rences. In the case of rare species references to all the 
records are given. 

As the list is solely distributional in character no data regarding migra- 
tion, extent of breeding season, etc., are included. Synonyms used in 
works on California birds are given as in the earlier list and these are 
included in the index so that any of the old records may readily be referred 
to the currently recognized form. The thi'ee maps are a valuable aid in 
understanding the details of distribution given under each species and 
subspecies and a chapter on ' Distributional Areas ' gives Dr. Grinnell's 
latest views on a subject upon which he is the recognized authority. 

The classification is that of the A. O. U. Check-List, which was also 
followed in the 1902 list, but not in that of 1912, the author agreeing with 
the A. O. U. Committee that the benefits of uniformity in sequence with 
the great bulk of American ornithological literature outweighed the ad- 
vantages of being more ' up to date ' with a classification which itself is 
admittedly only temporary. Sequence of species and subspecies and 
nomenclature are nearly those of the A. O. U. Check-List differing in the 
rank accorded certain forms and in the relationship of subspecies. Species 
and subspecies are printed in the same type and numbered consecutively 
with no binomial headings for groups of subspecies and no headings for 
generic or higher groups, as the list, being distributional, only does not 
concern itself with details of classification or nomenclature. 

Some forty races not admitted or not yet considered by the A. O. U. 
Committee are recognized by Dr. Grinnell while Melospiza melodia 
morphna, Aphelocoma californica obscura and Falco sparverius phalcena 
which appear in the A. O. U. Check-List are rejected. 

We notice that the recognition of extralimital races in the case of several 
groups leads to the doubling of the specific name as Ochthodromas ivilson- 
ianus wilsonianus but this is not done in the case of Passer domesticus where 
several extralimital races are generally admitted. The A. O. U. Committee 
committed this same error (cf. Auk, 1913, p. ) and doubtless Dr. Grinnell 
followed their example as he apparently did in writing 'Aditis macularius ' 

1 A Distributional List of the Birds of California. By Joseph Grinnell. Con- 
tribution from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California. 
Cooper Ornithological Club. Pacific Coast Avifauna. Number 11. Hollywood, 
California. Published by the Club, October 21, 1915. pp. 1-217, pi. I-III 

^"^igie^"*] Recent Literature. 87 

erroneously so published in the ' Pocket Edition ' of the Check-List, al- 
though it appears correctly ' macularia ' in the regular edition. 

Dr. Grinnell's work closes with a ' Hypothetical List ' of 61 species 
erroneously accredited to California or recorded upon evidence which he 
is unable to accept as conclusive. 

Altogether this hst is admirably prepared and gives us the status of the 
Californian avifauna up to date by one whose opinion upon this subject is 
accepted as authoritative, although there may be differences of opinion 
as to the number of geographic races that it is desirable to recognize even 
in so diversified a State as California. 

There may be expressions of regret at the absence of data on migration, 
nidification and taxonomy, but the author has explained in the introduc- 
tion that the Ust is solely distributional and he has consistently adhered 
to his plan. — • W. S. 

Wood on the Eyelids of Birds. ^ — -Dr. Wood here presents the re- 
sults of investigations made in conjunction with Prof. Slonaker in the phy- 
siological laboratories of Stanford University, largely upon the eye of the 
English Sparrow, although various other species were also examined. He 
considers in great detail the muscular structure of the eyelids and the 
method of lachrymal di'ainage. Not only is the activity of the lids re- 
versed from what we find in the mammals, the lower not the upper one 
being movable, but the whole method of closing is different. The Ostrich, 
Seriema and certain birds of prey have filoplumous feathers which serve 
the purpose of eyelashes in mammals and closely resemble them. The 
Sparrow's eyelashes, however, do not apparently offer any protection to 
the eye while the Parrots have no trace of eyelashes. 

Dr. Wood's paper is a careful piece of technical work, and similar studies 
in the anatomy of other avian organs would be welcome.^ 

The confusion that may arise when the technicalities of two branches 
of science are brought together is curiously illustrated in Dr. Wood's 
treatise. He constantly makes use of the word ' tarsus ' familiar to 
ophthalmologists as indicating a plate of condensed connective tissue on 
the edge of the eyelid, but when he addresses ornithologists who know the 
tarsus only as the usually exposed portion of the bird's foot above the toes, 
this term is somewhat confusing ! — W. S. 

Cooke on the Distribution and Migration of North American 
Gulls. ^ — - In this pamphlet Prof. Cooke treats the Laridae in the same 

1 The Eyelids and Lachrymal Apparatus of Bu*ds (reprinted from Ophthal- 
mology, July, 1915). By Casey A. Wood, M. D. Repaged 1-18. 

2 cf. p. 84, antea. 

' Distribution and Migration of North American Gulls and their Allies. By 
Wells W. Cooke. Bull. No. 292, U. S Dept. of Agriculture. October 25, 1915. 
pp. 1-70. (For sale by Supt. of Documents Gov't. Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C. 15 cents.) 

88 Recent Literature. [j"ii. 

way that the Anatidae, the Shorebirds, the Rails and the Herons have 
received attention in previous bulletins of the Department of Agriculture. 

A brief introduction treats of the economic importance of Gulls and 
measures that have been taken for their protection. Then follows a 
detailed account of the summer and winter range and dates of migration 
for each of the 30 species and subspecies of Gulls, Skuas and Jaegers, 
found in North America, with the name of the authority for each record. 
A map showing the summer and winter range of each species is given with 
several figures of the more common Gulls. 

Incidentally we note that Larus nelsoni remains one of the rarest of 
birds, only four specimens having been taken, three on the coast of Alaska 
and one at San Geronimo Island, Lower California. There has been no 
record of the species whatever since the specimen obtained by E. A. 
Mcllhenny at Point Barrow, Alaska, on Sept. 5, 1897, which is now in the 
collection of the Philadelphia Academy. 

Prof. Cooke's publication is a welcome summary of our knowledge of 
the distribution of the North American Laridse and will prove a valuable 
work of reference. 

The title may be regarded as a little unfortunate as the Terns are much 
closer allies of the Gulls than are the Skuas and Jaegers which belong to 
another family. Limitation in the size of the ' Bulletins ' no doubt pre- 
vented the inclusion of the Terns, but this fact might have been mentioned 
and the close relationship of the two groups emphasized. — W. S. 

Gaige's ' The Birds of Dickinson County, Michigan.' ' — This list 
is based upon observations made from June 30 to August 24. The region 
is divided into several distinct habitats and the 88 species listed are con- 
sidered with regai-d to their distribution in these habitats, with notes on 
migration, food, nesting, habits, etc. An interesting feature of the paper 
is the consideration of the effect of a severe forest fire upon the distribution 
of the various species. It undoubtedly drove out many forest loving spe- 
cies from the area which it covered, but opened up a new breeding area to 
Woodpeckers, Tree Swallows, Chimney Swifts and Bluebirds, while Vesper 
Sparrows and Goldfinches were drawn there to feed upon the seeds of weeds 
and thistles which covered the burned areas, and Sparrow Hawks to devom- 
the grasshoppers which appeared in abundance. Even migrant Shorebirds 
were attracted by the cedar and tamarack swamps which the fire had con- 
verted into open shallow pools. 

The paper contains much of interest and value, although it cannot be 
expected to cover nearly all the birds of the county. The title on this ac- 
count is perhaps a little misleading. — W. S. 

1 The Birds of Dickinson County, Michigan. By Frederick M. Gaige. Re- 
printed from Sixteenth Report Michigan Academy of Science, pp. 74-91. 

^°''l9i^"^] Recent Literature. 89 

Mearns on New African Birds. ^ — In this, his thirteenth paper on 
new African birds, Dr. Mearns first considers the subspecies of Turacus 
hartlaubi of which he recognizes four, T. h. medms (p. 3) Mt. Kenia, 
T. h. crissalis (p. 3), Mt. Mbololo and T. h. ccerulescens (p. 4), Mt. Gargues, 
being described as new. He also describes the following new forms, 
Corythteola cristata yalensis (p. 5), Yala River; Cursorius gallicus meruensis 
(p. 5), Meru River; C. temminckii jebelensis (p. 6), Lado Enclave; Rhin- 
optilus africanus raffertyi (p. 7), Iron Bridge, Hawash River, Abyssinia, 
and Sarothrura loringi (p. 8), Mt. Kenia. — W. S. 

Beal on the Food Habits of Thrushes.^ — This report is supple- 
mentary to Bulletin No. 171, which treated of the Robin and Bluebirds, 
and is devoted to Townsend's SoUtaire and the speckled breasted thrushes 
of the genus Hylocichla. Increased material and further investigation have 
led to much more detailed analyses of the food of these lairds than those 
which have appeared in other publications of the Biological Sm'vey, but 
the general conclusions remain the same. The thrushes are largely in- 
sectivorous, while the vegetable portion of their food (40.72 per cent) 
consists mainly of wild berries, their destruction of domestic fruits being 
neghgible. — W. S. 

Miller on Three New Genera of Birds. ^ — Mr. Miller is doing excel- 
lent work in carefully examining the structural characters of various birds 
with regard to their generic position, as many species when first described 
were hastily referred to genera to which they have no close affinity and a 
certain number have never been removed. A case in point is the large owl 
Bubo blakistoni Seebohm and its ally B. daerriesi. These Mr. Miller finds 
are not referable to Bubo at all being evidently northern representatives 
of the Fish Owls (Ketupa), and he establishes for them a new genus Strin- 
gonax (p. 515) with B. blakistoni as the type. 

For Hydropsalis lyra Bp. he proposes the genus Uropsalis (p. 516) and 
for Picus striatus Mlill. the genus Chryserpes (p. 517) on account of differ- 
ences in relative length of quills and toes, and details of bill structure, 
from the genera Hydropsalis and Centurus to which they have been respec- 
tively referred. Chryserpes also exhibits striking peculiarities in coloration. 

Mr. Miller besides erecting these new genera considers the status of 
allied groups already separated which is perhaps of even greater impor- 

> Descriptions of Seven New Subspecies and One New Species of African Birds 
(Plantain-Eater, Courser, and Rail). By Edgar A. Mearns. Smitlisonian Misc. 
Collns., Vol. 65, No. 13, November 26, 1915. 

2 Food Habits ofthe Thrushes of the United States. By F. E. L. Beal. Bulletin 
No. 280, XJ. S. Dept. of Agriculture, September 27, 1915, pp. 1-23. (For sale by 
Supt. of Documents, Gov't. Printing Office, Washington, D. C, 5 cents.) 

3 Three New Genera of Birds. By W. DeWitt Miller. Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., XXXIV, Art. XVII, pp. 515-520, New York, October 20, 1915. 

90 Recent Literature. [j^m 

tance, for even if we ultimately adopt broader genera than we do today, we 
must know more of the interrelations of the groups of species which are 
included within them, and which for taxonomic purposes must be distin- 
guished by group names of some kind, even though not recognized nomen- 
claturally.— W. S. 

Chapin on New Birds from the Belgian Congo. ^ — Mr. Chapin 
who accompanied Mr. Herbert Lang on an expedition to the Belgian 
Congo in the interests of the American Museum of Natural History is now 
engaged in working up the ornithological collections which they secured 
during then- six yeai-s' sojourn (1909 to 1915). These comprise some 6200 
skins representing about 600 species, and the present paper is the first 
publication based upon this material. Mr. Chapin's new species are 
Chcetura melanopygia (p. 509), Apaloderma minus (p. 510) and Ceriocleptes 
(gen. nov.) xenurus (p. 512) all from Avakubi, Ituri District, Belgian 
Congo. Further publications upon this rich collection will be awaited 
with interest. — W. S. 

Riley on New Birds from China and Japan.^ — From material re- 
ceived by the U. S. National Museum from China and Japan, Mr. Riley 
has described three new forms as follows: Tetrastes hoiiasia vicinitas 
(p. 16), and Dryocopus martins silvifragus (p. 162) from Hakodate, Japan, 
and Eophona melanura sowerbyi (p. 163) from Chang Kow Hsien, Hupeh 
China.— W. S. 

Recent Ornithological Papers by Dabbene.=* — In the ' Anales of the 
Buenos Aires Mus., XXVII,' Mr. Dabbene proposes (p. 76) a new genus 
Neophloeotomns for the woodpecker, known as Phlwotomus schulzi Cab. and 
also describes an alhed new species N. shiptoni (p. 79) from the province 
of Cordoba, with a colored plate of the male and female. 

In two other short papers he reports Manacus m. gutturosus, Harpiprion 
cayennensis, Dendrocygna discolor and Sporophila pileata from Argentina, 
all of them being new to the fauna. — W. S. 

1 Descriptions of Three New Birds from the Belgian Congo. By James P. 
Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIV, Art. XVI, pp. 509-513. New 
York, October 20, 1915. 

- Descriptions of Three New Birds from China and Japan. By J. H. Riley. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XXVIII, pp. 161-164, September 21, 1915. 

3 Description d'un Nouveau Genre et d'line Nouvelle Espgce de Pic Provenant 
du Nord-Ouest de la Republique Argentine, por Roberto Dabbene. An. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, XXVII, pp. 74-81, July 8, 1915. 

Una ave nueva para la Argentina, por Roberto Dabbene. Bol. Soc. Physis. 
I, No. 7, pp. 435-436, Dec. 1914. 

Otras especies de aves nuevas. por. Roberto Dabbene. do. pp. 532-533, 
June 10, 1915. 

^"''loS''"^] R^'^^^^ Literature. 91 

Mathews' ' The Birds of Australia.' ^ — With Volume V, Mr. Mathews 
begins the consideration of tlie hawks and eagles. These being conspicuous 
land birds have long engaged the attention of Australian ornithologists, 
and he is able to compile a much gi-eater amount of information regarding 
their habits than was possible in connection with the families of water birds 
which have occupied the greater part of the preceding volumes. This 
fact however, in no way serves to curtail the very full discussion of tax- 
onomy and nomenclatm'e that has marked Mr. Mathews' work. He opens 
with an extended historical review of the classification of the Falconiformes 
in which, by the way, we find no reference to the publications of Robert 
Ridgway upon this subject, which surely deserve mention even though 
they did not cover the entii-e field. Following this is a discussion of the 
generic names of Lacepede's ' Tableaux ' (1799). These were accompanied 
by diagnoses but with no species cited. The diagnoses are not full enough 
to enable us to determine with certainty what hawks he had in mind. 
Daudin however, in the Didot edition of Buff on (1802) republished Lace- 
pede's diagnoses and cited several species after each, using his generic 
names. Mr. Mathews rejects Lacepede's names as nomina nuda and 
quotes the genera from Daudin " ex Lacepede." This is an easy way out 
of the trouble, but we do not think it is justified. Lacepede's names are 
not nomina nuda since they are accompanied by diagnoses. They are 
unidentifiable if we choose to so regard them, but in that case they preclude 
the use of the same names by any subsequent author just as do any other 
unidentifiable names. It seems to us that in such cases we must accept 
Daudin's action as a definite identification of Lacepede's names, but the 
names must, if used at aU, date from Lacepede, 1799. The result is of course 
the same as that arrived at by Mr. Mathews, but does not conflict with the 
International Code. 

Mr. Mathews treatment of subspecies in this volume is not quite clear. 
He puts them in the synonymy of the species and then tabulates them in 
the closing paragraphs without clearly distinguishing those \yhich he 
regards as valid and those whicfh are probably not. 

We note the following new names proposed: subgenera; Paraspizias 
(p. 74) for Sparvius cirrhocephalus, and Ictiniastur (p. 146) for Milvus 
sphenurus; subspecies; Circus assimilis quirindus (p. 23) Celebes; and 
Accipiter cirrhocephalus quoesitandus (p. 81) Cape York. 

We have heard a good deal about the destruction of hawks in this coun- 
try but our efforts are apparently eclipsed in Australia, where bonuses 
were paid in 1899 for the slaughter of 7865 Wedge-tailed Eagles, while 
as late as 1903, 1060 of the same species were poisoned in eight months 
at one station. There is some justification in this slaughter as the birds 
are very injm-ious to lambs, but let us hope that this fine bird may be saved 
from absolute extermination! — ^W. S. 

1 The Birds of Australia. By Gregory M. Mathews, Vol. V, Part 1. Witherby 
& Co. London. November 5, 1915, pp. 1-152, pi. 234-244. 

92 Recent Literature. [ja"^ 

Shufeldt's Recent Papers on Avian Osteology and Fossil Birds. ^ — 

Following his paper on the ' Comparative Osteology of the Limpkin ' 
(Anatomical Record, August, 1915), Dr. Shufeldt presents in the same 
journal another upon that of the Rails and Cranes. While in the body of 
this contribution he maintains his view set forth at the end of the former 
paper that the Limpkin is more closely related to the Rails then to the 
Cranes, in his conclusions he makes exactly the opposite statement. This^ 
he explains in a ' Correction,' was due to an accidental substitution of a 
page from an old manuscript which was before him at the time, and which 
contained his former views on the matter. In spite of this, however, his 
conclusions seem to be hopelessly confused, as the scheme of classification 
set forth is not that of his earlier paper as he himself states in a footnote. 
Furthermore he distinctly endorses the arrangement of the RallidiE and 
Grues in the 1910 edition of the A. O. U. Check-List where the Limpkin 
is included under the Cranes. 

A recent study of the type specimen of the remarkable fossil bird 
Gallinuloides wyomingensis described by Eastman from Green River 
shales of Wyoming, confirms the opinion of Lucas that the bird is ' galli- 
form ' and not ' ralUform ' but Dr. Shufeldt differs from Dr. Lucas in re- 
ferring it to the true grouse instead of to the neighborhood of Or talis. Dr. 
Shufeldt proposes for it a new genus PaloEobonasa (p. 633) in case the canons 
of nomenclature are altered in the future to admit of the substitution of ap- 
propriate names for misnomers! — W. S. 

Richmond on Necessary Changes in Generic Names. ^ — Dr. C. W. 

Richmond finds the current type designation of Bolborhynchus to be er- 
roneous and Myiopsitta catharina Bon. is established as type, Grammop- 
sittaca Ridgway becoming a synonym. For Arara aymara D'Orb. the 
supposed type of Bolborhynchus, a new name Amoropsittaca is proposed. 
For Stenopsis Cassin, Thermochalcis (type Caprimulgus cayennensis) is 
proposed; Oreomyias Berlepsch becomes Oreotriccus (type Pogonotriccus 
plumheiceps Lawr.); Oreospiza Ridgw. becomes 06cr/ioZsena (type Fringilla 
chlorura Aud.). Lamprotes Sw. becomes Compsothraupis (type Tanagra 
loricata Licht.); Odontorhynchus Leach becomes Odontorchilus (type 0. 
cinereus Pelz.); all these names being found by Dr. Richmond to be 
preoccupied. — W. S. 

" Comparative Osteology of Certain Rails and Cranes, and the Systematic 
Positions of the Super-suborders Gruiformes and Ralliformes. By R. W. Shu- 
feldt. Anatomical Record, Vol. 9, No. 10, October, 1915, pp. 731-750. 

A Critical Study of the Fossil Bird Gallinuloides wyomingensis Eastman. Jour, 
of Geology, XXIII, No. 7, October-November, 1915, pp. 619-634. 

* Note on the Generic Name Bolborhynchus Bonaparte. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., p. 183. November 29, 1915. 

Notes on Several Preoccupied Generic Names (Aves). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.^ 
p. 180. November 29, 1915. 

'^°^?^>^"n Recent Literature. 93 

1910 J 

Gordon's ' Hill Birds of Scotland.' ^ — Well written popular biog- 
raphies of birds are always interesting reading and when both the birds 
and their surroundings have figui-ed so frequently in literature — both 
history and fiction — as have those of Scotland, an additional measure of 
interest is present. Such are the features which characterize Mr. Seton 
Gordon's ' Hill Bhds of Scotland.' 

He treats of two dozen of the more famihar birds of the Scottish high- 
lands, drawing upon his own experience, which has evidently been extensive, 
and quoting appropriate information from various historic sources. " The 
hills " he says in his preface " do not yield the store of theh knowledge 
easily; it is only to him who knows them in storm as in fine weather, and 
in the'dead of winter as well as during long days of June sunlight, that they 
give a measure of their wisdom." The author is evidently of these fortu- 
nate ones, and his appreciation of nature and of his bird friends particu- 
larly is well brought out in the pages of his book. His general picture of 
the high hill country is particularly characteristic — " The mists curUng 
smoke-Uke in the deep glens before the hour of sunrise, the distant hills, 
heavUy snow-flecked, standing sharply against the horizon, the croaking 
of the Ptarmigan and the flute-like song of the Snow Bunting, all these 
things are among the priceless memories given by the Spirit of the Great 


The species treated are the Golden Eagle, White-tailed Eagle, Osprey, 
Peregrine Falcon, Kestrel, Raven, Grey Crow, Ptarmigan, Black Grouse, 
Red Grouse, Capercaillie, Woodcock, Snipe, Goosander, Curlew, Green- 
shank, Golden Plover, Dotterel, Oyster Catcher, Snow Bunting, Dipper 
Crested Titmouse, Sandpiper and Dunlin. Nine of these are identical or 
only racially different from North American species, and their biographies 
are well worthy of study by the more serious American ornithologist who 
is seeldng data on habits and behavior as well as the pleasure which is 
offered by an entertaining book. 

It is regi-ettable to read under the head of the Osprey: " To give an 
account of the history of the Osprey in these islands is to chronicle a suc- 
cession of regrettable events, events which are responsible for the loss to 
us of a noble bird, that in former days added a great charm to many a 

lonely loch hidden away amongst the Scottish hills These factors 

[in its extermination] are, the migratory instinct of the birds, and the large 
remuneration given by misguided collectors for British-taken eggs." 
The same causes apparently are responsible for the disappearance of the 
bird from much of the New Jersey seaboard where it was formerly abun- 
dant; fortunately, however, enough remain in this State to reestabhsh the 
old breeding localities if proper encouragement be given. 

1 Hill Birds of Scotland By Seton Gordon. F. Z. S., M. B. O. U. Author of 
"The Charm of the HiUs" and "Birds of the Loch and Mountain." Illustrated. 
1915, Longmans, Green, and Co., N. Y., London. Edward Arnold. 8vo.. pp. 
i-xii + 1-300. $3. net. 

94 Recent lAterature. [j^_ 

The history of the CapercaiUie is particularly interesting. This bird 
became extinct in Scotland in the eighteenth century apparently owing to 
the destruction of the ancient Caledonian forest. In 1837 however, a 
number were brought from Sweden and liberated, which have increased 
and repopulated a large part of Scotland. 

Thii-ty-five excellent plates of birds and then* haunts from photographs 
illustrate this attractive book. — W. S. 

Job's ' The Propagation of Wild Birds.' ^ — The rearing of wild birds, 
both upland game birds and waterfowl, has been making great headway 
during the past few years, until now an occupation which was almost 
unknown a decade ago is demanding literature and information for its 
guidance. In answer to this call the National Association of Audubon 
Societies has estabUshed a ' Department of Applied Ornithology ' and the 
head of this department, Mr. Herbert K. Job, issues under this title the 
first 'Manual of Applied Ornithology.' 

Those who have read Mr. Job's bulletins upon the rearing of wild birds 
issued by the National Association of Audubon Societies will understand 
the character of the present volume — a concise presentation of facts 
covering all phases of ihe subject. These are conveniently assembled 
and each topic conspicuously indicated by heavy-faced type, while a gen- 
eral index helps one to find the information which he desii-es. Numerous 
good half-tones from photographs illustrate the work. 

The volume is divided into three parts devoted respectively to ' Galli- 
naceous Birds,' ' Waterfowl ' and ' Smaller Land-birds.' 

Under Part I. the Chapter headings are: ' General Methods '; ' Quail 
Propagation Method as a Basis'; 'The Grouse Family' ; ' The Wild 
Turkey'; 'Pheasant Rearing'; 'Other Foreign Gallinaceous Species'; 
'Pigeons and Doves'; 'Control of Vermin.' Under Part II: 'Wild 
Ducks ' ; ' Wild Geese ' ; ' Swans ' ; ' Wading Birds ' ; ' Refuges and Pro- 
tected Colonies.' 

These two parts are largely elaborations of the two bulletins above re- 
ferred to which have already been noticed in these columns. 

Part III which appeals more directly to the ornithologist and bird-lover 
comprises four chapters : ' Preliminary Matters ' ; ' Aids to Nesting ' ; 
' Making Surroundings Attractive '; and ' Artificial Feeding.' These deal 
with helping birds to breed in a wild state rather than rearing them in 
captivity although the line between the two methods is perhaps more 
imaginary than real. Practical advice as to nesting boxes is given — how 
to build them, where to place them, etc., also how to provide nesting 

' The Propagation of Wild Birds Manual of Applied Ornithology, Treating 
of Practical Methods of Propagation of Quails, Grouse, Wild Turkey. Pheasants, 
Partridges, Pigeons and Doves, and Waterfowl, in America, and of Attracting 
and Increasing Wild Birds in General, Including Song-Birds. By Herbert K. 
Job. Illustrated from Photographs Mostly by the Author. Doubleday, Page & 
Company, Garden City, New York, 1915. 8vo., pp. i-xxvii + 1-276. 

° ■ 1916 J Recent Literature. 95 

material for birds which do not use boxes — flax for Orioles, artificial mud 
puddles for Robins, etc. Baths, fountains, berry-bearing trees and food 
boxes also come in for detailed consideration and go to make up a book 
that is fully deserving of the subtitle which Mr. Job has bestowed upon it, 
* A Manual of Applied Ornithology.' — W. S. 

The Ornithological Journals. 

Bird-Lore. 1 XVII, No. 5. September-October, 1915. 

Bird Clubs in America. By F. M. Chapman. — Followed by reports 
on the work of seven such organizations. 

Bird Photography and Suet Stations. By A. Jacot. 

The Great Destruction of Warblers: An Urgent Appeal. By A. R. 

Migration of North American Birds. By W. W . Cooke. — Treats of 
the crested Titmice. 

The Condor.2 XVII, No. 5. September-October, 1915. 

Characteristic Birds of the Dakota Prairies. I. In the Open Grassland. 
By Florence Merriam Bailey. 

A Walking Eagle from Rancho la Brea. By L. H. Miller. — Description 
of a new species from this famous deposit, Morphnus daggetti (p. 180). 

Estimated Average Age of the Herring Gull. By J. T. Nichols. — An 
interesting and suggestive paper. 

A Late Nesting Record for the Cahfornia Woodpecker. By H. W. 

Description of a New Race of Savannah Sparrow and Suggestions on 
Some California Birds. By L. B. Bishop. — Passerculus sandivichensis 
brooksi (p. 187), Chilhwack, B. C. Notes on 15 other species. 

A Partial List of the Summer Resident Land Birds of Monterey County, 
California. By J. R. Pemberton and H. W. Carriger. 

The Oologist.=' XXXII, No. 10. October 15, 1915. 

Odd Nesting of the American Merganser. By I. T. Van Kammen. 
No. 11, contains excellent photographs of Duck Hawk nests by J. B. 

The Ibis." X Series. Vol. Ill, No. 4. October, 1915. 

Report on the Birds collected by the late Mr. Boyd Alexander during 

» Organ of the Audubon Societies. Edited by F. M. Chapman. Published by 
D. Appleton & Co., Harrisburg, Pa. (Bimonthly) $1 per year. 

* Edited for the Cooper Ornithological Club by Joseph Grinnell. Published 
at The Condor office. First Nat. Bank Building, Hollywood, Cal. (Bimonthly) 
$1.50 per year. 

3 Edited and published by R. M. Barnes, Lacon, 111. (Monthly) $1. per year. 

* Edited for the British Ornithologists' Union by W. L. Sclater. Published by 
Wm. Wesley and Son, 28 Essex St., Strand, London, W. C. (Quarterly) £1. 12s. 
per year. 

96 Recent Literature. [jj[^^ 

his last Expedition to Africa. — - Part V. Birds obtained in the Manen- 
guba Mountains (Cameroon). By D. A. Bannerman. — 43 species. 

Plumages of the Male Crossbill. By C. B. Ticehurst. — The author 
seems to have overlooked Dr. J. Dwight's account of the molts of this 
species (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., XIII, p. 174-176, 1900) where he will find 
much detailed information. Dr. Dwight is of the opinion that the brick red 
plumage with red rump is attained by almost all birds at the post nuptial 
molt. Mr. Ticehm-st, however, found several assuming yellow feathers 
at this time. 

Ornithological Notes from the Alix and Buffalo Lake Districts, Province 
of Alberta, Canada, 1914. By C. B. Horsbrugh. — An annotated list of 
80 species. The Crackles observed must have been Quiscalus quiscula 
ceneus not Q. quiscala quiscala [sic.]. 

Studies on the Charadi'iiformes — - II. On the Osteology of the Chatham 
Island Snipe {Ccenocorypha piisilla). By P. R. Lowe. — This curious bird 
is shown to be a relic of an earlier avifauna, a " living fossil " and the most 
generalized snipe known. Dr. Lowe considers it probably an outlying 
remnant of an earlier widespread stock of northern origin from which 
the present snipe and woodcock have sprung. Similar snipe of southern 
South America, etc., he thinks had a similar origin and does not regard them 
as evidence of an Antarctic continent from which all of these primitive 
types came. 

Note on the NestUng Plumage of the Asiatic Golden Plover (Charadrius 
dominicus fulvus) . By M. D. Haviland. 

On Bu-ds collected by Mr. C. Boden Kloss, on the Coast and Islands of 
Southeastern Siam. By H. C. Robinson. — One hundi'ed species are listed 
of which four are described as new: Pyrotrogon erylhrocephalus klossi 
(p. 735), Koh Chang; Mesobucco duvaugli orientalis (p. 738), Ok Yam; 
Criniger ochraceus saccidatus (p. 746), Geting Bidai, Selangor; and Myio- 
phoneus klossii (p. 750), Koh Mehsi. 

The Avifauna of Central America: a Study in Geographical Distribu- 
tion. By W. P. Pycraft. 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club.i No. CCIX. October 
28, 1915. 

Dr. Hartert described as new Cyanoderma mclanothorax baliensis (p. 2), 
Bali. C. m. jnelanothorax from Java is a very rare bird and was overlooked 
in the British Museum Catalogue of Birds. 

British Birds.^ IX, No. 4. September, 1915. 

Notes on the Breeding of the Asiatic Golden Plover. By Maud D. 
Haviland. — At the mouth of the Yenesei. 

Screened and Open Nests of Redshanks. By C. W. Colthrup. 

» Edited by D. A. Bannerman. Published by Witlierby & Co.. 326 High Hol- 
born, London, W. C. 6s. per year (nine monthly numbers). 

2 Edited by H. F. Witherby, 326 High Holborn, London, S. W. (Monthly) 
10s., 6d. per year. 

^"'■1916^"^] R^<^^^^^ Literature. 97 

British Birds. IX, No. 5. October 1, 1915. 

On " Wait and See " Photography. By E. L. Turner.— Admirable 
pictures of Sandpipers, Wagtail, etc. 

On Incubation. By Eric B. Dunlop. — Bii-ds which incubate from the 
laying of the first egg do so to protect their conspicuous eggs, is the opinion 
of the author. He also finds great mortality among the youngest (and 
consequently smallest) members of such broods, due to their failure to 
secure as much food from the parents as do the larger, stronger, members of 
the family. 

Gannets Breeding on Bressay. By J. H. Gurney. 

British Birds. IX, No. 6. November 1, 1915. 

Richard M. Barrington. By C. B. Moffat.— With portrait. 

Further Notes on the Moults and Sequence of Plumages in some British 
Ducks. By F. W. Smalley. — Agi-ees with Miss Jackson (do., pp. 34-42) 
that re-coloring cannot occur without molt. He differs in some details 
from her statements, and finds that many female ducks have a spring molt 
and an eclipse plumage. 

Notes on the Great Northern Diver. By Eric B. Dunlop. — Good ac- 
coimt of nesting in Canada; with photographs. 

The Moults of the British Passeres with Notes on the Sequence of their 
Plumages. By H. F. Witherby. — • Corvidae, Sturnidse and Oriolida^. 

Avicultural Magazine. ^ VI, No. 12. October, 1915. 

The Ruddy Headed Goose. Cloephaga rubidiceps. By H. D. Astley. 

A Wonderful Collection of Birds from Ecuador. By H. D. Astley. — 
Some 60 species brought alive to England. Another note records the 
arrival in Paris of 30 live Hummingbirds from Venezuela. 

Avicultural Magazine. VII, No. 1. November, 1915. 

The Red-crowned Pigeon. Alectroenas pulcherrvma. By E. G. B. 
Meade- Waldo. — With incidents of a visit to the Seychelles. 

A note in this number records a Scarlet Tanager kept in captivity for 
over 18 years. 

The Emu.2 XV, Part 2. October, 1915. 

A New Honey-eater: Macgillivrayornis claudi. By W. Macgillivray. — - 
Colored figiire of this recently described bird. 

Notes on the Yellow-bellied Shrike-Tit, Falcunculus frontatus. By 
A. H. Crisholm. 

Comparative Osteology of Harris's Flightless Cormorant ( Nannop- 
terum harrisi). By R. W. Shufeldt. 

Nesting of the Black Cormorant {Phalacrocorax carbo) in Tasmania. 
By Miss J. A. Fletcher. 

1 Edited by Hubert D. Astley for the Avicultural Society. Published by 
Wesf, Newman & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, London E. C. (Monthly) 15s. per 

2 Edited for the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union by J. A. Leach and 
C. Barrett. Published by Walker May & Co., 25 Mackillop St., Milbourne. 

98 Recent Ldteralure. ija"n. 

The Admission of Colour-Genera. By G. M. Mathews. — A commentary 
on the recent discussion before the British Ornithologists' Club. 

Observations on the Nankeen Night Heron (Nycticorax caledonicus) . 
By S. A. Hanscombe. 

Proposals for a second edition of the Official Check-list of the Birds of 
Australia are presented. 

The South Australian Ornithologist. ' II, Part 4. October 1, 1915. 

Birds of the North and North-West of Australia. By G. M. Mathews, 
No. 4. 

On some Pellets or Casts of a Screech Owl (Tyto alba delicatula). By 
S. A. White. 

Field Notes in the Blue Mountains. By E. Ashby. 

Revue Frangaise d'Ornithologie, VII, No. 76-77. August-Septem- 
ber, 1915. (In French.) 

Some Observations on the Birds of Sfax, Tunis. By P. Bede. 

The Snipe. By M. de la Furge. — Migi-ation in Em-ope, etc. 

Birds Observed in Morocco. 1884-1914. By H. and A. Vaucher. — 

Revue Frangais d'Ornithologie.- VII, No. 78. October 7, 1915. 

On the Young of the Cagon (Rhinocha;tns jubatus) . By A. Menegaux. — 
Breeding of a pair in captivity. 

Observations on the Life Histories of the Birds of the Kerguelen Islands. 
By J. Loranchet. — Continued from No. 76-77. 

Ardea.3 IV, No. 3. September, 1915. (In Dutch.) 

Meeting and excursion of the Netherland Ornithological Society. 

Call Notes of Anthus pratensis. By H. Stadler and C. Schmitt. — An 
astonishing combination of musical and syllabic notation. 

Ostrich raising in South Africa. By F. E. Blaauw. 

Proceedings of the Bavarian Ornithological Society.^ XII, No. 3. 
July 25, 1915. (In German.) 

Songs and Call Notes of the Wood Lark {Lullula a. arborea). By Stadler 
and Schmitt. 

Observations on the Australian Avifauna. By Prof. O. Maas. 

On the Ornis of Java. By Max Bartels. — Discusses Planesticus fumidus 
(Miill.), P. javanicus (Horsf.) and Collocalia gigas Hartl. & Butl. 

Some New Forms from the West Indies and Venezuela. By C. E. 
Hellmayr and J. Graf von Seilern. — Mimus gilvus antillarum (p. 201), 
Grenada; Myiarchus tyrannulus sanctce-lucice (p. 201), St. Lucia; M.ferox 

1 Edited for the South Australian Ornithological Association by F. R. Zietz and 
others. Published quarterly by W. K. Thomas & Co., Adelaide. 8s. per year. 

2 Edited by A. Menegaux, 55 Rue de Buffon, Paris. (Monthly.) 

3 Edited for the Netherlands Ornithological Society by L. F. De Beaufort, 
A. Van Pelt Lechner and E. D. Van Oort. Published by E. J. Brill, Leyden. 

* Edited by C. E. Hellmayr, Neuhauserstr. 51, Munich, Germany. (Quarterly.) 

^*''l^l6^'"] ^«ceni Literature. 99 

insulicola (p. 202), Tobago; Dysithamnus mentalis cumbreanus (p. 203), 
Las Quiguas, Ven.; Leptotila verreauxi tobagensis (p. 204), Tobago. 

New Forms irom the Neotropical Region. By C. E. Hellmayr. — Euch- 
lornis viridis chachapoyas (p. 206), Chachapoyas, Peru; Phaeochroa cuvierii 
berlepschi (p. 208), Baranquilla, Colombia; Psalidoprymna berlepschi 
(p. 210), Anta, Cuzco, Peru; Dryobates mixtus berlepschi (p. 212), Man- 
grullo, W. Patagonia; Pionopsitta amazonina theresce (214), El Escorial, 
W. Venezuela. 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte.i 23, No. 7-8. July-August, 1915. 
(In German.) 

Observations on Some Points in the Accounts of the Propagation of 
Our Cuckoos which are in need of Explanation. By R. Schlegel. 

Remarks on Carpodacus erythrinus and its Forms. By E. Hesse. — 
C. e. erythrinus, kubanensis and rosealus recognized. 

New Forms. By Reichenow. — Chlorophoneus quadricolor intercedens 
(p. 120), Useguha, German E. Africa; Pomatorhinus australis damarensis 
(p. 120), Windhuk, German S. W. Africa. 

Journal fur Ornithologie. Vol. 63, Heft. 3. July, 1915. (In 

The Characteristics of the Flight Feathers of the Birds of Northwestern 
Germany. By H. Reichling. 

A New Contribution to the Ornithology of SaghaUn. By E. Hesse. — 
91 species listed. Bubo bubo borissowi (p. 366) and Anthus borealis (p. 
386) are described as new. 

Annufil Report (1914) of Bird Study at Rossiten. By J. Thienemann. 

Messager Ornithologique.^ VI, No. 3. 1915. (In Russian.) 

Notice of the Birds of the Vicinity of Tomsk. By P. and J. Zalesski. 

Bombycilla garrulus ussuriensis (p. 223). By S. A. Buturlin. — From 
Lake Khanka, S. Ussuri-land. 

Bubo bubo zaissanensis (p. 224). By W. A. Hachlow. 

Sterna hirundo turkestanensis (p. 226). By N. A. Sarudny. 

On Falco altaicus and F. lorenzi. By P. Sushkin. 

Notes on the Palaearctic Forms of Pinicola enucleator. By S. A. Butur- 
lin. — P. e. urupensis (p. 239) n. subsp. from Urup Isl., Kurile. Five races 
recognized, but P. e. pacata Bangs regarded as an individual monstrosity. 

Birds collected by A. P. Velezhanin in the Basin of the Upper Irtysh. 
By G. I. Poljakow. 

» Edited by Dr. A. Reichenow. Published by R. Friedlandfer & Son, Beriin, 6. 
Karlstr 11. (Monthly) 6M. per year. 

2 Edited by G. Poljakow, Gut "Sawino," Postabteilung Objralowka, Moscow 
Govt. Russia. 

100 Recent Literature. [j"n. 

Ornithological Articles in Other Journals. ^ 

Riley, J. H. Note on Chlorostilbon puruensis Riley. (Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., XXVIII, p. 183, November 29, 1915.) — This recently described 
species proves to be a Chlorestes close to C. cceruleus of which it may be 
regarded as a subspecies. 

DeWar, J. M. The Relation of the Oystercatcher to its Natural 
Environment. (The Zoologist, August-November, 1915.) 

Bell, Alfred. Pleistocene and Later Bird Fauna of Great Britain and 
Ireland. (The Zoologist, November, 1915.) 

Clarke, Wm. Eagle. The Wren of St. Kilda: Its Status, Plumages, and 
Habits. (The Scottish Naturalist, October, 1915.) — A good account of 
Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis (Seebohm). 

Clarke, John M. Protection of the Sea Fowl of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
(Report Sixth Ann. Meeting Comm. of Conservation of Canada.)— An 
able plea for the protection of the colonies at Perce Rocks and Bona venture 
Island. The same volume contains articles on the same subject by C. 
Gordon Hewitt and P. A. Taverner. All illustrated by excellent photo- 
gi-aphs of Cormorants, Gannets, etc. The government is urged to establish 
these rookeries as well as Pt. Pelee as bird refuges. 

Kerr, J. Graham. Notes on the Habits of the Rhea. (Proc. Royal 
Phys. Soc, 1915, pp. 200-203.) — In Paraguay. 

Killermann, S. On the Extinct, Mascarine Birds. (Naturwiss. 
Wochenslirift, XIV, pp. 353-360.) — The Dodo. (In German.) 

Cob urn Charles A. A Study of the Behavior of the Crow, Corvus 
americanus Aud., by the Multiple Choice Method. (Jour. Anim. Behavior, 
V. pp. 75-114.) — c/. also do., IV, pp. 185-201. 

Wilkinson, O. J. The Great Crested Grebe. (Wild Life, VII, No. 4, 
October, 1915.). — Beautiful photographs. 

Selous, E. The Little Grebe. (Wild Life, VII, Nos. 2-4.) — Well 

Thayer, G. H. The End of Cory's Shearwater. (Science, September 
3, 1915.) — Regards it as a synonym of Puffinus kuhli. 

Stone, W. The End is Not Yet! (Science, October 15, 1915.) — Shows 
that Cory's Shearwater {Puffinus borealis) is not a synonym of P. kuhli 
and that whether or not it be identical with the Azores bird, P. borealis is 
the oldest name for any north Atlantic member of the group. 

Ridgway, R. A New Pigeon from Jamaica. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
XXVIII, p. 177, November 29, 1915.) — Chlorwnas inornatu exigua. 

Publications Received. — Barrows, H. R. The Histological Basis of 
the Different Shank Colors in the Domestic Fowl. (Ann. Rept. Maine 
Agr. Exper. Sta. for 1914, pp. 237-252.) 

' Some of these journals are received in e.xchange, others are e.xamined in the 
library of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The Editor is under 
obligations to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn for a list of ornithological articles contained in the 
accessions to the library from week to week. 

^"'■i9^'"] ^«cen« Literature. 101 

Beal, F. E. L. Food Habits of the Thrushes of the United States. 
(Bull. 280, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, September 27, 1915.) 

Chapin, James P. Descriptions of Three New Birds from the Belgian 
Congo. (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIV, Art. XVI, pp. 509-513, 
October 20, 1915.) 

Cooke, W. W. Distribution and Migration of North American Gulls 
and theii- Allies. (BuU. 292, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, October 25, 1915.) 

Curtis, Maynie R. Relation of Simultaneous Ovulation to the Pro- 
duction of Double-yolked Eggs. (Jour. Agr. Research, U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Ill, No. 5, pp. 375-386.) 

Dabbene, Roberto. (1) Description d'un Noveau Genre et d'une 
Nouvelle Espece de Pic Provenant du Nord-ouest de la Republique Argen- 
tine. (Ann. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Ayres, XXVII, pp. 75-81, 
July 8, 1915.) (2) Una ave nueva para la Argentina (Bol. Soc. Physis, I, 
No. 7, December, 1914.) (3) Otras especies de aves nuevas (do. I, pp. 

Fleming, J. H. A New Turnagra from Stephens' Island, New Zealand. 
(Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVIII, pp. 121-124, May 27, 1915.) 

Gaige, F. M. The Birds of Dickinson County, Michigan. (Sixteenth 
Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., pp. 74-91.) 

Gordon, Seton. Hill Birds of Scotland. Longmans, Green, and Co., 
Fourth Ave. and 30th St., N. Y. Edward Ai-nold, London. 8 vo. 1915. 
pp. 1-300. $3.00 net. 

Grinnell, Joseph. A Distributional List of the Birds of California. 
(Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. 11, Cooper Ornith. Club. October 21, 1915.) 

Job, Herbert K. The Propagation of Wild Birds, A Manual of Applied 
Ornithology. Doubleday, Page & Co. Garden City, New York, 1915. 
8vo. pp. i-xxvii + 1-276. $2. net. 

Mathews, Gregory M. The Birds of Australia. Vol. V, Part I, 
November 5, 1915. London, Witherby & Co. 

Mearns, Edgar A. Descriptions of Seven New Subspecies and one 
New Species of African Birds. (Plantain-Eater, Courser, and Rail.) 
(Smithson. Misc. Collns., Vol. 65, No. 13, November 26, 1915.) 

Miller, W. DeWitt. Three New Genera of Birds. (Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., XXXIV, Art. XVII, pp. 515-520, October 20, 1915.) 

Palmer, T. S., Bancroft, W. F., and Earnshaw, F. L. Game Laws for 
1915. (Farmers' Bull. 692, U. S. Dept. Agr., September 14, 1915.) 

Richmond, Chas. W. (1) Notes on several preoccupied generic names 
(Aves). (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVIII, p. 180, November 29, 1915.) 
(2) Note on the Generic Name Bolborhynchus Bonaparte, (do., p. 183, 
November 29, 1915.) 

Ridgway, R. A New Pigeon from Jamaica, {do., p. 177, November 
29, 1915.) 

Riley, J. H. (1) Descriptions of Three New Birds from China and 
Japan, {do., pp. 161-164, September 21, 1915.) (2) Note on Chloro- 
stilbon puruensis. {do., p. 183, November 29, 1915.) 

102 Recent Ldterature. [j^ 

Shufeldt, R. W. (1) Comparative Osteology of Harris's Flightless 
Cormorant { Nannopterum harrisi). (Emu, XV, Pt. 2, October, 1915, 
pp. 86-114.) (2) Nature-Study and the Common Forms of Animal Life. 
II. (Natiu-e Study Review, II, No. 7, October, 1915.) (3) A Critical 
Study of the Fossil Bird Gallinuloides wyomingensis Eastman. (Jour, of 
Geology, XXIII, No. 7, October-November, 1915.) (4) Comparative 
Osteology of Certain Rails and Cranes, and the Systematic Positions of 
the Super-suborders Gruiformes and Ralliformes. (Anat. Record, Vol. 9, 
No. 10, October, 1915.) (5) Eggs of North American Water Birds (Part 
III). (Bluebird, September, 1915.) (6) The Quarrelsome Kingbird. 
(Our Dumb Animals, November, 1915.) (7) Red-headed Woodpecker. 
{do., December, 1915.) (8) Don't shoot the Owls. (The Country Gentle- 
man, October 30, 1915.) 

Thorburn, A. British Birds. Longmans, Green and Co. London, 
1915. 4°. Vols. I and II. $10 per volume. 

Tschusi zu SchmidhofTen, Viktor Ritter von. (1) tJbersicht der Vogel 
Oberosterreichs und Salzburgs. (Ornith. Jahrbuches, December, 1914.) 
(2) Lautausserungen der Sperlingseule, Glaucidium passerinum (L). (do., 
1914, XXV, Heft. 3-4.) (3) Zoologische Literatur der Steiermark, Orni- 
thologische Literatm-. (Mittl. Naturwiss. Verein. Steiermark, 1914, 
Band 51.) (4) Ornithologische KoUektaneen aus Osterreich-Ungarn. 
(Zool. Beobachter, LVI, Heft. 6-9, 1915.) (5) Ankunfts- und Abzugs- 
daten bei Hallein (1914). (Orn. Monatschr., XL, No. 4.) (6) Ornitho- 
logische Literatm- Osterreich-Ungarns, Bosniens und der Herzegowina, 
1913. (Verhl. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien., 1915.) 

Wood, Casey A. The Eyelids and Lachrymal Apparatus of Birds. 
(Ophthalmology, July, 1915.) 

Abstract Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Nos. 146-149. 

American Museum Journal, The, XV, No. 6 and 7, October and Novem- 
ber, 1915. 

Ardea, IV, No. 3, September, 1915. 

Austral Avian Record, III, No. 2, November 19, 1915. 

Avicultural Magazine, (3) VI, No. 12, VII, No. 1, October and Novem- 
ber, 1915. 

Bird-Lore, XVII, Nos. 5 and 6, September-October, November- 
December, 1915. 

Bird Notes and News, VI, Nos. 6 and 7, Summer and Autumn, 1915. 

British Birds, IX, Nos. 5 and 6, October and November, 1915. 

Bulletin British Ornith. Club, No. CCIX, October 28, 1915. 

Bulletin of the Charleston Museum, XI, Nos. 6-7, October-November, 

California Fish and Game, I, No. 5, October, 1915. 

Condor, The, XVII, No. 5 and 6, September-October, November- 
December, 1915. 

Current Items of Interest, Nos. 26, November 15, 1915. 

Emu, The, XV, Part 2, October, 1915. 

° ■ 1915 J Correspondence. 103 

Fins, Feathers and Fur, Bull. Minn. Game and Fish Com., No. 3, 
September, 1915. 

Forest and Stream, LXXXV, Nos. 9-12, September to December, 1915. 

Ibis, The, (10) III, No. 4, October, 1915. j 

Messager Ornithologique, VI, No. 3. 

Oologist, The, XXXII, Nos. 9-11, September-November, 1915. 

Oregon Sportsman, The, III, No. 8, October, 1915. (Quarterly.) 

Ottawa Naturalist, The, XXIX, Nos. 5-6 and 7, August-October, 1915. 

Philippine Journal of Science, X, Nos. 2 and 3, March and May, 1915. 

Revue Frangaise d'Ornithologie, VII, No. 78, October, 1915. 

Science, N. S., XLII, Nos. 1081-1094. 

Scottish Naturalist, The, Nos. 45 to 47, September to November, 1915. 

South Australian Ornithologist, The, II, Part 4, October, 1915. 

Verhandlungen der Ornith. Gesellsch. in Bayern, Band XII, Heft. 3, 
July, 1915. 

Wilson Bulletin, The, XXVII, No. 3, September, 1915. 

Zoologist, The, XIX, Nos. 225-227, September to November, 1915. 


Editor of 'The Auk'. 
Dear Sir: — 

I note that in the October number of 'The Auk,' Mr. Robert Thomas 
Moore presents some criticisms of what I have chosen to call the graphic 
method of recording bird songs. Since Mr. Moore credits me with a 
statement that I did not make, and since many of the faults he finds are 
the result of misunderstanding, or exist principally in his own imagination, 
I should like to take a little space to answer him. 

In the beginning we must realize that it is our intention to study bird 
songs, not from the standpoint of a musician but from that of a scientist. 
We care little for the fact that musicians do not consider pronunciation a 
factor worth dealing with. If it has no application to bird music, it makes 
little difference what the musician's definition of a trill is. If musicians 
consider that the duration of a song in seconds is of secondary importance 
to them, that is no reason why it is of secondary importance to the scientist. 
The bird-lover may care little about the amount of white on the j unco's 
tail. All he wants to know is that it is a junco, after which he spends his 
time admiring the dainty contrast of its colors. But to the student of bird 
plumages the amount of white is important, and there may be cases where 
such a character becomes of extremely great importance. The same thing 
applies to bird song. The length of a song is one of its characters, a charac- 
ter that may be specific, that may have just as great, or even greater im- 

104 Correspondence. [j"„ 

portance than that the bird sings in triple time. When the bird does not 
sing in any particular time, the duration of the song in seconds is practically 
the only time character that we can record with accuracy. 

Mr. Moore founds a large amount of his criticism on his evident belief 
that I denied the existence of rhythm in bird songs in general. When one 
assumes the role of critic it becomes his duty to read carefully that which 
he is going to criticise. Otherwise he is liable to waste space and time 
criticising errors that origmated in his own faulty reading or interpreta- 
tion. I was particularly careful not to deny the existence of rhythm in 
bird songs, for I was entirely aware that Some of my records were rhythmic. 
• What I did wish to make clear was that a great many bird songs are not 
rhythmic, and that for that reason a method of recording time which 
depends on a mathematical relation between the durations of single notes 
is not suited to bird songs. 

Mr. Moore makes some curious distinctions between the meanings of the 
words time and duration, and concludes from this that I have ignored 
time and rhythm. Does Mr. Moore think that I measure the duration 
of the song as a whole, only? Does he believe that the lengths of the 
separate notes on the record are meaningless? This is evidently what he 
does think, for how else could he conclude that the graphic method does 
not record rhythm? How else could he get the notion that the rhythm in 
some of the records is obscured by the method? What difference would 
it make had I used the word time instead of duration? None whatever, 
for duration and time are one and the same factor. Mr. Moore would 
have us think that duration does not include rhythm. Yet he himself 
says that a knowledge of "the relative duration of the individual notes of 
a song. . . .would result in some knowledge of the song's rhythm." That 
is true. And in some cases it would result in a knowledge of the song's lack 
of rhythm. Mr. Moore implies that I am unable to record rhythm by 
the graphic method, yet he proves the contrary himself. He tells us that 
he has found rhythm in some of the records, particularly that of the robin. 
Yes, the rhythm is there, showing plainly at a glance. Mr. Moore, with 
his musician's mind, must needs reduce it to measures and triple time in 
order to see it, but those who are not so well versed in music can see it too, 
by the horizontal lengths of the phrases and pauses. Rhythm, when it 
exists, can be recorded by the graphic method just as accurately as by any 
other. Even when it is retarded or accelerated the stop-watch checks it 
up, in spite of Mr. Moore's statement to the contrary, and not only checks 
it, but shows just how much retardation and acceleration there is. 

But it is when the song does not happen to be rhythmic that the graphic 
method shows its greatest utility. The old method must make the song 
rhythmic in order to record it. Every note of the song must have a mathe- 
matical relation in length to every other note. Now a bird may sing notes, 
the relative durations of which are totally incommensurable. Shall we 
change such a song in order to make it fit our method? Is such a pro- 
ceeding scientific accuracy? Or is it the conception of a musician, so 

'^"'loie^"^] Correspondence. 105 

trained in the rules and necessities of human music that he is unable to 
conceive of music that is not rhythmic? Is it not far preferable to change 
the method to fit the song? 

In the matter of pitch Mr. Moore decides that the graphic method, 
since it requires twelve horizontal lines, is much too complicated. He 
uses much space telling how numerous the lines would have to be in order 
to record the pitch of a note with absolute accuracy. Undoubtedly there 
would have to be not merely a few thousand lines but an infinite number. 
Our accuracy in recording pitch is limited by the accuracy of the human 
ear in perceiving it. It is unnecessary to record the note more accurately 
than we can hear it. 

If the horizontal lines were all that counted, five lines would be far 
simpler than twelve. But we must bear in mind a few of the other intri- 
cate necessities of the old system. We must begin our staff with a clef. 
We must decide on some key in which the bird is supposed to sing, and 
indicate this by anythmg from five sharps to five flats, carefuUy placed on 
their proper fines or spaces. We must use more of these sharps and flats, 
and also a few natural signs, whenever the bird happens to forget to which 
key the recorder has assigned his song. If the bird forgets frequently, we 
have the alternative of changing the key, which is slightly less intricate. 
We must add lines above or below the staff every time the bird strays out 
of the hmits of the original five. We must add some more marks at the 
top to indicate how many octaves above middle C the bird sings. Com- 
bined with all this we must keep constantly in mind the fact that at cer- 
tain places on the staff the interval between a line and a space is half a 
tone, while in others it is a whole tone. Five lines may be very simple, 
but considering all that goes with it I much prefer twelve, or even thirty- 
six. Yet Mr. Moore tells us that this method is more simple and com- 
prehensive than the graphic! 

To go back to the matter of time, we find here also a complicated system. 
A number precedes the song which teUs the number of beats to the measure. 
Another number at the top teUs the number of beats to the minute. Each 
separate note must be one of a dozen or so sorts, indicative of its duration 
in beats. At the top we must write retards and accelerations, which do 
not show with accuracy how much of the song is retarded or accelerated, 
nor how great is this change in time. The whole method, taking pitch and 
time together, is so intricate that, in order to use it with anything like 
celerity, one must be educated in its use from his youth up. The accurate 
recording of a bird's song in the field is a difficult matter in itself. Why 
compUcate it by a difficult method when we may make one that is reason- 
ably simple? This "splendid system. . . .evolved by ages of use" may do 
very well for human music, but it is clearly not applicable to that of birds. 

In the matter of pitch Mr. Moore concludes that the old method is more 
accurate. What he means is, not that the song as it naturally is can be 
more accurately recorded, but that, after it has been artificially changed 
in both pitch and time to fit the method, the pitch of the recorded notes is 

106 Correspondence. [j^. 

more definite. What we desire is a record of the bird's song as it is, not as 
we think it ought to be. We cannot fit wild bird songs to our standards 
of music. Then why not fit our method of making records to the bird 
songs? Mr. Moore would have us believe that a method which cannot 
record the pitch of a bird's song closer than a half-tone is more accurate 
than a method that can record it closer than a quarter tone. Absolute 
accuracy is out of the question, but relative accuracy should be as close 
as the human ear can make it, and not limited by the graded pitches 
allowable in human music. 

In this matter of pitch and accuracy of record I wish to explain that it is 
entirely possible to use different colors for the coordinate lines, and the 
hues representing the song. This obviates the necessity of making the 
song lines heavier than the others, and thus makes the location of the pitch 
of each note plainer. I hoped at first to have this done with the figures 
used to illustrate my article. In work in the field I do this by simply 
using quadrille paper note-books, in which the lines for both time and pitch 
are already drawn in light blue. Such a note book has the advantage of 
being purchasable ahnost anywhere, either in ordinary or loose-leaf form. 
With such a note-book it makes little difference whether twelve or thirty- 
six lines are necessary to record a given song. With two colors I have 
been able to indicate an accented note, or other notes of greater intensity 
than the main song by simply making the lines, representing these notes, 
heavier when recorded in pencil, and broader when recorded in ink. 

The factor of pronunciation Mr. Moore considers of little importance 
because musicians do not recognize it as a part of music. Pronunciation 
may have nothing to do with music, but it has a great deal to do with bird 
songs. The hquid 1 is an extremely important factor and its presence or 
absence is of great assistance in the recognition of a song in the field. But 
Mr. Moore wishes to have pronunciation classed as a sub-head under qual- 
ity. What it has to do with quahty is hard to see. Too many people already 
have quaUty, intensity and pitch, hopelessly confused, so why mix pronunci- 
ation with it? Quality depends entirely on the presence or absence of 
certain overtones, and the relative intensity of these overtones. Quality 
includes nothing else. Is it scientific to make it include pronunciation? 

Mr. Moore tells us that the presence of marks indicating pronunciation 
blurs the pitch of the note. If the loop used to indicate an 1 sound, starts 
at a certain definite point and ends at that point, making no progress 
horizontally or vertically it blurs neither pitch nor time. This is another 
objection evidently originating in Mr. Moore's imagination. 

Too great a musical knowledge in some cases is liable to result in too 
little along other important Hnes. It is. liable for instance to make one 
conclude that such a term as "trill" has only one meaning. Looking up 
"trill" in Webster's dictionary I find that my definition is more correct 
for the ordinary use of the word than Mr. Moore's. The musical trill, 
which Mr. Moore considers the only real trill, is referred by Webster to 
the word "shake." The ordinary trill is defined in the dictionary as a 
single note, interrupted by the regular recurrence of a consonant sound. 

V«'-XXXinj Correspondence. 107 

Whether the trills of birds are caused in this way or by rapid repetition of a 
note is hard to say. There seem to be reasons for thinking that trills are 
caused in both ways in bird song. But Mr. Moore's shake must be rare 
in bird music, and is certainly not worth bothering our heads about. 
Ornithological literature abounds in the use of the word trill, describing 
these phenomena of bird songs. Yet our critic considers these writers all 
wrong because this trill is not one in the strict, narrow, musical use of the 
term. He further concludes that my records are rendered inaccurate for 
the same reason, although even to Mr. Moore, who supposed all trills were 
shakes, what I meant by trill was perfectly plain. 

Mr. Moore objects to the term "graphic method" because the old system 
is also graphic. In the broadest sense of the word "graphic" he is right. 
But "graphic method" has become particularly associated in recent years 
with methods of recording various facts, mathematical and otherwise, by 
the use of coordinates. In that sense this title is particularly appropriate. 

My aim in introducing the graphic method was to show that more 
accurate methods than the old system of musical notation could be devised. 
The old method, when applied to bird songs has been almost universally 
recognized as a failure. A familiar bird song, written on the musical scale, 
looks unfamiliar, even to the man who understands musical symbols. 
The result when it is played on the piano with an accompaniment of chords 
is absolutely ludicrous. Anyone can see that the reason for this is the 
inaccuracy of the old method, in its attempts to put together a method and 
a variety of music that were not made for each other. The graphic method 
does away with these difficulties, as well as the temptation to write chord 
accompaniments and to play the song on the piano. It records the song 
simply and naturally, and so graphically that anyone can see its meaning 
at a glance. It becomes familiar after very little study, and its use in the 
field is much easier than the intricate system of symbols of the old method. 
In a word it is far more accurate, far more comprehensive and far more 

I do not wish to convey the impression that I believe the graphic method 
perfect. Seldom if ever is a new idea brought out by one person that 
cannot be improved by someone else. I would gladly welcome suggestions, 
criticisms or improvements that are constructive in nature, and not based 
on misinterpretation, or evident wish to make unqualified condemnation. 
I believe thoroughly in the principle back of the graphic method, and I am 
willing to leave its fate to the test of time, having confidence that the old 
method with its inaccuracies and complications must go, and that in the 
future either this method or something based on similar ideas will be 
generally used by students of bird song. I hope in some future time to 
present more studies of bird song based on the graphic method, and after 
further field study to go into the subjects of intensity and pronunciation 
more deeply. 

Aretas a. Saunders. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Oct. 30, 1915. 

108 Correspondence. [jj[^_ 

[Both Mr. Saunders and Mr. Moore seem agreed that some sort of 
' graphic ' representation of bird song is preferable to the syllabic method. 
Choice between their methods is largely a matter of personal opinion and 
both having been exploited at considerable length it seems hardly desirable 
to continue the discussion further in these columns. A note by Mr. 
Summers in General Notes, p. 78, antea, as well as Mr. Oldys' paper, p. 
17, deal further with this subject. Ed.]. 

On the Position of the Aramidae in the System. 

Editor of 'The Auk.' 
Dear Sir: — 

Your very interesting notice of my two recent osteological papers, which 
appeared in 'The Auk' for October, 1915 (pp. 517, 518), seems, in one 
instance at least, to demand a few words from me by way of defence. 

Dr. Mitchell's conclusions are only known to me through my having 
seen the notice of his paper in the 'Abstract of the P. Z. S.' of May 25, 
1915, p. 34. There I read that he read, as Secretary of the Society, "a 
communication on the Anatomy of the Gruiform birds, Aramus giganteus 
Bonap., and Rhinochetus kagu, in which he showed that A. giganteus 
resembled A . scolopaceus very closely in the details of its muscular and bony 
anatomy, and that the genus Aramus, in these respects, was very close to 
the true Cranes." 

That the two species of Aramus are very much aUke in their morphology 
will, of course, not be questioned; but that these birds are "very close to 
the true Cranes" structurally, is a statement which I contend cannot be 
sustained, nor does the anatomy of the several forms demonstrate it. In a 
paper I published as long ago as 1894 (Jour. Anat. and Phys. London, 
Oct., Vol. 29, n. s.. Vol. 9, pt. I, art. 5, pp. 21-34, text figures), I care- 
fully contrasted, in three parallel columns, the essential osteological char- 
acters of Rallus longirostris, Aramus vociferus, and Grus americanus; and 
this comparison demonstrated the fact that Aramus had more rail char- 
acters in its skeleton than gruine ones. My subsequent publications on 
the subject practically sustained this opinion. Finally, the paper of mine, 
which you kindly noticed in 'The Auk,' is entitled "On the Comparative 
Osteology of the Limpkin (Aramus vociferus) and its Place in the System," 
a contribution to the subject which recently appeared in 'The Anatomical 
Record' (Vol. 9, No. 8, Aug. 20, 1915, pp. 591-606, figs. 1-14). In this 
paper I thought I showed very clearly that, osteologically, the Aramidce 
were nearer the Rallidce than they were to the Gruidce. Other anatomists 
have arrived at the same conclusion. But to discuss all of these opinions 
would occupy far more space than necessary in the present connection; 
so I shall confine myself to what one of the most painstaking and able 
avian anatomists had to say on the subject. I refer to the splendid work 
of William Macgillivray, who prepared all the bird dissections of American 
birds for Audubon's great work on "Birds of America." Macgilhvray 

Vol-j^^I"] Correspondence. 109 

paid unusual attention to the anatomy of the Limpkin (Aramus), which 
Audubon called the '' Scolopaceous Courlan," and his studies of it appear 
in Volume V (pp. 184-187). There is one full-page illustration devoted to 
the digestive tract and the trachea or windpipe. Audubon evidently be- 
lieved the bird to be a big Rail; and in so far as its habits and nesting were 
concerned, "very nearly alhed to Rallus elegans." After rendering his 
account of it, Macgilhvray's follows immediately, and among other things 
he points out that "this remarkable bird has exercised the ingenuity of the 
systematizing ornithologists, some of whom have considered it as a Heron, 
others a Crane, while many have made it a Rail, and many more a genus 
apart, but allied to the Rails, or to the Herons, or to both. It seems in 
truth to be a large Rail, with the wings and feet approaching in form to 
those of the Herons; but while frivolous disputes might be carried on ad 
libitum as to its location in the system of nature, were we merely to con- 
sider its exterior, it is fortunate that we possess a means of determining its 
character with certainty; — if we examine its digestive organs, we shall 
at once see if it be a Rail, or a Heron, or anything else. If a Heron, it will 
have a very wide ojsophagus, a roundish, thin-waUed stomach, very slender 
intestines, and a single short obtuse coecum; if a Rail or Gallinule, or bird 
of that tribe, it will have a narrow mouth, a narrow CESophagus, a very 
muscular stomach, intestines of moderate width, and two moderately long, 
rather wide coeca." 

Following this, Macgilhvray states that he has before him two specimens 
of the Limpkin, which were shot in Florida and preserved in spirits, and he 
sets forth in the ensuing three paragraphs his account of their anatomy. 
"Now, in all this," he adds, "there is nothing indicative of any affinity to 
the Herons; the structure of the intestinal canal being essentially like that 
of the Coots, Gallinules, and Rails. Even the external parts sufficiently 
indicate its station, the bill, the plumage and the coloring being more like 
those of the RalUnse than of any other family. 

"The Prince of Musignano, who first described this bird as a Rail, 
Rallus giganteus, afterwards adopted for it Vieillot's genus Aramus, and 
considered it as belonging to the Ardeidoe, forming a connecting link with 
them and the Rallidce, and ' aberrating somewhat towards the Scolopacidw, 
as well as tending a little towards the Psophidce, sub-family Gruince,' and 
claiming ' again a well-founded resemblance to the most typical form of the 
genus Rallus.' Finally, he reverts to his original idea, and places it at the 
head of the Rallidce. Mr. Swainson refers it to the Tantalidce, associating 
it with Anastomus, Tantalus, and Ibis, to which it certainly has very fittle 
affinity in any point of view." 

Under date of September 14, 1915, I have an interesting letter from my 
esteemed correspondent, Herr. Prof. Dr. H. von Ihering, Director of the 
Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in which he says : "Your letter of the 6th 
of August has given me the satisfaction to see that you are in accordance 
with me in separating the Aramidce from the famous 'family' of Gruida. 
.... It was a very useful and necessary work of you to study the anatomy 
-of Aramidce and its allies." 

110 Correspondence. [ja^. 

After the above had been written my attention was invited to a pecu- 
Har conformation of the trachea in Aramus vociferus by Dr. Edgar A. 
Mearns at the U. S. National Museum. He tells me that several years 
ago he collected a male specimen in Florida, and that he observed in it 
that the lower part of the trachea, above the bronchial bifurcation, formed 
a loop or convolution, which extended posteriorly to rest on the outer 
surfaces of the pectoralis major muscles, much as we find it in Ortalis. 
Dr. Mearns prepared this specimen and presented it to the United States 
National Museum, and a few days ago I made an effort to locate it 
through the kind assistance of Dr. C. W. Richmond. We were unsuc- 
cessfid in our search, and so the matter stands at present. 

I mention above a dissection of Macgillivray of Aramus. He had both 
a male and a female bird at hand when he wrote out his anatomical notes 
on this species for Audubon; but he evidently did not observe this peculi- 
arity of the windpipe in the male bird. He figurejl the trachea of the fe- 
male, in which sex the aforesaid convolution does not take place, and he 
doubtless used the male specimen for other purposes. 

Dr. Mearns also collected a female Limpkin, and the skeleton is in 
the National Museum collections. I have examined it there, and I find 
that no such looping of the windpipe is present in it. Possibly this struc- 
ture may have been described somewhere or other and I have never run 
across it; in the event it has not been described, however. Dr. Mearns is 
fully entitled to the credit of having first discovered it. 

If this letter chances to be read by any one interested in the anatomy of 
birds in Florida, I would be very glad to communicate with him and ar- 
range to have a male specimen of an adult Limpkin sent me, in that I may 
figure and fully describe this condition. 

In closing I would invite attention to the excellent paper by Dr. F. E. 
Beddard on the osteology of Aramus scolopacus {Ibis, (8) II., 1902, pp. 33- 
54, numerous figures), which is a valuable contribution to this subject. 

As this communication goes to you, another article of mine appears in 
'The Anatomical Record,' entitled the "Comparative Osteology of Cer- 
tain Rails and Cranes, and the Systematic Positions of the Supersuborders 
Gruiformes and Ralliformes." (Vol. 9, No. 10, Oct. 20, 1915, pp. 731- 
750, figs. 1-9). A very unusual and remarkable slip has taken place in 
this article; for, at the time I was engaged upon its preparation, and had 
completed it for the press, two manuscripts were before me, namely, the 
old one, published years ago when I considered that the Aramidce was a 
family belonging among the Cranes and their allies (Gruiformes), and the 
remodeled one, in which my present views were set forth. In assembling 
the pages, the old page, upon which the Classification and some of the 
remarks under "Conclusions" appeared, was accidentally substituted for 
the new one carrying the new classificatory scheme upon it. In this shape 
it was handed over to be typewritten. When galley proof came to hand, 
I was extremely busy with other work, and it was therefore turned over to 
an expert proofreader and most carefully corrected. This proofreader 

^"^'me'^'"] Notes and News. Ill 

knew nothing of the classification of birds, however, and so the galleys went 
forward with the result now to be found in "The Anatomical Record" 
(Vol. 9, No. 10, Oct. 20, 1915, pp. 749-750). 

In so far as my present views are concerned with respect to the position 
of the Aramidce in the system, they are correctly set forth in "The Ana- 
tomical Record" of August 20, 1915 (Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 591-606). 

Faithfully yours, 

R. W. Shufeldt. 


Systematic zoology occupies a peculiar position in the field of science, 
in that its pubhcations are to a certain extent privileged — i. e. protected 
by laws which do not pertain to other scientific publications. The latter 
are judged on their merits and an author who is guilty of slipshod careless 
writing, or whose publications are ambiguous or insufficient, is ignored; 
the merits of his work discounted, and his conclusions questioned. In 
other words he loses caste in the scientific world. Not so the describer 
of new species. No matter how bad or inadequate his diagnosis or how 
unnecessary the naming of the species, a name once proposed has nomen- 
clatural status, and is a part of systematic science — for this matter is 
governed by the rules of nomenclature. 

These rules were formulated mainly for the purpose of dealing with the 
earlier Hterature of zoology where names were proposed by writers who 
did not realize their responsibilities and did not consider the importance 
of making their descriptions adequate for the future. Obviously if we 
are to have stability of nomenclature on a basis of priority all of these 
earlier names must be considered and hence the rules. 

It probably never occurred to the framers of any of the Codes of Nomen- 
clature that present day systematists would take advantage of these rules 
to save themselves trouble, and publish new names with just enough de- 
scription to save their status under the rules; and yet this is precisely 
the situation that we face today in ornithology — and possibly in other 
branches of zoology and botany. 

Hundreds of new birds have been named in recent years with diagnoses 
limited to one or two lines. These birds are not described, no one could 
identify them from the meagre diagnoses but in each case a type specimen 
and a type locaUty are cited and in that way the law is complied with and 
we are prevented from rejecting the name as vmidentifiable ! The author 
has another species to his credit, he or the institution he represents has 
another type specimen, but other ornithologists are put to the trouble 

112 Notes and News. [jan 

of borrowing his type or journeying to his collection to see it, before they 
can tell what he is talking about and the advance of ornithological science 
is impeded. 

Usually a very little additional labor on the part of the author is all that 
is necessary to avoid all this trouble. Let us take a concrete example: 
A new form "b" is named and described as "similar to 'a' but larger" 
and a type specimen and locality are added. We have a specunen from 
another locality which is also "similar to 'a' but larger." We cannot tell 
whether it is identical with "b" or not. It maj' really differ more in size 
from "b" than the latter does from "a." 

Now the describer of "b" must have measured both "b" and "a." If 
he did not his work is so careless that he had no right to describe the new 
form at all. If he did measure them it would be very little trouble to add 
the measurements to his diagnosis. When an author has decided that a 
form is new, nine-tenths of his work is done, and it is a duty he owes to 
science to complete the work by presenting all the data that governed him 
in naming it. 

Some years ago a plea was circulated among scientific journals asking 
them to refuse to publish new genera unless a type species was designated. 
It would seem that some similar radical step must soon be taken with regard 
to these inadequately described new species and subspecies. 

It is not necessary to draw up long verbose descriptions, often a few 
words embodying definite measurements and definite color values are all 
that are necessary, combined with a comparison with nearly allied forms. 

If authors would realize that the advancement of science should stand 
ahead of the greed for names or types we should have no more of this 
inexcusable, slovenly work. 

Let it be hoped that in future it will be generally recognized that an 
author who is guilty of such work invites a reputation for carelessness and 
inaccuracy and that a journal which lends itself to such publication lessens 
its dignity. There are comparatively few ornithologists who are offenders 
but they set a very bad example. Let us hope that they may realize the 
evil of this sort of work and that all ornithologists and editors will stand 
together in strenuous opposition to its continuance. 

The Congo Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History has 
reached a most successful conclusion; and Mr. Herbert Lang, its leader, 
returned to New York on Nov. 12 last, after more than six years of 
uninterrupted work in the Congo Basin. His assistant, Mr. James P. 
Chapin, had preceded him by some 7 months. All their collections, in 
spite of the dangers and difficulties caused by the struggle in Europe, 
have arrived safely at the Museum; and it speaks well for conditions in the 
Belgian Congo that the party can boast of not having lost a single box of 
collections, even during the very long overland stages in the Congo, where 
not a few of them were carried for a distance of 50 days march. 

This enterprise was carried on with the cooperation of the Belgian 

Vol.XXXIIIj Notes and Neivs. 113 

Government, and a part of the zoological material is to be turned over to 
the Congo Museum at Tervueren. 

Messrs. Lang and Chapin sailed for the Congo in May, 1909, and have 
collected across the entire breadth of the Belgian Congo. After ascend- 
ing the river as far as Stanley Falls they continued eastward up into the 
great Ituri Forest, and then northward to the Upper Nile as far as the 
Lado Enclave and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. 

Conditions of transportation necessitated returning by much the same 
route, and on the return journey much additional material was secured. 
The greater part of the time was thus spent in the northeastern part of 
the Congo, one of the most remote, most primitive, and most interesting 
))ortions of the continent. 

The collections comprise not only magnificent representatives of the big 
game of the region, the Square-lipped Rhinoceros, the Okapi, the Derby 
Eland, the Bongo, and the Ituri Forest-Hog, but also extensive series of 
the mammals in general, birds, reptiles, amphibia and fishes, many thou- 
sands of invertebrates and a great deal of ethnological material, with 
numerous plaster-casts of faces from many different tribes, including the 
Pygmies. All this is supplemented by Mr. Lang's remarkable collection 
of photographs comprising some 7000 negatives. 

The vertebrate specimens alone number some 20,000, but we shall only 
consider in detail the results of the work in ornithology. The specimens 
of birds collected number over 6200, representing — it is estimated — 
some 600 different species. They are accompanied by a collection of nests 
and eggs, and many interesting notes on food, habits, voice, and migration. 
These results will assuredly constitute an important addition to our 
knowledge of the avifauna of the Congo, and it is hoped that a general 
report on them will be published. 

For the present, the new species discovered are being described in the- 
'Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History'; among them 
is a Very distinct new genus, Ceriocleptes, a Honey-Guide. The study 
of the bird collection has been entrusted to Mr. Chapin, junior mem- 
ber of the party, whose long field experience should prove extremely 

Above all Messrs. Lang and Chapin were fortunate in maintaining them- 
selves in good health for such a long period in a country justly famous for 
its disagreeable climate, insidious fevers, and sleeping sickness. 

A NATURAL history survey of the Yosemite National Park is now absorb- 
ing the attention of several of the staff members of the California Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology. In fact, during most of the past year, one or more 
representatives have been in the field, gathering specimens and information 
which will be used as basis of a scientific report and of a semi-popular 
account. Director Joseph Grinnell, Dr. Walter P. Taylor, Curator of 
Mammals, and Mr. Tracy I. Storer, Assistant Curator of Birds, are con- 
jointly engaged in compiling the reports. They, with several student- 
assistants, have already been associated in the field-work. 

114 Notes and News. [j^^ 

The objects of the work have been to ascertain the nature and extent 
of the Hfe-zones, and the life-history, systematic status, and inter-relation- 
ships of the constituent species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. 
As regards the birds, many extensions of range have been established, as 
also some interesting habit-relationships. 

Mr. George K. Cherrie one of the American Museum's representatives 
on Col. Roosevelt's Brazilian trip has for the past three months been 
engaged at the Museum in preparing for publication a report on the impor- 
tant collections of birds made by him while a member of that expedition. 
At the completion of that work the Museum plans to send Mr. Cherrie 
back to Brazil to investigate more thoroughly the bird-life of certain 
promising sections through which the Roosevelt party passed. This 
expedition will be made under the joint auspices of Col. Roosevelt and the 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has recently obtained 
the extensive collection of Guatemalan birds made by Messrs. Samuel N. 
Rhoads and Earl L. Poole on an expedition conducted by Mr. Rhoads 
during the early part of 1915. Mr. Rhoads is at present engaged in pre- 
paring a report on the collection. 

For some years past it has been customary to provide numbered ' identi- 
fication buttons' for members attending the 
A. O. U. Meetings. There has, however, been 
a demand for a more permanent A. O. U. badge 
which could be used at meetings in connection 
with a ribbon furnished by the local committee 
containing the identification number, etc.; or as 
an ornament suitable for wear at any time. 

To meet this demand a blue and gold enamel 
pin has been specially designed as shown in the 
accompanying cut, which will be mailed postpaid 
to any Associate, Member, or Fellow of the 

A. O. U. for fifty cents (cost price). — Address Dr. Jonathan Dwight, 134 

W. 71sT St., New York City. 

In an obituary notice of Graf Hans von Berlepsch in the October Auk 
there was an unfortunate confusion with Baron Hans von Berlepsch. The 
latter is still living and it is he who has done so much for bird protection 
not the late Graf. 

Just as we go to press, we learn with sorrow of the death, at Cannes, 
on November 28, of Henry E. Dresser, one of the original Honorary Fel- 
lows of the A. O. U. A notice will appear in the April 'Auk '. 




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The first authoritative and complete list of North 
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the Check-List in 1895. The ranges of species and 
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The numbering of the species is the same as in the 
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The Auk 

a (Sluarterl^ 3ournal of ©rnitboloo^ 


APRIL, 1916 

No. 2 


The American Ornithologists' Union 


Entered as eecond-claes mail matter in the Post OflBice at Boston, Mass. 



AuDUBONiANA. Bj' John E. Thayer. (Plates III-VI.) ..... 115 

Some Audubon Letters. By George Bird Grinnell ...... 119 

More Light on Audubon's Folio Birds of America. By Samuel N. Rhoads . 130 
The Call-Notes of Some Nocturnal Migrating Birds. By Winsor M. Tyler, 

M.D 1.32 

Bird Watching and Biological Science. By Julian S. Hitxley, B.A. . . 142 

Labrador Bird Notes. By Wells W. Cooke .... . . . 162 

Five Years Personal Notes and Observations on the Birds of Hatley, 

Stanstead County, Quebec — 1911-1915 (concluded). By H. Mousley . 168 

Additions to the Avifauna of Kerr Co., Texas. By Austin Paul Smith . 187 

New Petrels from Bermuda. By John Treadwell Nichols and Louis L. Mowbray 194 

General Notes. — The Type Locality of Uria troille, 19C>; The Pomarine Jaeger and the 
Purple Galllnule In Western Missouri, 196; The Breeding Range of Leach's Petrel, 
196; Barrow's Golden-eye at Wareham, Mass., 197; Lesser Snow Goose (Chen h. 
hyperboreus) ill Massachusetts, 197; Blue Goose (Chen cmrulescens) in Maine, 197; 
A Banded Canada Goose, 198; Two Trumpeter Swan Records for Colorado, 198; 
King Rail (Rallns elegans) in Massachusetts in November, 198; Willets in Migration, 
198; American Golden Plover (Charadrius d. dominicus) at Nantucket Island, 199; 
Nest of the Alder Flycatcher on the Pocono Mt., Pa., 199; Yellow-bellied Flycatcher 
(Empidoriax flnviventris) Breeding on the Pocono Mountain, Pa., 200; Swain.son's 
Hawk in Illinois, 200; Nesting of the Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra minor) in Crook Co., 
Oregon, 201; The Barn Owl (Aluco pratincola) in Massachusetts, 201; Cowbird 
wintering in Massachusetts. 201; Another Hybrid Warbler from Northern New 
Jersey, :i02; Cape May Warbler in Virginia in Winter, 203; The Occurrence of the 
Wester" House Wren on Smith's Island, Northampton County, Virginia, 203; 
Bicknell's Thrush in Northeastern Illinois, 203; Additions to the Birds of Custer 
Countv, Montana, 203; The Rose Beetle Poisonous to Young Birds, 205; A Fossil 
Feather from Taubate, 206. 

Recent Literature. — Bryan's Natural History of Hawaii, 207; The B. O. U. Jubilee 
Supplement to 'The Ibis,' No. 2, 209; Chapin on New Birds from the Belgian Congo, 
210; Oberholser on Races of the Crested Tern, 210; Riley on a New Hazel Grouse, 
211; McGregor on a New Prionochilus, 211; Chapman on New Colombian Birds, 
211; Coale on the Birds of Lake County, 111., 212; Roberts' 'Winter Bird-Life of 
Minnesota, 212 ; Kellogg and Grinnell on the Mammals and Birds of Trinity, Siskiyou, 
and Shasta Cos.. Cal., 212; Lincoln's 'The Birds of Yuma County, Colorado, 213; 
Witherby's Report on the 'British Birds' Marking Scheme, 213; Recent Papers by 
Van Oort, 213; Didier's 'Le Macareu.x du Kamtschatka,' 214; Annual Report of the 
National Association of Audubon Societies for 1915, 214; Recent Bird Biographies 
by Miss Stanwood, 214; Washburn's 'Further Observations on Minnesota Birds,' 
215; Recent Papers on Bird and Game Protection, 215; A Beginning of Phihppine 
Economic Ornithology, 26; Collinge's 'Some Observations on the Rate of Digestion 
in Different Groups of Wild Birds, 216; Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomolog- 
ical Publications, 216; The Ornithological Journals, 218; Ornithological Articles in 
Other Journals, 223; Publications Received, 214. 

Correspondence. — Membership in the A. O. U., 227; Methods of Recording Bird 
Song, 228. 

Notes and News. — Obituaries: Daniel Giraud Elliot, 230; Henry Eeles Dresser, 232; 
William Charlesworth Levey, 233; Leslie Waldo Lake, 233; Ornithological Activities 
of 1816, 233; Mr. Beebe's Demarara Expedition, 234; The Delaware Valley 
Ornithological Club, 235; Museum of Comparative Oology, 235; ' Blue-Bird,' 235; 
The Annual Meeting of the A. O. U. at Philadelphia. 235. 

'THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, is edited, beginning with volume for 1912, by Dr. Witmer 

Terms: — $3.00 a year, including postage, strictly in advance. Single num- 
bers, 75 cents. Free to Honorary Fellows, and to Fellows, Members, and Asso- 
ciates of the A. O. U. not in arrears for dues. 

The Office of Publication is at 30 Boylston St., Cambridge, Boston, 

Subscriptions may also be addressed to Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Business 
Manager, 2 East 34th St., New York, N. Y. Foreign Subscribers may 
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All articles and communications intended for publication and all books 
and publications for notice, may be sent to DR. WITMER STONE, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manuscripts for general articles should reach the editor at least six weeks 
before the date of the number for which they are intended, and manuscripts 
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preceding the date of the number in which it is desired they shall appear. 
































Vol. XXXIII. April, 1916. No. 2, 



Plates III-VI. 

I HAD the good fortune recently to secure some very interesting 
Auduboniana, formerly the property of Dr. George Parkman of 
Boston. There are four original water-color paintings, represent- 
ing the Butter-ball, Golden-eye and Merganser and the Golden- 
crowned Kinglet; also the original specimen of Parkman's Wren 
mounted on a twig, in a paper box with a glass front. The box is 
six and three quarters inches tall, four and a half inches wide and 
three inches deep, and the bird is in excellent condition. Two 
letters containing some references to the bird complete the collec- 

The paintings are reproduced on the accompanying plates and 
the letters are printed in full below. The inscriptions on the paint- 
ings are as follows: 

Plate III. 

Henderson March 19, 1815 
No 71 44 The Spirit or Butterball — Bufflehead 

Plate IV. 

Weight of female lib. 2/16 
Length 16| inches 


116 Thayer, Avduboniana. lADrii 

I April 

Breadth 27^ inches 
Tail feathers 16 inches 
French name 

Louisiana Gademe 

Golden Eye 

Plate V. 

Longueur total 26 pouces 

Pesa (?) 3 lb. 13 onze 

Ano (?) gure 36 p«^ (?) 

J'Enleve avec beaucoup de Deficulte 

de I'eau ou il naga tres profond. — 

Chute de L'Ohio 17 December 1809. J. A. 

No. 144 

64 Malaga Shell Drake. Goosander. 

Mergus Merganser A. W. 

Plate VL 

Golden Crested Wren A. W. 

Sylvia Regulus 

154 Shippingport, Kentucky 

Jan'y 28, 1820. 

drawn by J. J. Audubon 

Mistletoe on Black Walnut 

This last is the most beautiful of all the original Audubon drawings 
that I have. 

Parkman's Wren was one of the species discovered by J. K. Town- 
send on the Columbia River and Audubon describes it in Vol. V of 
the 'Ornithological Biography' p. 310, among "Species found in 
North America but not figured in the ' Birds of America.' " He 
states that Townsend secured but a single specimen and adds at 
the end of his account 

"Feeling perfectly confident that this species is distinct from 
any other, and not finding it anywhere described, I have named it 
after my most kind, generous, and highly talented friend, George 
Parkman, Esq. M. D. of Boston, as an indication of the esteem in 

^°^-i^^^"^] Thayer, Auduhoniana. 117 

which I hold him, and of the gratitude which I ever cherish towards 

The first letter was evidently written when Audubon was en- 
grossed in his work on the quadrupeds and while he and his sons 
were issuing the octavo edition of the " Birds of America." In this 
the Parkman's Wren was figured and as the part containing it 
appeared in 1841 it is probable that it was one of those which Dr. 
Parkman distributed in Boston for Audubon. After the plate was 
drawn it is evident that the type specimen was mounted as a gift 
for Parkman. The two letters follow. 

New York, June 20"^ 1841 
My Dear Friend. — 

I intended having written to you yesterday by Miss Shatuck, 
who was good enough to spend the day with us, but I was so deeply 
engaged on a drawing of Rocky Mountain Flying Squirrels, that the 
time for her departure came suddenly and I could merely ask of her 
to say to you, that your last letter and remittance had reached 
us in safety, and with the unexampled promptness shewn by you 
on the three occasions you have been troubled with the delivery 
of 46 parts of our work to 46 of our Boston subscribers; and for 
which as I have said before I am very sorry to have nought but 
our sincerest thanks and gratitude to you for this, so remarkable 
friendly proceeding. May our God reward you and yours for all 
your generous actions. 

I thank you also for your memorandums about the quadrupeds 
in the Boston Museum as I see that our animal there may save me 
the trouble of going to the State of Maine for it. When I was last 
under the hospitable roof of our Friend Doc'' Shattuck, I saw in 
George's room a N". of the "Penny Magazine" in which there is a 
plate representing a family of Beavers at work, that reminded me 
greatly of what I have seen in the ponds of Indiana some thirty 
years ago, and which I should like to have for a few days to assist 
in part in the making of the background to my Drawing of these 
animals, drawn from the Individual you procured for me. I will 
take good care of the N". and will return it safely very soon. 

Should George Shattuck have forwarded that N". to M''. B. of 
Baltimore, pray ask him to write to the later to send it me as soon 

r Auk 

W^ Thayer, Avduhoniana. LApril 

as convenient. If per chance you could procure for me a live Hare 
in the Summer dress (It is pure white in winter) pray do so and do 
not mind the price or the cost of its conveyance to me. This 
animal is abundant in the northern portions of your State and is 
fully double the size of the common Hare called the "Rabbit" 

With sincerest regards and kindest remembrances to all around 
you and our mutual Friends, 

believe [me] yours always 

John J. Audubon 

The "Parkman Wren" 
well mounted will soon be 
on your chimney mantle! 

New York, August 13th 1841. 

My Dear Friend, — 

By Mr. Legare who revisits your City, I have the pleasure of 
sending to you, the " Parkman' s Wren" and I hope you will receive 
it in good order. We found it necessary to recaste the position of 
this little fellow on account of the many shots that passed through 
its neck when killed. 

I also send you the numbers of the little work wanted by General 
Lyman which please have delivered to him with my best regards. 
I should like you to receive the money for those numbers, so as not 
to cause confusion in our accounts with Messrs. Little & Brown. 
I had the pleasure of introducing Mr. Legare last year and therefor 
you will remember that Gentleman. 

With sincerest good wishes to all the Dear ones around you, 

believe me always 

Your attached Friend and Servant, 

John J. Audubon. 





°igi6 J Grinnell, Some A%tduhon Letters. 119 



For many years I have had in my possession a lot of Audubon 
papers, among them the two letters printed below from John James 
Audubon to his son Victor. For me these letters possess unusual 
interest — personal rather than ornithological — because of the 
light they throw on the naturalist's family life, and the suggestions 
they give as to his business methods and the progress of the great 
work. Then, too, the first was written just as he was leaving New 
York to start on his famous Labrador trip and the other just after 
his return. The letter here printed, however, is not the last one 
written to Victor before leaving for Labrador, for Miss Maria R. 
Audubon quotes from one dated May 16, 1833, which we may 
fairly assume was written from Boston.^ 

The two sons, Victor and John, were at this time very young. 
Victor was about 23, and John only 20. John, in fact, had been 
so boyish as to cause his father some uneasiness. Yet on this 
expedition he showed that he possessed qualities which already 
made him of great service to his father. Later he became a painter 
of whom his father was proud, and it was John who gathered much 
material concerning North American mammals, which was pub- 
lished in the "Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America." 

The young men referred to in the second letter were, of course, 
Joseph Coolidge, George C. Shattuck, William Ingalls, and Thomas 
Lincoln. John Woodhouse Audubon was the fifth. 

My father was for many years a near neighbor of the Audubons. 
I attended a school conducted by Madam Audubon in the Victor 
Audubon house, where she lived, and as a boy I often saw Victor. 
I remember him as bedridden from an injury, and he died, I think, 
in August, 1860. 

John Woodhouse I knew very well in the way that a small boy 
may know a middle aged man. I used to play with the sons of 
Victor and John Woodhouse about the houses and barns of the 

1 Audubon and His Journals, I, p. G7. 

120 Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. [apfIi 

Audubon family, and John Audubon as a friend of my father's was 
often at my father's house. He was a bluff, gruff, but friendly man, 
and was always willing to talk about birds, mammals, or, indeed, 
any natural history object, to any boy who asked him questions. 
It was to him that I took a small "pigeon" which I had killed near 
our home, which he identified as a ground dove {Chamcepelia passe- 
rina). I noted the taking of this bird many years afterward. "^ 

John Woodhouse Audubon died in 1862. 

The Audubon family and many of their kinsfolk were, of course, 
well known to their near neighbors. I used to see some of the 
Berthouds, Bachmans, Talmans and Mallorys, the latter being 
relatives of Mrs. Victor Audubon, Victor's second wife, who was 
Georgine R. Mallory. 

Miss Eliza Mallory gave me the letters here printed. A room 
in the Victor Audubon house was being cleared out, and the old 
papers burned, and Miss Mallory suggested that as I was interested 
in birds, I might like some of these papers. They were bundled 
up and given to me, while the others fed a bonfire. 

Among the papers which I have are many sheets which appear 
to be the printers' copy from which the "Viviparous Quadrupeds 
of North America" was set, a long letter from Thomas Lincoln, 
dated November 17, 1846, describing some of the larger mammals 
of Nova Scotia, and a half a dozen drafts of bird biographies in the 
handwriting of John James Audubon, material which no doubt 
was afterward put into good English by Audubon's great assistant, 
William MacGillivray. Among this material are alsp two or 
three sheets in the handwriting of Prof. Spencer F. Baird, whose 
association with Audubon was close for some years. 

The letters follow. 

New York April 28th 1833 — 

My Dear Victor — 

On opening the box containing the numbers last sent to this 

place for distribution, we found the contents Wet and of course 

some of them damaged. We have however dried them and made 

of them that could be done and they will all go on Monday (to- 

1 The Nuttall Bulletin, III, p. 147. 

^°' 19U) J Grinnell, Some Atidubon Letters. 121 

morrow) to their Several destinations — In future I recommend 
that Each parcel of numbers for the diferent individuals are rolled 
up in separate Parcel, inclosed in good stout brown Paper, and 
each directed outside, enumerating the numbers therein contained 
— then put all the Rolls in a Box — in this manner they all will 
be less liable to Injury, will not need to be undone here for we have 
no trouble at all at the Custom House, and it will Save the handling 
of the Plates at the Compting House. — 

N. Berthoud rendered me his account yesterday I send you in- 
close a Copy of it — and I also send you a Copy of a general & 
particular memorandum left with him, by the assistance of which 
the Business is clearly exibited, so that each Subscriber's Standing 
with the Work Shows at once. — 

The Balance in our favour in N. Berthoud's hands is $1358.91 — 
We have due South of this $1834.48. and at Boston $1220.00 — 
altogether $4413.39. — The Boston amount will be ready for me 
when I reach there on Thursday next. — I take from N. B's hands 
here $800:00.— 300 $ of which I give to your Dear Mother — when 
at Boston I will take 500 $ more and send the Balance to N. 
Berthoud — he will then have about $1278.91 of cash out of which 
he will send you 100 £ say 480 $ leaving still with him about 
$798.91. besides what he will collect from the South the amount 
which is mentioned above, all of which I hope will be collected ere 
I return to this Place, as early as I can without losing the oppor- 
tunity of doing all that can be done. 

You will easily perceive by all this, that we have been extremely 
fortunate of late on this Side of the Water, and the 400 £ forwarded 
to you will fully enable you to meet the demands of Ha veil fe'' for 
the 20 Volumes you have to send here & other emergencies. — 
We have at Present 51 Subscribers in the U. States, without the 
name of Doc"" Croghan from whom not a word has been heard, and 
also without that of Baron Krudener who is now at Washington 
City, but who has not taken any cognisance of the letter I sent 
him. N. Berthoud is going to write to him and I hope the Baron 
will take the work. — he certainly ought. 

I found the Plates sent here better coloured than usual and with 
your present assistance I greatly hope the goodness of the Work 
will still improve. — Nicholas will forward you Two very beautiful 
Numbers — the Plates are as follows, 

122 Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. [ April 

N° 37. Plate 181 
" — 182 
" — 183 
" — 184 
" — 185 

N° 38.— " — 186 
" — 187 
" — 188 
" — 189 
" — 190 

Golden Eagle Figures 1 

Ground Doves .5 

Golden crested Wren 2 

Mangrove Humming Bird 5 

Bachman's Warbler 2 

Pinnated Grous 3 

Boat Tail Grackle -. 2 

Tree Sparrow 2 . 

Snow Bunting 3 . 

Yellow bellied Woodpecker 2 

I should have sent you 2 more Numbers had I The Two large Plates 
for them, but hoping that I may meet with something Large & 
perhaps New I Shall not do so, until I return which will be Still 
time enough. — I am very anxious to See the 2d Volume finished 
and for this reason invite you to push the Work, as much as you 
can & have it very well executed meantime. 

The State of Maryland is Subscribed to by D. Ridgely M. D. 
Librarian of that State, he desires the P* Volume and the following 
numbers forwarded as soon as can be. — Send it here — as he has 
authorized N. B. to draw on him for Payment. — Miss Harriet 
Douglass also desires to have her Number sent here for the Future. 

I hope the Copies for Co' Perkins & others at Boston & vicinity, 
as well as for W'"' Oakes, & John Neale will soon arrive. — 

April 30"' — Since the above, I have obtained Two more Sub- 
scribers — the names of whom are 
1. Rich'' F. Carman. New York 
1. L. Reed Do Do.— 

I was told last night that the State has also Subscribed, but 
cannot tell until I see this day's Paper — Whilst at the Lyceum of 
Natural History last evening, I was promised their Subscription 
on Monday next — being the Society's day of business. 

I have concluded to send the 2 Numbers of Drawings by this 
Packett — The Tin case containing them, will be given to the 
especial care of the Cap" on whom you will do well to call im- 
mediately. — I have given a P* Volume to Nicholas Berthoud; 
there are many enquiries made to see the Work and it answers 
that purpose well. 

°jgig j Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. 123 

John & I leave for Boston either this afternoon or tomorrow — 
perhaps tomorrow as we have much to do. — It is not probable 
that Ed'' Harriss will join us at East Port and go to Labrador with 
us — I shall write to you by every opportunity as these may occur, 
and doubtless from Halifax. 

M"" Inman has painted my Portrait in Oil, and I say that it is a 
truer portrait of me than even the Miniature. — Now my Dear 
Victor exert yourself in the having all the Volumes compleated 
which I have written for — See that they are carefully, packed with 
Paper between each &' &" &'^ I shall not close this until I have 
given the Box to the Cap" and when I hope to add the Subscrip- 
tion of this State. — 

2, o'clock — I have just returned from the bustle of the Lower 
part of the City — the State has Subscribed! Therefore add that 
valuable one. There is no Packet for London Tomorrow, there- 
fore the Drawings will go off on the 10*^ of May by the Cap" 
in whose particular care they will be given. — These 10 Drawings 
have been insured this morning against all Risk, for 2,000 $ at | per 
Centum — I hope you will receive them in perfect order; they are 
carefully packed by myself in a Tin Box securely sodered &"' &". 

We have now 54. Subscribers in America. 
M'' Inman is going to Paint the Portrait of your Dear Mother, and 
I have not a doubt that it will be " good & true" 

The Weather is extremely Warm — the Thermometer ranges at 
nearly 72. The Martins are flying over the City and Tomorrow I 
shall fly toward the Coast of Labrador — If fortunate I shall bring 
a load of Knowledge of the Water Birds which spend the Winter 
in our Country and May hope to Compete in the study of their 
Habits with any Man in the World. 

My Good Friend Cliarles Bonaparte as (I am told) taken un- 
brage at a Passage in My Introduction (first Volume) Which 
proves how dificult it is to please every one — I am going to write 
to him by Duplicate to try to correct that Error of his — God ever 
bless You my Dear Son and May We all meet Well & Happy 
Yours ever affectionately, 

John J. Audubon. 

124 , Gkinnell, Some Audubon Letters. [April 

New York 9th Sept^ 1833 — 
My Dear Beloved Victor. — 
John and myself returned here in excellent health, day before 
yesterday, and had the good fortune to find our Dearest friend 
your Mamma quite well also — indeed, the whole family here are 
well. — before I answer or note the contents of your many valuable 
letters, I shall give you a sketch of our Voyage and a list of the new 
Birds &c which we did procure. — We sailed from Eastport on the 
€th of June, followed the coast of Nova Scotia to the entrance of 
the Straights of Cansso through which we passed and were much 
pleased with, as it is truly beautiful! resembling somewhat the 
Hudson River. — we made towards the Madgalane Islands, visited 
them, found them poor, no birds &c and proceeded to the famous 
Gannet Rocks and there saw a grand sight of Gannets & other 
water birds engaged in incubation.^ — went on to the Island of 
Anticotte and on the 11th day from our departure at Eastport 
anchored in an harbour at the Esquimaux Islands on the Coast of 
Labrador in Company with several fishing vessels. The aspect of 
the Country of Labrador was as new to us as it proved itself to be 
Wild, Rocky, Barren of Large Trees, covered with the deepest and 
richest coloured mosses and the richest of dwarfish vegetation 
peeping out of the mosses that one can Imagine — on first landing 
the whole appeared to us delightfully curious, but no sooner did 
we ^attempt to proceed in Search of Birds that we found our pro- 
gress over the Country so dificult and so Irksome that our Spirits 
became much dampened, the more so indeed when we discovered 
that very few Birds were there to be found — to walk 10 miles 
per day was as much as the strongest of our party could well 
endure, and we all returned every evening as much fatigued as if 
we had walked 60 Miles on a Turnpike road. — for three hundred 
Miles of that Coast which we visited the Country was always the 
same; few trees of a very small size. Deep swampy moss ever and 
anon growing over hard, dark red looking Granit, supported by the 
constant foggy dampness of a chilling atmosphere without scarce 
an Inhabitant and becoming Wilder and Wilder as we proceeded; 
we landed first at latitude 51 . visited, [some] hundreds of Sea Islands ; 
Some hundreds of Inland lakes all Supplied with melted Snow 
waters — Snow laid deep in every Valey unexposed to the Sun and 









^"^■lOie^""] Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. 125 

we had to keep constant fires and clothe ourselves as we would do 
at Eastport in Winter — Yet the Musquitoes, and Black flies & 
Horse flies were as troublesome as they are in the swamps of 
Florida — we had storms almost every other days and rain in 
aboundance — Yet we never gave up the task before us, that of 
procuring New Birds and ascertaining the habits of all the species 
which resort to that dreary Country during Summer to breed. 
We fell in Company with the British Surveying Schooner the 
Gulnare, commanded by Captain Bayfield R. N. — Lieut. Bo wen, 
&c. and Doc'' Kelly — all these persons being highly Scientific and 
Gentlemanly, were most agreable Companions to us, and we 
enjoyed their Society much. — we gradually reached the Straits 
of Belle Isles about the 20"' of August. — on the 15 July this passage 
was still much encumbered with floating Ice and Icebergs, on the 
15 of August we had an Iceberg within 2 Miles of us fastened to 
the bottom, and looking most beautifull. — The season closing upon 
us we returned sailing along the Northwest coast of NewFoundland 
which we found stil more elevated, rugged and Wild looking than 
the Labrador coast; we anchored at the head of St. Georges Bay, 
Spent there a Week and ransacked the Country as much as the 
dificulty of walking would permit, and sailed for Pictou (Nova 
Scotia) near which we landed and from thence sent the Ripley 
round to Eastport where She arrived safely 2 days before us. We 
crossed Nova Scotia by way of Truro, Halifax and Windsor; at 
the latter place we saw the tide rise 60 feet — took a steamer to 
S' John's, New Brunswick and arrived at Eastport all well and 
without having met with a single accident of note, or felt a moment 
of sickness except that occasionned by the motions of our vessel 
Whilst tossing over the Gulph of S' Lawrence; the vilest of seas. — 
The Young Gentlemen under my care proved all to be excellent 
and useful Companions, and I frequently felt as if all belonged to 
our family. Yet I was glad to give my charge over, for my anxiety 
was truly great and often raised to a high pitch, when ever we 
encountered a storm out of Harbour. — 

We have secured 8 New Birds which have given us 2 Superb 
large plates, and 6 Small ones. — The New Species consist of 2 
Falcos, 1 Finch, 1 Titmouse, 1 Cormorant, 1 Curlew, 1 Fly catcher, 
— The other I cannot recollect just now. I made 25 Drawings, 

126 Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. [ April 

all of which are not finished; but I have more than enough to 
Compleat the 2"^ Volume to my entire satisfaction. — The 2 large 
plates are one, a covey of the Willow Grouse, male female & Young, 
very beautifull. The other the Labrador Falcon male & female, 
large & beautifull, John killed both these. — The knowledge I have 
acquired of the Water Birds and of those of the land which visit 
us only during Winter, is most valuable and I have Written all I 
saw — Our voyage has been very costly. — about 2000 Dollars; 
but I am glad I went, it will give me and the Work a decided superi- 
ority over all that has ever been undertaken or perhaps ever Will 
be of the Birds of Our Country. — Now I will give you an account 
of my plans for the present Year, and indeed for the next, adopting 
however Whatever you My Dear Son will say in return to this Sub- 
ject I wish to Leave New York in about Ten days for the express 
purpose of procuring Subscribers, a good number of which I hope 
can be procured in the U. S. — and to proceed by way of Phila- 
delphia to Baltimore, remain there a fortnight or So — then to 
Washington City where I expect to have the heads of the diferent 
dep^'' to Norfolk, Richmond & Fredericksburgh in Virginia and to 
Charleston and Savannah further South — at Charleston your 
Mamma and John to remain the Winter at our friend Bachman's 
who invited her to do so when he was here this Summer. Could I 
procure an additional number of 50 it would be a most valuable 
Journey, and I would besides [acciuire] some information about 
Birds if not any New such. 

Havell's last letter to us, shows I think a good disposition to 
continue the work on the same terms he has heretofor done it, and I 
think that the letter which I am going to write to him and of which 
I send you a copy inclose will restore him to his proper senses. — 
I feel confident that he does not lose by our Work, whatever he does 
in other speculations, and / think that should we remove it from 
his hands into any other persons that his name would soon suffer 
as well as his business. 

I am truly delighted at the contents of all and every one of your 
letters my Dear Victor. — I am indeed proud to have such a son — 
I look on your prudence, your improvements and your Industry as 
unparralled in a young man of your age, in a Word I look upon you 
as on a true friend and a most competent partner in the completion 

^*'' 191^^ ] Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. 127 

of the arduous undertaking before us. — I cannot say any more, 
than that I and your Mother are quite Happy at the knowing that 
you are so well able to do all for us and for yourself that we could 
possibly desire. — to go on in the same manner is all we can wish, 
and we feel perfectly confident that you will do so. — 

We are all anxiety to hear from you after your return to England 
from your visit to the Continent, and [should] you not have pro- 
cured a single subscriber, it is well to [have] ascertained the fact 
that none were there, besides the knowledge which you have 
acquired of the Nations you have visited — a knowledge which no 
description can ever convey. — to speak the French Language alone 
will be of great import to you.— We hope that you Draw Some, 
and also that you study music at your leisure hours, however few 
these hours may be. — 

When at Philadelphia I will ship direct from that City the Bird 
skins, shells &'' not belonging to our private Collection for you to 
dispose of as opportunities offer. — 

I am greatly in want of One dozen or So of the best French water 
colour brushes of assorted sizes made in Paris — 

Pitois can. send them to you. They cost from 5 to 8 Francs each 
and are made good only by Vial Lebault, successeur de Cherion, 
Fabricant de Pinceaux N° 61. Quai de I'horloge du Palais, pres 
du Pont Neuf, a Paris. Some very large, none very sviall. 

In the first volume of the "Birds of America" there exists 2 
repetition of species, "The Female Turkey" and "the black and 
Yellow Warbler" — and in the 2'* Volume one repetition — "the 
Young of the White headed Eagle" This renders the numbers of 
actual species less by tlu-ee than 200 the proper number intended 
these Volumes should Contain — I now think that the character 
of the work, and the fame of the author, would be greatly enhanced, 
by giving 3 extra small plates in the last number of the 2^ Volume; 
it would be fulfilling to the very letter the promises to subscribers 
contained in The Original Prospectus, and would the more enable 
us to enforce the taking in of the Work by all those who have 
aflflxed their own signature to the original list of subscription, and 
have so unwaranttedly abandoned it since the time they sub- 
scribed. — The extra cost of these three plates would certainly be 
considerable, but it would I think work well and exibit an unpre- 

128 Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. [April 

cedented Generosity in Works of Any Description — Think of 
this, talk of it to our most excellent friend Children, and write to 
the Rathbones also on that subject and let us know all — Mean- 
time I shall send you the Drawings for the 2 last numbers, the 
very last consisting of 8 Drawings instead of 5. — These numbers 
surpass all that have been published in point of Interest and 
beauty. — although there will not be any more labour for the En- 
graver or Colourers than previously. — 

I would regret indeed to be obliged to remove the Work from 
Havell's hands unless forced to do so by not meeting with another 
person equally competent and at the same prices which we now pay, 
it would have to be done; for between us, I think it very ungrateful 
in him to have even mentioned such an Intention. — He says you 
both agree very well now — I hope it will be long the same thing, 
and I am quite sure that your diligence at overseeing the Work 
was a great source of discontent on his part — but we have to look 
for and to think of our own Interests quite as much as any other 
in this boisterous World of ours. 

Present my thanks to Friend Bell of the London Atlas and ask 
of him to publish the long paragraph in the paper which accom- 
panies this — I am writing to the Duke of Sussex — deliver the 
letter yourself. — Remember me most kindly to Cuthbertson who 
is indeed a most excellent friend of ours. 

When you have a good opportunity, see if the 2 first Volumes 
could be printed in Colours and bound in Paris, the Price &' , You 
furnishing English Paper for which I think no duty would have to 
paid in France, for Such a work — 

I would like to go to England the P' of June next to publish 
the 2'' Volume of Biography, and yet I would like to remain in the 
U. S. one Year more to compleat the Water Birds as far as in our 
power. Send us your Views on all subjects and we will [decide] as 
may be best from your letters — 

Tell Havell that the Water Birds will not be more troublesome 
than the Land Birds and that although some Landscapes or por- 
tions of backgrounds will be attached to each Drawing; these will 
not be more than equivalent to the Plants &'^ of the Land Birds. 
I am glad that what you say of the Young Engraver there coincides 
with my opinion of him — Keep Kidd at work as much as possible 

^°'' 191^6^"'] Grinnell, Some Audubon Letters. 129 

and take away from him the Paintings and Drawings when ever a 
good opportunity offers, those would be better in your possession 
than in his at any time. — I do not like to send the original list 
of subscribers to you now — it has a considerable effect in the eyes 
of those who think of subscribing here, but I can send you the 
names of all who have signed it and shall do so : — 

Now our Dear friend and Son, I will speak of your Dear Brother 
John — I have been extremely pleased with his Industry, and the 
loss of many of his boyish habits — indeed it was a great consola- 
tion to have him for my right hand man on all occasions — he lost 
no time whilst on this voyage, and I am glad to say that I have 
discovered in him, such dispositions to instruct himself — his 
memory is excellent and his powers of observation equally so — he 
needs only to be constant in his application to study, to render 
him as yourself are, the purest Source of this Life's comfort — never 
did music sound sweeter to mine ear, than the soft strains of his 
Violin which most fortunately was taken with us into the Dreary 
regions which we visited. — 

I will now put this aside and write to Havell — This goes to- 
morrow and I may find more to say — indeed I will speak of the 
subscribers here, at Boston &'" although not at length as I have an 
immense quantity of other letters to write at present and in a 
hurry — 

Should you prefer writing to M"^ Musson who probably will be 
in Paris do so, for the Pencils or brushes — or to M' Green. 

I have read your answer to that crazed man Watterton — it is 
good, but I am of opinion that to say nothing in reply to all such 
nonsense is the best way of punishing both the writers and pub- 
lishers. — 

Whilst at Boston I received the amount up to this date [due] by 
W" Oakes and M"^ Arnold, the rest remained unpaid and [I put the] 
collection in the hands of Doc'^ Parkman who is as much [as ever] 
a most excellent friend of ours. — Nuttal is now engaged in the 
Publication of his Water Birds and I am going to give him a few 
small, matters, which he will publish as my own and has a tendency 
to keep our name before the Scientific World — he is I think a 
good and true man — Now my Dear Son I will close this and 
write again very shortly — God bless and prosper you — John 

130 Rhoads, Note on the 'Birds of America.' [\^ln 

and Mamma join me in those wishes and I remain for ever Your 
affectionate Friend & Father — 

John J Audubon. 

Tell our Friend Children that I shall soon make a Shipment of 
Insects to him. 




The following transcript of a clipping, which, from the character 
of what is printed on the reverse side, appears to have been cut 
from a New York City newspaper of January, 1838, I recently 
found laid within the leaves of an old book. It confirms my 
belief, long entertained, that the estimates placed by bibliographers 
and historians on the number of published copies of the first 
(Elephant Folio) edition of Audubon's 'Birds of America' were 
much too small. 

Mr. Ruthven Deane, whose researches in Auduboniana cover a 
long period, writes me that "it was believed from creditable 
information that the number of copies published was seventy-five," 
and that "the Audubon family [descendants] believe that was 
about the number." 

My experience in the old-book business during the last fourteen 
years, in which time I have examined or personally known of the 
sales of forty or fifty copies of this folio fedition in America alone, 
was sufficient reason for placing the probable number of copies 
issued at considerably above one hundred. In the past twenty 
years it is probable that one New England print-dealer has broken 
up thirty or forty volumes of this magnificent work, selling the 
plates separately for framing and other illustrative purposes. 
The newspaper clipping is as follows : 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate VI. 

Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
From an origi.val watercolor by John James Audubon. 

^"'ilie^^^'] Rhoads, Note on the 'Birds of America.' 131 

"The Birds of America. By J. J. Audubon', F.R.S., &c. 

When only a few numbers of this Work had been pubhshed, Mr. Audu- 
bon was informed that many gentlemen, as well as a considerable number of 
Natural History and other Societies, Libraries, &c. were desirous of pos- 
sessing it, but that the time to be occupied in the publication, (16 years) 
was so great, the casualties of life so many, and the probability of its ever 
being finished, therefore, so remote, they determined to wait its completion 
before they subscribed. 

With respect to man^^ Societies, moreover, the rules preclude them for 
the above reason, from subscribing to any work of this kind published 

Mr. Audubon, therefore, feels desirous, for the information of such 
persons or Societies, to announce that seventy-eight numbers have now 
appeared, and that with seven more it will be completed. He confidently 
expects to present the last number to his subscribers on the 1st of April or 
May next. 

As a comparatively small number of persons only are acquainted with 
this work, for the information of others, it may be well to observe that the 
whole of the Birds (about 470 Species) known to inhabit North America 
with the exception of those of Mexico and Texas, are exhibited. 

The figures are all of the size of life, after drawings made from nature, 
during the last thirty-five years; and the Birds are accompanied by a very 
large number of Botanical Specimens, some of them not figured in any other 

This Publication was commenced in 1826, and the Prospectus then issued 
anticipated a period of sixteen years as necessary for its completion; 
of that term only twelve years have elapsed, and in six months more it 
will be terminated. 

In addition to the fidelity with which every Bird and Plant is represented, 
this work has another great attraction, from the circumstance that it forms 
a complete history of the Birds of America, and will in after times be a 
point from which to institute a comparison for the purpose of ascertaining 
what changes civilization produces in the Fauna of our great continent. 

It was contemplated that eighty numbers would finish the Work; but 
in consequence of new and rare species having been recently discovered 
by the author, and also received, from the Prince of Musignano, Thos. 
Nuttall, Esq. Dr. John Townsend, and others, eighty five numbers will be 
required (in which will be included the Eggs of many of the Species) . 

The particulars of the plan of the work may be reduced to the following 

The size is whole sheet double elephant, the paper being of the finest 

The Work appears in Numbers — each consisting of five Plates. 

The price of each Number is $10, payable on delivery. 

132 Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. LApril 

The number of perfect copies at present subscribed for does not exceed 
190, of which upwards of 80 are subscribed for in America; and the expense 
of getting them up is so great, that not more than ten or fifteen copies 
above the number subscribed for, will be prepared, 

The Establishment necessary for its publication will be broki'n up 
when the last Number is colored; and any application for the Work must 
be made to N. Berthoud, Esq., New-York; Dr. Geo. Parkman, Boston; 
Rev. Jno. Bachman, Charlestown, S. C; James Grimshaw, Esq. New- 
Orleans, or W. G. Bakewell, Esq., Louisville; before the 1st of May next, 
as after that time no subscription can be received. New York, Jan. 11, 
1838. jail eedSw" 




No matter hov^r carefully we watch the land bu-ds in our vicinity 
during the latter part of the summer with a view of ascertaining 
when they leave their breeding-ground to begin their southward 
journey, we rarely see any evidence of migration in Eastern Massa- 
chusetts before the middle of August. Our first intimation, per- 
haps, that a species has left us is within a few days of August 15. 
The Yellow Warbler's song then drops from the summer chorus. 
This species is common and sings freely until a certain day, — gen- 
erally between the 10th and 15th of August; after this date we no 
longer hear the song and we no longer find the bird in the vicinity 
until weeks later, when a few migrants pass through this region in 
September. Although the Least Flycatcher's song period is over 
some time before that of the Yellow Warbler, this bird (the Fly- 
catcher) lingers on its breeding-ground apparently, for it is not 
uncommon to find a silent Chebec on any day in August, and, like 
the Yellow Warbler, Chebecs, as migrants, occur occasionally in 
September. But before even the Yellow Warbler has left our 
garden shrubbery, the autumnal migratory flight has been long 

1 Read on Jan. 17, 1916, at a meeting of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. 

Vol. XXXIII 1 


J Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. 133 

under way. Every night early in August, or even late in July, we 
may hear hundreds of bird-calls from nocturnal migrants, as they 
pass over head southward in the quiet and darkness. 

For the past few years I have been much entertained and fasci- 
nated by listening from my sleeping-porch to the notes of these 
migrating birds. Being practically out-of-doors, my attention 
was naturally drawn to the frequent clear-cut " chips " and whistles ; 
they were so distinct and sharp, and apparently so near, but withal 
so mysterious and baffling as to arouse my curiosity. One is at 
first impressed by the fact that most of the call-notes which he 
hears over and over again, often in great variety, are notes which he 
has never heard before, and consequently can ascribe to no known 
bird. Again, after a few jears of observing, one realises that each 
year the notes (at first strange and unfamiliar, but finally perfectly 
recognisable from one another) occur in a definite order; as the 
season advances, one note after another makes its appearance, 
becomes frequent, and later drops out to be heard no more. Here 
then is a basis to work on. From the known times of migration 
of certain birds, is it not possible to identify the authors of some of 
the common nocturnal notes, or at least to surmise their identity 
with a fair degree of certainty? 

During the very first nights of the autumnal migration (July 
29 is my earliest date) the notes are always the same, — high and 
sibilant, with a sharp, ringing quality. The sound is represented 
so closely by the letters "ks" that I have called this note the "x" 
note. This call contains no vowel sound, — it is so short, indeed, 
that it cannot contain one — it is over almost as soon as it begins. 
In spite of the necessarily vague idea one receives from reading a 
description of so indefinite and fleeting a sound as a bird's "chip," 
this note is perfectly recognisable; after one has once become 
familiar with it, he can distinguish it readily even when it occurs, 
later in the season, with many other calls. The " x" note, as I have 
said, is the fii'st note heard in the autumnal migration. It is 
commonest during the first half of August, when it is heard on 
favorable migration nights almost incessantly, evidently from 
thousands of birds, and it disappears soon after the first of Septem- 
ber. From these facts we might deduce, that the species which 
uses the "x" note as a migration call is a nocturnal migrant which 

134 Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. L April 

breeds in large numbers to the north and northwest of us, that the 
species breeds also in eastern Massachusetts (for even when we hear 
the "x"' note most frequently, we find in this region no species 
which have not bred here) and finally that its southward migration 
through this vicinity is pretty well over by the middle of September. 
I regret to say that, with all these data, I did not surmise the iden- 
tity of the author of the "x" note until I saw and heard the note 
uttered in the daytime by the Oven-bird. Then it seemed self- 
evident that of all the possibilities, this species best supplied the 
conditions. The discovery also explained the early disappearance 
of our resident Oven-birds.^ 

It may appear strange that the Oven-bird should give its noc- 
turnal call by da,>' (the call is distinctly different from any call 
used by the young or adult of this species) but under certain con- 
ditions, birds of several species add to their regular diurnal vo- 
cabulary a note absolutely novel, and in a few cases I have been 
convinced that they were using their migration call-note. Usually 
the birds uttering these notes are migrants, — either birds like 
Thrushes, remaining over a day or two between their night-flights, 
or Warblers, flitting southward through the trees, continuing, as 
they feed, their migratory progress. But birds about to migrate, 
as well as those already under way, signal to each other in a like 

Perhaps the most familiar example of this phenomenon is fur- 
nished by the Chipping Sparrow. Soon after the second brood of 
young is fledged, our local Chipping Sparrows gather into families 
or groups of a dozen or more. At this time, long before their 
departure in October, we hear from our open windows a bird-note 
which we have not heard during the early summer from the Chip- 
ping Sparrows which have bred within hearing. It is a note which 
to our ears suggests migration, both from its general resemblance 
to the indefinite "chips" which many migrant birds utter as they 
pass southward by day and by night, and also from the fact that 
the note is usually given when the bird is in flight. " The Chipping 
Sparrow utters this note only when flocking, and it ser^'es probably 
to maintain the unity of the flock. The effect of the migration 
calls, too, is to keep the companies together, but perhaps a more 

II have heard the "x" note only once in spring, — during the night preceding the 
arrival of the Oven-bird in Lexington. 

^°'l9i^"^] Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. 135 

important use of the call-notes is to express the feeling of migration 
and spread it, so that other birds may catch the contagion. In 
other words, we must not assume that a bird utters its migration 
calls with a definite purpose either of guiding its companions or 
of inquiring their whereabouts. Both of these results, however, 
are doubtless accomplished by involuntary utterances excited by 
the restlessness which culminates in migration. In any case there 
would be as much occasion for the notes which accomplish these 
results at the very start of migration, or even before the start, as 
at the subsequent steps of the journey. 

It is possible that the migration calls are largely uttered by young 
birds and take their origin from the first note which the nestling 
makes, — the food-call. It is an easy transition from the food-call 
of the nestling to the call which the fledgling utters to inform his 
parents where to find and feed him, and this call, modified somewhat 
as the fledgling grows older, might well persist as an expression of 
enlotion and become finally the migration call. 

Some time in the second week of August, a new note makes its 
appearance, — a clear, but softly modulated, mellow whistle. 
This note is so loud and striking that one would expect that it 
would have attracted the notice of anyone who chanced to be out- 
of-doors at night. But, as far as I know, none but ornithologists 
have interested themselves in the sound. 

For a long time this call-note remained a mystery to Mr. Faxon 
and Mr. Brewster, until finally Mr. Brewster, by a most fortunate 
chance, solved the problem. He was lying at dawn in his cabin 
on the shore of the Concord river, when he heard, far in the dis- 
tance, the familiar whistle of the unknown migrant. The bird, still 
calling, flew nearer and nearer until it alighted in the shrubbery 
close by the cabin. Here it continued to call, but gradually changed 
the character of the note until, little by little, it grew to resemble, 
and finally became the familiar call of the Veery. This observa- 
tion proves beyond any doubt that the Veery is the author of one 
of the whistles which we hear in the night during the times of migra- 
tion and that the Veery's migration call is quite distinct from its 
notes heard commonly in the daytime. I should add that a small 
number of these calls (perhaps one per cent.) are identical with the 
Veery's diurnal "wheeoo" call. 

One other observer has published some evidence on this subject. 

136 Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. LApril 

Henry H. Kopman (Auk, Vol. XXI, 1904, pp. 45, 46) heard the 
Veery utter by day a note which had puzzled him for years as he 
heard it from nocturnal migrants. It is evident, however, that he 
may not have differentiated this note from the calls of other 
Thrushes, for, although he had heard "countless hundreds" of the 
calls, he had noted less than a score of Veeries in ten years of ob- 
servation, while he had met the Gray-cheeked and Olive-backed 
Thrush "in astonishing numbers" at the very season when he 
heard the nocturnal whistles. 

The Veery call is most common in late August; my earliest and 
latest dates are August 12 and September 5. On some nights the 
calls come so frequently that, at times, there are but a few seconds 
between them; on other nights there is scarcely one to be heard,— 
a point of difference from the comparative regularity of the "x" 

After the Veery call ceases for the season, there is generally an 
interval of about a week before a second whistle is heard. Al- 
though of the same general character as the Veery call, this late 
September whistle is pitched higher. It is of somewhat less dura- 
tion, and is inflected downward very little, if at all, and lacks the 
terminal roll or roughness characteristic of the Veery call. My 
notes for the past four years indicate the migration period of this 
later bird to be between September 8 (an extremely early date) and 
September 27. I may say that these two "Thrush whistles" and 
the note next to be considered are so nearly identical that, for two 
or three years, I did not distinguish between them clearly, hence, 
I cannot use the dates contained in my earlier records. The late 
September call is a very frequent note on nights of heavy migra- 
tions, — so frequent as to indicate that it is uttered by a very 
common migrant. For this reason I believe that it is the call-note 
of the Olive-backed Thrush, in spite of the fact that of all diurnal 
bird-notes, it most resembles the whistled "hear" of Hylocichla a. 
bickncUi. An article in ' The Oologist ' (Vol. XXXI, 1914, pp. 162- 
166), by Paul G. Howes deals with the migration call of Swainson's 
Thrush. Mr. Howes' studies were made during the autumn of 
1912 at Stamford, Conn. He describes the migration period as 
materially longer than my records indicate, his last bird passing 
southward on October 17. Mr. Howes was fortunate in being 

^°'' igui^"^] Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. 137 

able to watch the Thrushes drop from the sky into a small wood 
where he could afterward examine the birds at short range. He 
secured five specimens. x\lthough I have gone out-of-doors in 
the morning twilight repeatedly in August on days when I have 
heard the whistles in great numbers before dajdight, I have never 
seen the birds (Veeries at this date) ; as soon as it has grown light 
enough to make out a bird in the air, the calls have stopped and 
no more birds have flown over. 

The Thrush calls heard during October, generally in the latter 
part of the month, are very similar to the Veery whistle. This 
third Thrush whistle is heard very irregularly, — on most nights 
none at all, but on a few nights in very great numbers. At this 
season of long evenings, it is not uncommon for the birds to start 
on their night flight as early as six o'clock. In tone of voice this 
note, a soft nasal whistle, resembles the Bluebird's call. It has, 
however, but one syllable and is inflected downward in pitch very 
slightly, — often not at all. The letters "Per" or "Ter" suggest 
the call. On October 29, 1913, I saw a company of half a dozen 
Hermit Thrushes repeat this note frequently as the birds flitted 
about in a gray birch wood. When they uttered the note they did 
not open the beak (at least at short range I could not see them do 
so), but at each repetition the feathers of the throat were slightly 
raised. During the previous night there had been a considerable 
flight of Hermit Thrushes and just before sunrise (a misty morning 
with a light S.E. breeze) I had heard numerous Thrush calls from 
birds passing overhead. 

These three whistles heard respectively (roughly speaking) in 
August, September, and October account satisfactorily, I think, 
for the Veery, Swainson's, and the Hermit Thrush. The two other 
Hylocichlse, the Gray-cheeked and Bicknell's, are of comparative 
rarity in Eastern Massachusetts and their periods of migration 
here coincide practically with the passage of the Olive-back. It is 
very probable therefore that I have not distinguished the calls of 
these rarer Thrushes because their voices vary little from the calls 
of the abundant Olive-back. 

During the month from mid September to mid October there are 
more nocturnal bird-notes to be heard than any other time. The 
majority of these calls to my ear are identical to the common 

138 Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. [April 

diurnal note of Dendroica striata, viz. "tsit." On account of this 
correspondence and from the fact that at this season, Black-polls 
are passing through Eastern Massachusetts in numbers which at 
times seemingly svn-pass all other birds combined, I think it is no 
unfair assumption to ascribe this, the commonest note of autumn, 
to the Black-poll Warbler. As the season advances, many of the 
notes are more sustained than the abrupt "chips" which suggest 
the warblers, and resemble the "tseep" note which is used in the 
daytime by several of the smaller sparrows. These notes become 
progressively more frequent, reaching their maximum abundance, 
perhaps, toward the middle of October, and are the last notes 
heard in the autumn before the migration ceases. That these 
notes represent the passage of various species of Sparrows, I think 
there is little doubt. The frequent occurrence of these notes 
during the evening of March 28, 1908, at the height of the sparrow 
migration that spring increases the probability. As to the identity 
of many other notes heard during this period, I do not hazard even 
a guess. As an indication of the real individuality of some of the 
nocturnal bird-notes and of the actual ability of an observer to 
distinguish between them, I may say that during the remarkable 
flight of Cape May Warblers which passed through this region in 
September, 1914, I heard a note absolutely novel to me. I heard 
it before I saw any of the Cape Mays and of course had no idea what 
it was until I noticed that the Cape May Warblers used this note 
when they flew from tree to tree. 

The migration note of the Bobolink is diagnostic; it is used by 
day as well as by night, but in my experience it is rarely heard at 
night, although it is a common note in the very early morning, 
after daylight, when the birds may be seen flying in flocks. My 
explanation of the rarity of this note at night is that the birds 
generally fly so high that their notes are nearly or quite inaudible 
from the ground. At other observation stations the Bobolink's 
note may, very likely, be heard more frequently. I was fortunate, 
one spring, to see numbers of Fox Sparrows start on their night 
flight soon after sunset. The birds flew northward, at first from 
one tree to another, uttering, while in the air, a note not dissimilar 
from one of their sibilant "chips." I heard this note that evening 
from birds flying through the darkness against a cold northwest 

^"'^ me^"^] Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. 139 

wind (April 4, 1908). Weather, indeed, appears to have little 
influence on the migration of birds, as evidenced by their call- 
notes, except that on fair nights the birds evidently fly high; the 
calls are fainter and appear to come from far away, whereas on 
nights when the sky is overcast (or when it is raining) the birds 
seem very near. 

In watching birds during the seasons of migration or in listening 
to their call-notes night after night, it soon becomes apparent that, 
quite irrespective of the weather, certain nights are chosen to move 
northward or southward;, there is either a migration or there is not. 
The birds appear to recognise the migration nights in advance as if 
the individuals of one (or related) species possessed the knowledge 
in common. My notes give a striking illustration of this point. 
"On October 11, 1914, in the late afternoon when Mr. Walter 
Faxon, Mr. Lewis Dexter, and I were crossing the Ipswich sand- 
hills, Myrtle Warblers continually flew over our heads, all in a 
southerly direction. In ten minutes we counted twenty birds, 
flying at the height of a tall elm tree. We were standing among 
the dunes about a quarter of a mile from the sea. To the south 
was a small wood of pitch pines surrounded by sand, and as the 
birds were flying toward these trees, and as they appeared to fly 
lower as they approached them, we thought at first that the birds 
were seeking a roosting place. But when we entered the wood, 
we saw that, although the Warblers often dipped toward the tree- 
tops in their flight over the wood, they did not alight, but continued 
on toward the south. After watching the birds fly over for half 
an hour in a steady, if rather straggling, procession, we felt certain 
that they had begun a migration flight which they would keep up 
all night. We first noticed the birds between half past four and 
quarter to five, in broad daylight (sun set at 5.11). The birds 
were rather widely separated from each other as a rule, but occa- 
sionally one approached another and swooped at him. Once, 
when a bird was attacked in this manner, he came down into a 
thicket of bayberries, closely followed by his pursuer. The two 
birds remained in the shrubs but a moment, however, before rising 
and continuing their southerly flight. As the birds passed over 
head, they gave their characteristic "tcheck," and almost as fre- 
quently, the sibilant call heard most often when they take short 

140 Tyler, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. [April 

flights. As I have never heard the "tcheck" note during the night 
from migrating birds, I presume that Myrtle Warblers make use 
mainly, if not solely, of the sibilant note as a migration call, once 
the flight is well under way. 

"On the afternoon of the 12th (the next day) the behavior of the 
Myrtle Warblers at twilight was very different. Mr. Faxon and 
I had spent the afternoon at Coffin's Beach, Gloucester, and toward 
dusk we crossed a broad area of level land, just back of the beach, 
grown up thickly with bayberry bushes, with a sprinkling of blue- 
berry and a few pitch pine trees. This growth made a dense tangle 
of branches not rising more than six feet from the ground (except 
in th^ case of the pine trees) and over the whole expanse one spot 
was pretty much like another. Throughout this space. Myrtle 
Warblers were hopping about restlessly, chipping excitedly, and 
taking short flights. As it grew darker, the birds quieted; they 
remained longer in a bush when they found one to their liking and 
hopped among the branches, evidently searching for a comfortable 
and safe perch to sleep on. They allowed us to step very near 
them before they flitted away to a neighboring shrub. The birds 
did not appear to gather into flocks or companies; two or three, to 
be sure, might be examining the same bush, but everywhere over 
the area of forty acres or so, as far as our eyes could see, scattered 
birds were settling for the night; evidently there was to be no 
Myrtle Warbler migration. We noted these birds between 5 and 
5.15 P.M. At this time there were no birds flying into the field 
as there would have been if the Warblers were assembling from a 
larger area." 

It is not always possible to estimate the magnitude of a flight 
by the number of bird-notes heard during the night. Extensive 
migratory movements often occur in spring during a night when 
few, if any, notes are heard, and conversely, one is often surprised 
in the autumn to find the country practically barren of bird-life 
after a night during which birds' "chips" have been heard in great 

This latter condition may be easily explained, I think. During 
the night the birds are passing in hundreds or thousands, but at 
dawn each bird or flock settles near wherever it happens to be. 
Hence in any one locality, once the stream is stopped, there will be 

^°''i9i^"^] TYi^^n, Call-notes of Migrating Birds. 141 

comparatively few birds, — only those which were nearly overhead 
at sunrise. As a matter of fact, some birds do not alight until 
long after sunrise, and some others continue their northerly or 
southerly progress after alighting in the trees, but the explanation 
above accounts for the seeming diminution of the number of migrat- 
ing birds when the night's flight is over. To explain the heavy 
spring flights when no nocturnal notes are heard, it must be under- 
stood that bird-notes are very rare on any night in spring. The 
contrast in this respect between spring and autumn is so striking, 
that we are led to believe that during the spring nights, we do not 
hear notes from migrating birds because they do not utter them. 
If the birds do call during their northward journey, practically all 
of them fly at a great height, thus adopting a very difl^erent manner 
of migrating from their habit in autumn. 

Although the problems presented by the two migration trips 
must be essentially the same to the birds, it should be remembered 
that the personnel of the migrating horde differs in one important 
respect; — whereas, in the autumn more than half of the migrants 
have never made the journey before, in the spring, every individual 
has safely accomplished at least one trip. We have surmised that 
the migration-call may be an outgrowth of the young bird's food- 
call. Taking into account the frequency in autumn of the migra- 
tion calls, as opposed to their comparative absence in spring, may 
we not further surmise that it is chiefly the birds of the year which 
we hear calling during their initial migration and that these young 
birds, returning over the path they travelled six months before, 
and flying with the assurance and self-confidence which experience 
has given them, do not need migration calls for guidance or en- 
couragement and therefore do not utter them? 

142 Huxley, Bird-ivatching and Biological Science. LApril 

Some Observations on the Study of Courtship in Birds. 


There is to-day, most unhappily, too often a gap between the 
amateur naturahsts and the pure field-workers on the one side, and 
the trained biologists on the other. The blame, as usual, cannot 
be laid to the account of either, for both are guilty. On the one 
hand the professionals fight shy of amateurish methods and failure 
to see principles behind facts, while the amateur dislikes (often 
with justice) the other's dogmatism and his reliance on purely 
laboratory methods. 

It is the purpose of this paper to try and show how, in ornithology 
at least, this gap may be bridged. There is a vast army of bird- 
lovers and bird-watchers to-day in existence, whose enthusiasm 
needs only to be properly directed to lead them into most absorbing 
fields, and at the same time to provide all-important material for 
fundamental problems of biology. 

Three things only are needed: — A knowledge of what to search 
for, a method to guide one's searching, and instruments to use in 
the search. The instruments lie ready to our hands. It was, I 
believe, Charles Dixon who was one of the first to realize that the 
prismatic binocular had so enormously enlarged the potentialities 
of field observation. The possession of one of these instruments, 
though not absolutely indispensable, is of the utmost importance. 
In selecting a glass three chief points are to be considered. The 
first is high magnification, which enables the observer to catch the 
details of attitude and expression which are so important. The 
second is high light-gathering power and definition, which depend 
on the size of the object-glasses. Without this, high magnification 
is a snare and a delusion, involving strain on the eyes. The third 
is quick adjustment of focus, for following the action of moving 
birds. Many glasses are made with independent focusing adjust- 

> Assistant Professor of Biology in the Bice Institute, Houston, Texas. 

° 1916 ] Huxley, Bird-watchitig atid Biological Science. 143 

ments for the two eyes; these are useless for the bird-watcher. 
Some form of simultaneous adjustment is necessary, and in many 
ways the old pattern Goerz-Trieder longitudinally-moving focusing- 
head was preferable to the transversely-moving heads now in 
general use. 

A magnification below six diameters is of little use; eight or ten 
is probably the best for general purposes, although even 12 will give 
satisfactory results. Besides a binocular, a telescope is often use- 
ful, especially for the larger and more wary birds. One with an 
object glass of at least two inches, and a magnification of about 
25 diameters c^n be highly recommended. The price is compara- 
tively small, and a little practice is all that is needed to handle it; 
one soon becomes so proficient that it is easy to follow even Swifts 
or Swallows in their aerial evolutions. 

The efficiency of both the telescope and binocular can be con- 
siderably enhanced by a suitable stand. One that I devised for 
myself consisted of a camera-tripod with a kodak ball-and-socket 
joint attached ; tliis in its turn screwed on to an apparatus composed 
of two pieces of wood lined with leather and joined by a long screw 
which holds the binocular in place. A special heavy ball-and-socket 
joint is also made by opticians for use with telescopes. By this 
means the fatigue and strain of holding the glass in place is done 
away with, and one's hands left free to take notes. ^ 

Before we go any further into the practical details of what to 
look for and how to look for it, it will be necessary to make what 
will perhaps appear a long digression on the theoretical side. The 
main biological problems demanding solution seem to me to be 
connected with the courtship of birds, and to that subject I shall 
here confine myself. 

However, as I myself very soon discovered when I began work- 
ing at the problem of Courtship, to get a real insight into it one 
must have a working knowledge of the theories of Evolution, the 
theories of Sex, and the theories of the Animal Mind. On these 
subjects I must refer the reader to the general works of Darwin, 
Weismann, Morgan and Washburn cited at the end of this paper. 
Here I will merely say that all my observations have gone to root 

1 See Huxley ('14), p. 529. 

r Auk 

144 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. LApril 

deeply in me the conviction that birds have a mind of the same 
general nature as ours, though of course more rudimentary : if they 
are automata, then so are we. Prof. Washburn's book reaches the 
same conclusion. As far as the problems of sex are concerned, 
bird-watching has lead me to important ideas, and has gradually 
made me believe that in birds at any rate an individual of either 
sex contains within itself the characters of the other sex in a latent 
condition.^ With which preface let us plunge in medias res. 
It is an old idea, and a favorite of Sir Thomas Browne, that 

' This is not the place to discuss the theoretical aspects of the problem of sex. However, 
it will he well to mention one or two ideas to which such studies as these have led me. 

Morgan, in his recent book just cited, brings forward various facts, largely as the results 
of castration experiments, to show that the mechanism of sex delerminalion is entirely differ- 
ent in birds and in mammals (and again in insects). This is an important and notabls fact, 
but in considering its bearings we must not be led to forget another equally important fact 
that emerges especially as the result of a comparative observational study — namely, that 
all the determinants for the sexual characters of both sexss are present complete in each 
individual of either sex (with certain exceptions when the male has different sex-chromo- 
somas from the female), that this holds good for both birds and mammals, and that the 
different results in the two groups are due to differences in the method by which in any 
individual the right characters are brought out, the unneeded ones inhibited. This is 
shown very well by the fact that the requisite mechanism for the copulatory actions of 
both sexes appears to be present in individuals of both sexes. For instance, I learn from 
my friend Mr. W. M. Winton that he has personally seen two cases of bitches where ovari- 
otomy was followed by the acquisition of male actions. Similar actions in non-operated 
female animals are familiar in cows (MuUer, Sexiialbiologie), and are recorded for rabbits 
(Washburn, in lilt:). Pearl and Surface have recently recorded (Science, April 23, 1915) a 
most interesting case where a cow assumed not only the behavior bui also the appearance 
of a bull, owing to cystic disease of the ovaries. These examples alone will show that in 
mammals the female carries within herself the determinants for the characters of the oppo- 
site sex, just as Morgan's results show the converse of this to be true. 

In birds, the facts assembled by Morgan show at once that the f 2male carries the determi- 
nants for male characters. For the converse proof, I have myself assembled some records 
where the male performs female actions (and vice versa), in my paper on the Grebe (Huxley, 
'14). The case of the Phalarope is, from a different point of attack, proof positive that the 
determinants for female character., are present in the male. In all species of Phalaropes 
(PhalaropodidcP), while both sexes assume special plumage during the breeding season, and 
while this breeding-plumage is of the same general pattern in both sexes, and is obviojsly a 
recent acquisition in evolution, yet the female is larger and much brighter than the male, 
and in addition does all the courting The only interpretation of these facts appears to me 
to be that, just as in most sexually dimorphic birds the male has acquired certain colors 
and structures, and that these have come to be shared by the female in lesser degree (Cardi- 
nal and many other Finches, Bob-white and most other Odontophorida;, many Woodpeck- 
ers, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Dickcissel, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, etc.), so here sexual 
selection has helped the female towards her bright plumage, and the male has automatically 
come in for his share. The results are best interpreted if we suppose (as is cytologically 
reasonable) that the determinants for the characters, even though the characters themselves 
are acquired primarily by one sex only, at once come to be present in the germ-plasm of 
both sexes. Suppose it to be the male which acquires the secondary sexual characters. 
After this there are two possibilities. Either the inhibition in the female will not be suffi- 
cient to restrain some appearance of the new characters in her, even from thj start: or else 
in some unexplained way the inhibition will gradually weaken and the female come in the 

° 1916 J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 145 

man is a microcosm, exhibiting in miniature all the activities of a 
universe ; and as far as marriage customs go, the idea is a true one. 
In the single species Man are found many varieties of marriage — 
promiscuity, polyandry, polygamy, and finally monogamy in all 
its phases of refinement — in origin largely a hateful economic 
necessity, yet in the outcome proving itself divinest of possibility. 
Almost every variation that is found as a mere fluctuating phase 
in the history of man exists separately, as a rigid law, for some 
species of bird. Bateson, in one of his lectures, gives us an imagi- 
nary conversation between a Pigeon and a Barndoor Fowl. The 
Pigeon rebukes the immorality of the Fowl's polygamous estate, 
while the Hen retorts that the Pigeons neglect the welfare of their 
race by confining themselves to a single mate. The Fowl and the 
Pheasant have Harems of the Orient, one cock owning more wives 
than another less successful bird. The Blackcock's system in 
some ways recalls that imaginary one of Plato's, for here there is no 
marriage, but the males have their appointed station, and their 
duties are over when the hens have come and chosen out the best. 
Still more mixture of promiscuity with polygamy is found in the 
Ruff. There are savage combats in the Thrushes, tournaments 
and jousts in Redshank and Blackcock. The chase is as frequent 
an adjunct of courtship as it was, if we are to believe the poets, 
with the Greek gods and nymphs, and as it is in manj' savage 
tribes to-day. And if one watches a pair of Red-winged Blackbirds 
or Mockingbirds in such a pursuit, he is inevitably driven to the 
conclusion that sometimes at least there is in it a thrill of pleasur- 
able excitement for the female, of which she is fully conscious, even 
to the extent, I think, of sometimes provoking the chase. 

When there is a monogamous union, it may be a temporary one, 
for the season only, as in most birds, or a true life-marriage, as in 
piost Crows and Hawks. 

Some birds lay down that "a woman's place is in the home," 
and the hen exclusively undertakes the duties of incubation. An 
extreme case of this deprivation of freedom of the female is seen 

course of time to resemble the male more and more closely. Whether or not this second 
process actually takes place, we do know of course that the inhibition can vary in extent, as 
is shown by the Reindeer, where both sexes now share a primitively male character, or the 
Pheasant, where the female shows practically total inhibition of the male characters, for 
the purpose of protective coloration. The decision between these two possibilities must at 
present be left open. 

146 Huxley, Bird-ivalching and Biological Science. [April 

in the Toucans, where the cock walls up the sitting hen in her nest- 
hole in an old tree; there she remains, fed by him, till the young are 
ready to fly. Other birds come more near to the ideal of the 
women's movement of to-day; in them both sexes share the duties 
of the pair more equally, and in all activities realize themselves 
equally and to the full. The Grebes, the Herons and the Swans 
will serve as examples. Sex-difference and sex-consciousness in 
these seem to be less, and as a result, just as in Man in similar case, 
there is in their courtship and the whole of their mutual relation, 
not so much emphasis on the less real, less great things that depend 
on sex-difference — coyness, timidity, helplessness in the female, 
eagerness, vain display, superior physical prowess in the male — 
and more emphasis on the things that are more fundamental, 
because belonging to the race instead of to one half of it alone — 
enjoyment of what is to be enjoyed, sharing of what is to be shared, 
joint action, mutual help. Let anyone study the relation of the 
sexes in such birds and compare it with the sex-relation in species 
with marked sexual dimorphism; then think of what is meant by 
the logical outcome of the chivalric, mediaeval idea of woman's 
place, and compare that with the ideal behind the better part of 
the woman's movement of to-day, and I believe he will understand 
what I have in mind, difficult though it be to put into words. 

Restricting ourselves to facts rather than interpretations, it will 
be found that the majority of passerine birds are monogamous, 
pairing for the season only, — temporary marriage. The duration 
of this tie is very variable; it may last until the nest is built, until 
the young are hatched, until the young are fledged, or it may be 
merged in a family life lasting through the winter. 

Some of the monogamous species are dull-colored altogether; 
in others the cock is more brilliant and does most of the courting; 
while in still a third group both sexes are adorned with colors or 
structures that are employed in courtship. 

Other birds have true marriage; they pair for life. Such are 
the majority of Falcons and Hawks — in whom, however, the 
problem is made interesting owing to the fact that the hen bird is 
larger, more powerful, and more active than the cock.^ 

' See F. Heatherly, ('13), where a magniflcent series of observations and photographs 
on a single pair of birds is recorded. 



j Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 14/ 

At the other end of the series we get such birds as the Ruff 
{Machetes) which is polygamous, but still shows a certain degree 
of promiscuity as well.^ 

Other polygamous birds, such as the Peacock and the Pheasants, 
have more definite harems; while in the curious and beautiful little 
Phalaropes, the whole normal relation of the sexes is reversed, the 
hens in bright-colored plumage courting the cocks, who in their 
turn undertake all the duties of incubation. 

Enough has been said 'to show the variety and interest of these 
relations alone. By collecting all available data we shall first of 
all be able to correlate the marriage-habits with the classification. 
Since the classification is by now fairly natural, or in other words, 
since it groups together those species of birds which are related by 
descent, we shall then be able to trace the evolution of the various 
customs and instincts — to see what was the most primitive condi- 
tion, and to trace out whether polygamy and other specialized 
habits have arisen once only, or independently many times over. 

This is important from the purely zoological point of view; it 
will also throw light on various problems of Evolution, notably on 
the question of Parallelism or the repeated origin of one adaptation 
from different ancestral stocks. 

It is obviously of great interest to the Sociologist, since here he 
can trace the beginnings of all sex-relationships, in creatures where 
emotion is not yet complicated by reason. And if we study the 
details of each history carefully enough we shall, I hope to show, be 
able to interpret the phenomena of consciousness — the emotions 
and desires that lie behind the actions, — with sufficient accuracy 
to bring much grist to the mill of the comparative psychologist. 
Do not think me fantastic if I say that, even in birds, I believe that 
the finest emotions and most comfortable happiness are, as in man, 
associated with that form of monogamy in which male and female 
bear approximately equal parts. To support my opinions I will 
refer the reader to those of Selous ('13, pp. 298-299) elicited by his 
watching of Wild Swans. 

Three years ago such words would have been almost without 
meaning to me; it was not until I had spent weeks watching the 

1 See Selous' exhaustive paper in the Zoologist for 1906. 

148 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [ April 

behavior of a single species ^ and more weeks trying to think out 
the meaning of my observations, that there came to me the point 
of view — a combination of the evolutionary, the psychological, 
and the physiological — which made that statement possible. It 
was forced upon me by the facts I saw; and those who wish to 
penetrate into those arcana and mysteries of science where the 
beginnings of Consciousness are being shaped and added to Life 
cannot do better than observe the behavior of a single species of 
wild bird or mammal, and, having observed, try to understand. 

But this is a digression. Let us return to our consideration of 
the question of courtship. First and foremost comes the need for 
facts. It is important for the professional biologist to have many 
new facts. To get these he must turn to the naturalist and the 
bird-watcher; and for these latter it is enormously important to 
have the old facts summarized and correlated into principles, for 
otherwise they will be unconsciously biased by preconceived no- 
tions. In such questions as these of sex-relations, we tend to have 
an unconsciously-held theory of our own, based upon every-day 
experience of our own species and of domestic animals; and not 
merely that, but since the questions are in Man associated with 
morality, we tend to see what we want to see, even in animals. 

Our first duty as scientific observers is to try to get a clear idea 
of the usual sequence of events. The majority of birds are mo- 
nogamous, and among them the majority again pair for the season, 
the two members of the pair separating during the autumn and 
winter, and pairing again, usually with new mates, before the next 
breeding season. Such species can then be considered typical, 
and we will begin by describing what may be called the " Annual 
Love-History" of such a species. 

The pairing-up occurs remarkably early, often months before 
any eggs are laid. St. Valentine's Day is the traditional day for 
birds to pair; but in many species pairing-up may occur before 
this. Then follows a long period before consummation — a true 
engagement — in which the pair is constantly together and various 
displays by one or both of the sexes take place. Later, well on in 
the spring, comes the true marriage, when sexual consummation 

> Huxley ('14). 

1916 J ii.vii.i.EY, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 149 

takes place. At the same time nest-building starts, and very 
shortly the eggs begin to be laid ; and then follow in turn the period 
of incubation and the period when the young are still unfledged 
and must be constantly fed. Then the nest is left, and a period of 
family association starts, during which the fledged young are being 
taught to find their own food and fend for themselves. This 
family life may break up very soon (e. g. in August; the English 
Robin) or may last right on through the winter until the next 
pairing-season (many Paridse). 

Most of this is common knowledge. Recent work, however, is 
extending our knowledge in two ways. First, it is becoming clear 
that in many species pairing-up is even earlier than was supposed, 
sometimes even in November or December, and also that in a good 
many species which were supposed to pair for the season only, 
the union is really for life, the pair preserving its identity through 
the winter, sometimes even when flocks are formed.^ 

In the second place, we are beginning to understand the relation 
of the so-called "Courtship-actions" — ^ the displays and dances 
and songs — to the annual history. For example; there is often 
no display at all previous to the period of pairing-up; then — most 
interesting point of all — there may be a long period when " Court- 
ship" (in the sense of active display by one or both sexes) may be 
very much in evidence, although the birds have already paired-up 
into couples, but coition has not yet taken place. 

However, I think that it will be as well to look at some concrete 
examples of the various sorts of sex-relationship found in birds. I 
will take three, all more or less non-typical, to illustrate the great 
variety that exists in this matter of courtship. 

I make no apology for beginning with a life-history which I have 
myself investigated — that of the great Crested Grebe ^ — for here 
I am sure of every fact. 

In this aquatic species the two sexes are almost identical. Both 
are adorned with a beautiful crest, composed of two black ear-tufts 
and a ruff of chestnut, black, and pure white; this crest is very 
slightly less developed in the hen than in the cock, but is used 
exclusively in courtship, and used equally by both sexes. 

1 e. g. the Dabchick (Podiceps fluvialilis) . as reported by Mr. Mottram in a letter to me. 
"Huxley ('14). 

150 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [April 

The birds generally go to the sea in winter, in small flocks or 
alone, returning to inland waters to breed in January or February. 
There, in February, pairing-up takes place — a process not yet 
wholly disentangled, but certainly associated with a great deal of 
flying and chasing (it probably resembles what happens in the 
Killdeer; tide infra). After this the pairs are very faithful — there 
is strict marriage for the season, preceded by a long engagement, 
for coition never takes place except on the nest, and nest-build- 
ing does not begin till April. Quite soon after pairing-up, court- 
ship activities begin, so that here, at least, pairing-up precedes 
any employment of the courtship structures (ruff and ear-tufts). 

There are two entirely different sets of ceremonies gone through 
by the birds — ceremonies of mutual display, and ceremonies 
connected with coition. 

The ceremonies of mutual display are extremely elaborate. 
There are three main divisions. The first is the simplest. Two 
birds that have been feeding or resting near each other will sud- 
denly be seen to approach and to start shaking their heads at each 
other in a most peculiar manner, stiffly and formally, having first 
erected their crests and stretched their necks upwa,rds to their 
fullest extent. After shaking for a certain time — a few seconds 
to a minute or two — they desist, and resume normal life. 

The next form is amazing to see. It resembles the first in that 
it takes place as a mere interlude to the duties of every day, but 
is more elaborate. It starts with a bout of shaking which differs 
from the ordinary only in that it is prolonged to twice the usual 
length of time, and is followed by the remarkable diving for water- 
weed and the breast to breast collision which I have called the 
"Penguin-dance." ^ 

After this performance (which, I think, was the most thrilling 
sight I have ever seen while watching birds, with the possible ex- 
ception of a Heron turning a succession of somersaults vertically 
downward from a height of several hundred feet to near the 
ground) they simply once more relapsed into ordinary existence. 

The third form of display is mainly used when the two members 
of a pair have been separated. One will call for its missing mate,. 
When the mate recognizes the call, it will swim in that direction, 

» See Huxley, '14, pp. 499-.W0. 

° 1916 J Huxley, Bird-amlching and Biological Science. lol 

and finally dive. On this the calling bird changes its whole de- 
meanor, spreading its wings out to display the white bar upon 
them, erecting its ruff, and drawing back its head, now rayed like 
the sun, on to its breast, white and puffed out. The diving bird 
approaches just below the surface, raising a ripple as it comes, and 
finally emerges just behind its mate in a strange stiff attitude: — 
"He seemed to grow out of the water. First his head, the beak 
pointing down along the neck in a stiff and peculiar manner; then 
the neck, (juite straight and vertical; then the body, straight and 
vertical too; until finally the whole bird, save for a few inches, was 
standing erect in the water." From this extraordinary position 
the bird will gradually settle down on the water; its mate mean- 
while turns round, and the two finish with a bout of shaking. 

The most noticeable thing about all these ceremonies is that 
they are "self-exhausting" — they do not lead on to anything 
further. Looked at from the psychological point of view, they 
seem to me to be nothing but " expressions of emotion": the birds 
act thus because they are impelled to do so, because they enjoy it. 
Looked at, on the other hand, from the evolutionary point of view, 
they seemed to have been developed as a bond to keep the pair 

In the other set of ceremonies, those connected with coition, the 
crest is not employed at all. The whole thing is more or less 
symbolic, the birds expressing readiness to pair by going into the 
extraordinary attitude adopted by the female during the actual 
act of pairing, when the bird "lies along the water" with neck 
outstretched to its fullest extent. The chief point to be remarked 
is that both cock and hen may adopt this attitude; indeed the 
proper qualities of either sex seem in this bird to have been in large 
degree carried over to the other. 

There is one further interesting point to mention, namely, that 
flirtation is found in this species ; by which I mean that one member 
of a pair (either cock or hen), if its mate is absent or unresponsive, 
will go off and perform the courtship ceremonies with a stranger. 
For further details, and for the jealousy thus produced, I must 
refer the reader to my original paper, merely remarking that we 
find some parallels to human aft'airs that give much food for 

In this species, then, we ha^'e elaborate Structures used only in 

152 Huxley, Bird-watching and Siological Science. [April 

courtship, elaborate Courtship-actions gone through by both sexes, 
as a form of enjoyment (Hke a dance) . We have Engagement and 
Seasonal Marriage, not exempt from Flirtation; we have special 
Coition Ceremonies, again shared equally by both sexes. We have 
in fact a Courtship which to one, like myself, who was familiar only 
with the facts adduced by Darwin and his followers, was a complete 
revelation — something entirely new and unexplained. 

We will now turn to a modern investigation of a species which 
has figured prominently in the sexual selection doctrine from 
Darwin's time to the present. In the Blackcock (Tetrao tetrix, 
fam. Tetraonidse) Selous ^ has made a series of careful observations, 
which show how totally different is the series of events in a species 
which exhibits marked sexual dimorphism combined with polygamy. 
The main unquestioned facts may be briefly stated. The cock 
birds are magnificent in a plumage of sheeny bluish-black with 
beautiful lyre-shaped tail. On the wing and tail are patches of 
pure white, while over the eye is a streak of scarlet. The female is 
so different as to merit a distinct name, the Greyhen; she is much 
smaller and of a dull reddish brown color speckled with black — 
a purely protective scheme of coloration. In these birds the pair 
does not exist as a unit. In April and May the cocks assemble early 
in the morning at regular meeting-places and go through various 
remarkable courtship-actions. The hens visit these assembly- 
grounds, and there coition takes place, several hens often mating 
with one cock. These are the main facts ; their interpretation, as 
always, has depended on the closest watching of the details. Selous 
finds that what really happens is as follows. The cocks have defi- 
nite stations or territories of their own on the assembly-ground, 
which they do not leave except under the influence of violent 
excitement, such as jealousy. Their actions fall into three main 
categories : — the ecstatic dance, not executed specially before the 
hen; a display performed directly to the hen and battles (which, 
however, are in reality but jousts, or sham-battles) between cocks. 

The dance has often been described; at its most violent, it must 
be an amazing spectacle. The tail is spread out and erected, the 
wings a trifle drooped, the head alternately raised and lowered. 

1 Selous CO'J). 

"■fg'ig J HvxIjEY, Bird-walching and Biological Science. LOo 

In this attitude they run and leap over the ground, often turning 
partially round in the air, getting more and more violent as they 
go on, until, like Dancing Dervishes, they have made the dance an 
ecstasy of violent motion. Selous only once saw this dance in its 
perfection; but there are always rudimentary stages of it to be 
seen, when the birds, in the position described, would walk or run 
quickly over the ground, with now and then a little leap. The 
whole process, especially in these incipient stages, seems to be 
merely an outlet for the strong sexual emotion of the cocks, for they 
perform in this manner even when no hens are on the ground. 

At intervals, hens visit the assembly-place; it is very rare for 
many to be there together. The arrival of one is usually signalled 
by a general commotion among the cocks, all leaping and dancing 
as above described. As, however, she walks from one part of tlie 
ground to another, each cock displays before her as long as she is 
within the limits of his particular territory. This display is entirely 
different from the dance. Instead of being a wild expression of 
passion, it is pompous and slow, and is adapted for showing off all 
the colors and contrasts of the cocks' plumage. The tail is again 
fanned, the wings drooped and spread to a considerable extent, 
the head held down and forward. In this attitude the cock passes 
first on one side of the hen, then on the other, and as he passes he 
tilts his body so that the brilliant upper surface of body and wings 
is towards the hen. 

The hen may "reject" her suitor, by simply walking on to the 
station of the next male; the males have no means of enforcing 
their desires if she does not show her approval, which she signifies 
by stooping and finally crouching in the position for coition. A 
hen may be courted unsuccessfully by several cocks and then 
choose (choose is the only correct word) another; or she may leave 
the ground without favoring any of them. From Selous' observa- 
tions (for the details I must refer the reader to the original) it is 
quite clear that the hens come to the ground for a definite purpose 
— to be stimulated sexually, to put it in the most physiological 
way — and if the stimulus is not sufficient they leave the ground 
without coition taking place. The stimulus is given by the dis- 
play of the cocks, and one may be successful where another fails; 
success depends therefore on the variations in the males, or on the 
whim of the female, or, most probably, on both combined. 

154 Huxley, Bird-ivatching and Biological Science. [April 

The fighting, finally, is very curious. There are a great many 
warlike preliminaries, a good deal of sparring and feinting, but only 
once in a long while any real hard fighting, such as many smaller 
birds indulge in — Tits and Thrushes, for instance. The whole 
business comes to be half ludicrous, half contemptible to watch. 
Selous' idea is that it has degenerated from real fighting and is now 
fixed as a ceremonial action. At any rate it appears never to 
decide anything — nor does it seem to have any influence whatever 
on the hens. In this species, then, we have a fine "expression of 
emotion" in the shape of the Dance, but here it is confined to one 
sex instead of existing in both, as in the Grebe. We have also a 
Display as a direct stimulus to coition, and working out in such a 
way as to make Darwinian Sexual Selection opera ti\'e; and we 
have sham Fights, whose downward development has probably 
gone hand in hand with the upward development of the Display. 

As a third, and again very different form of history, let us take 
that of the majority of the Old-world Warblers (Sylviidse) so 
thoroughly worked out by Eliot Howard ('07). These birds 
include a number of famous European songsters, such as the 
Black-cap, Garden Warbler, and Marsh Warbler. They are 
mostly of very sober plumage, with little or no sexual dimorphism 
(though to this the Black-cap is an exception). The majority of 
the forms are migratory, and it is to these that we will confine our 

The course of events is similar in almost all the species. In 
March and April the birds come over to England from the South, 
in flocks and bands, which, following the river valleys, gradually 
split up as they spread over the coinitry. The influx of migrants 
occurs in successive waves, and an important point to notice is that 
the arrival-period of any species takes a considerable time. The 
average immigration period lasts for about four weeks, but in some 
species it is only about three, while in others, like the Chiff-chaff 
it may extend to seven (and in some species of the closely related 
Turdidse, even to 9 or 10 weeks).* Nests with eggs are usually 
found before the migration is complete. 

■ See Annual reports on the immigration of summer residents, published in Bulletins 
of the Brit. Ornithol. Club from 1906 onwards. 

1916 J HvxhEY, Binl-initcliing and Biological Science. loO 

In all the species, the male arrives a week or more in advance of 
the females; this week is spent in the acquisition of a definite 
Territory, or sphere of influence; each cock probably returns to 
the place where he was hatched and reared, and this inevitably 
gives rise to disputes. From Mr. Howard's observations it is 
quite clear that this "Territorial System" is here, as in many other 
birds, of the greatest importance in the affairs of the species, and if 
trespassing takes place, violent conflicts ensue until one bird is 
in undisputed possession, which fact he proclaims by his song. 
Then the females arrive; they too presumably re-traverse the 
routes they followed southwards in the previous autumn, they hear 
the songs of their mates, and come down to the nesting-sites thus 
already staked out for them. It would appear that, while the 
cocks fight for the occupation of a territory, the hens fight too — 
for the right of entry into the territory once it has been gained by 
the cock. In these female combats the cock seems to take very 
little active interest, so that pairing-up is apparently scarcely 
influenced at all by individual likes or dislikes (a primitive condi- 
tion, and very unlike what occurs in the Grebe) — there is simply 
an impulse to sing and so to attract mates in the male, in the female 
an impulse to pair-up with any male in possession of territory. 
It is only after this that "courtship" begins. Nest-building, 
coition, and courtship all start almost immediately after pairing-up. 
The courtship has the form of a display by the cock, who hops 
about in front of the female in the display-position found in so 
many birds, with head low and outstretched wings drooped and 
extended, tail fanned and raised; often too he holds a leaf or twig 
in his beak. 

The female will often remain absolutely unmoved by these 
displays, feeding as unconcernedly as if the cock and his frantic 
ecstasy were a hundred miles away; but when coition takes place 
it seems to do so as a result of the hen being first in a receptive 
condition, and then being stimulated by this display of the cock.'^ 

' Critics of such a view as that here adopted to explain the liabits of the Warbler, and 
adopted in general by Pycraft ('13), would do well to remember that in all the higher ani- 
mals the condilion of the brain very largely determines action. The cock is more eager 
than the hen. Her mere presence will inspire him with the desire to pair, but only at 
intervals; when this desire is present, he expresses it in the display actions. These actions 
in their turn inspire the hen with the desire to pair — but again not every time that they 
are exhibited. 

loo Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. LApril 

Display and coition go on until all the eggs are laid, and incubation 
then begins. This is usually a duty of the hen bird, and the cock 
generally continues singing till the young are hatched. As far as 
the race is concerned, the cock's song is to attract a mate and then 
probably help stimulate her; but as far as the cock bird himself is 
concerned, song is simply an outlet, and a pleasurable one, for 
nervous energy; thus, provided certain internal physiological 
conditions are fulfilled, he will continue to sing in all moments of 
excitement or exaltation, non-sexual as well as sexual.^ After 
hatching-time however, it is necessary that he help feed the young, 
and his nervous energy being thus diverted, his song ceases. 

In these birds, it appears to me that we are being shown some of 
the primitive things of courtship. In this, Mr. Pycraft and myself 
are, I think, agreed; to both of us the "display" of the male 
Warbler is nothing but a direct expression of sexual excitement, 
scarcely, if at all, modified by Darwinian Sexual Selection — 
nothing but the way in which nervous disturbance caused by 
sexual excitement happens to liberate itself. General nervous 
discharge will cause general muscular contraction; and something 
approaching this is here seen — rapid hopping, extension and 
fluttering of the wings, spreading of the tail, bristling up of the 
feathers on head and throat, and the utterance of a series of quick 
sounds. This expresses a condition of readiness to pair, and 
doubtless to the female comes to be a symbol of the act of pairing. 
Hence, as far as the female is concerned, the act of pairing has 
come to depend upon this stimulus (acting of course on a suitable 
internal physiological state). This is no more strange in the bird 
than it is that in ourselves thoughts and emotions of love well up 
at the sight of some tangible object connected with the beloved. 
The main difference between the Grebe and the Warblers in this 
respect is that in the Grebe both sexes are equal in their affection 
and also in their eagerness, while in the Warblers the hen, as 
evidenced by her behavior, is most obviously less eager than the 

An extremely similar form of courtship, especially as far as the 

1 As is well known, many birds sing under the influence of anger (e. g. the Reed-warbler, 
Acrocephalus slreperus), or as a resuU of a sanse of general well-being (e. y. Song-thrushes, 
Tardus musicus), on warm days in winter. 

1916 J HvxhEY, Bird-ivatching a7id Biological Science. 157 

relations of display and coition are concerned, is found in such 
birds as most Finches. These are monogamous, and the male 
only goes through a display. But here there is almost always 
sexual dimorphism, the cocks often being very brilliant, and the 
brilliant colors are so arranged that they are especially well shown 
during display. Here then some agency must have been at work, 
adding to the primitive display of the Warblers, and making it 
more effective as a stimulus to the hen. 

These three different courtships give us, as I believe, the key to 
the general problem of courtship in birds. To me, that key con- 
sists in this: — that under the one term "Courtship" are included 
two entirely different sets of activities. In the first place, there 
are such activities as are shared equally by the two sexes — cere- 
monies and actions, often elaborate, performed for the pleasure 
and the joy of the performance; and secondly, there are ceremonies 
of the nature of a display by one sex only. I would prefer not to 
have to give special names to these two distinct sets of activities 
until I have more facts and more fully-digested facts; but to 
distinguish between them, I propose here to give the name of 
Display Courtship or Darwinian Courtship to the second set of 
activities; and to the first, which has scarcely received any of the 
attention it deserves, either from Darwin or subsequent authors, 
I shall give the name of Mutual Courtship. 

As far as I can see, the underlying physiological bases for these 
two forms of courtship are to be found in the inherited sexual 
temperaments, if one may so call them, of the two sexes. In some 
birds, the male is much more eager than the female, and it is in 
these that Display Courtship has developed. The basis for 
Mutual Courtship lies in a similarity of sexual temperament in 
both sexes — neither markedly more eager nor more reserved 
than the other. 

Furthermore, the immediate function of courtship is twofold. 
Either form of courtship may have both functions; it may serve, 
first, as a stimulus to coition (in Mutual Courtship the pair is 
worked up, in Display Courtship the male works the female up to 
the necessary point of exaltation); and secondly it may serve as a 
bond to keep the pair together. 

In mutual courtships, the tendency is to drop the first function 

158 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [April 

(as in the Grebe); in Display Courtships, to drop the second (as 
in the Warblers). As a special development of the Display Court- 
ships we get courtships like those of the Blackcock. 

It is interesting to note the relation of Darwinian Sexual Selec- 
tion to these various categories. 

Darwinian Sexual Selection obviously does not operate in primi- 
tive display courtships like that of the Warblers, nor in Mutual 
Courtships. On the other hand, Selous' work shows that it does 
operate, with almost diagrammatic clearness, in the Blackcock. 
In the case of monogamous birds in which the males only have 
brilliant colors, I should like to reserve judgment. But there is 
another point; all courtship, it is here maintained (as also by E. 
Howard and by Pycraft) has had its origin in posturings and 
actions that are merely the direct outcome of sexual excitement, 
so that one finds birds without any special sexual structures or 
colors going through actions that are of the nature of courtship, 
be it mutual or be \t Darwinian (take as example the Gulls on one 
side and the Sylviidfe on the other). Then it is clear that the 
development of special colors and structures employed in court- 
ship must be a later addition, due to some separate influence, and 
this holds true both of structures (like the Grebe's crest) used in 
mutual courtship, or those (like the crest of the Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet) used in display courtship. These latter, as I say, may 
perhaps owe their origin to Darwinian Sexual Selection. The 
former cannot, so we must revise our theories in the light of this 
new conception of Mutual Courtship. 

Mr. Selous has a very interesting chapter on this subject. 
(Selous, '05. "Inter-sexual Selection," pp. 261-283), to which, 
however, my attention has only just been drawn. My own con- 
clusions, though similar in many ways, were reached entirely 
independently (Huxley, '14, pp. 523-525). 

It is necessary to observe that in most birds, as in Man himself, 
the two forms of Courtship are inextricably interwoven. Man is 
one of the most complicated of all, for while much is absolutely 
reciprocal, yet there is much that is not mutual, and it is almost 
impossible not to believe that here at least there has been a double 
action of Darwinian Selection, the ancestral appearance of both 
man and woman having been modified in different ways through- 
its agency. 

° 1916 J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Scietice. 159 

The facts given above and their discussion will serve to make 
clear some of the general principles and problems of courtship in 
birds. Our next business is to get an insight into the interpretation 
of observations on birds. The connected descriptions I have given 
of the life-histories of various birds have only been made possible, 
first by the collection of a great many facts, and secondly by the 
interpretation of those facts; and the second is as important as 
the first. 

It is indeed almost impossible to collect valuable facts unless 
one has some idea of how they are to be interpreted, and to those 
who are interested in this subject, I would say this: — remember 
the multifarious aspects from which any fact of bird-behavior can 
and should be looked at. 

Take the case of any elaborate courtship action, such as the 
'shaking' of the Grebe, or the dance of the Blackcock. There are 
two main points we want to understand; what is the meaning 
to-day? and what has been the origin in the past? And to answer 
these we have first to ask, and answer, the following questions : — 

First, can we see any utility in it? if so, is it of use (a) simply to 
the species as a species, or is it of use (b) to the indi\'idual, (c) the 
pair, or (d) the family, and so indirectly to the species? 

Secondly, can we see anything which is not of definite biological 
utility in the character? if so, what is the reason for the presence 
of this non-utilitarian factor? Is it (a) purely accidental? (b) 
determined through the inheritance of characters once useful, but 
now no longer so? (c) a matter of physiological correlation — 
that is to say, dependent on the general structure and working of 
the rest of the body? (d) dependent on the structure and working 
of the mind — a matter of psychological correlation? 

Let us analyse the above examples in the light of these questions. 
The mutual head-shaking of the Grebe is apparently of use, like 
all the other mutual courtship actions, in keeping the pair together 
during the breeding season. It is then of direct biological use to 
the pair regarded as a unit of the race, and to the next generation. 
Besides this, it may be of some slight advantage to the individuals 
as liberating the energy of the sexual period in a harmless and 
pleasurable manner; but as far as origin is concerned, the survival 
value of the character — the handle bv which Mutual Selection 

160 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. lApril 

can seize hold of it — is given entirely by its value to the pair and 
to the offspring. 

On the other hand, many of the details of the ruff itself, and of 
the mode of shaking, are non-utilitarian. To carry out its function 
successfully, any courtship-action must stimulate the senses in a 
way which must be either pleasurable or startling, or a combina- 
tion of both, and to this condition the erected ruff of the Grebe 
conforms — it affords a brilliant combination of black, chestnut 
and white, which, in addition, is only revealed when the ruff is 
erected. The general principles of the action are thus determined; 
but the origin of many of the details we can only look upon as 
accidental. As far as the position and color of the ornament is 
concerned we can only say that the Grebe family " shows a tend- 
ency" to develop crests and ruffs on the head, and that any bril- 
liant pigmentation they possess runs to black, warm browns, 
yellows, and whites, while that of other birds runs to other colors 
— in the Woodpeckers to scarlet, in the Parrots largely to greens 
and yellows, and so forth. These things are " accidents," in the 
sense that they are determined by unknown peculiarities in the 
constitution of the species. 

The form of the action itself, however, is largely a matter of 
correlation. Many water-birds can be seen to shake their heads 
from side to side at intervals, especially after preening themselves, 
and from observations on the curious connection between this 
courtship-action and actual preening in the Grebe, I have no doubt 
that it is a specialization of the casual head-shaking after preening.' 

Finally there is a modification of the typical action of shaking 
which is seen under the influence of jealousy, and is characterized 
by exaggeration of all the normal behavior (Huxley, '14, p. 511). 
This is a matter of psychological correlation — takjB a Sensori- 
motor arc connected with mental processes; increase the intensity 
of the mental processes, and you increase the intensity of the 
actions which are the end, i. c. result of that activity. 

To get an example of an action which is determined through 
inheritance alone, we must go to another species. The Ringed 

• Huxlpy, '14, p. 515. In a similar way the elaborate courtship ceremonies, as seen in the 
Grebe and many other species, in which twigs are used and held in the bill, doubtless take 
their origin in nest-building. 

" 1916 J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 161 

Plover, for instance, {/Egialitis hiaticula) usually breeds on the 
seashore, and there lays its eggs among the stones. A certain 
number, however, breed on inland heaths, but even these pave 
their nests with small stones (Newton, '93, p. 482). 

Such a discussion will make it easier to comprehend that it is 
possible to answer in various ways that question "why does such- 
and-such a species of bird perform such-and-such an action?" 
"Why do the Grebes shake their heads at each other?" The 
Evolutionist answers that the cause lies in Mutual Selection, which 
has developed the action for the good of the race. The Physiolo- 
gist sees the reason in the activity of the gonads; these exert by 
chemical means a stimulus on the nervous system, which in its 
turn is arranged in such a way as to cause the stimulus to run down 
and set the appropriate muscles to working. The Psychologist 
sees in it a self-exhausting psychological process accompanied by a 
pleasurable expression of emotion — the bird does it because it 
enjoys doing it. In reality, all are right — in their degree; and 
it is from a failure to get a sufficiently broad point of view, a failure 
to distinguish between ultimate cause, immediate cause, and mere 
necessary machinery, that so much of the barren disputes of 
biology are due. 

{To be concluded.) 

1 62 Cooke, Labrador Bird Notes. ^ ^""^ 




More than a century ago Cartwright lived at Sandwich Bay on 
the eastern coast of Labrador and left a journal which contains 
many notes on the arrival and departure of the birds. Scarcely 
any migration notes on the birds of this district have been pub- 
lished during all these subsequent years. The coast has been 
visited by various ornithologists — Coues, Turner, Stearns, 
Bigelow, Townsend, and Allen — but these men arrived there in 
the early summer after the close of spring migration and left too 
early in the fall to note more than the beginning of the return 
movement. Hence while the birds have been studied dvu-ing the 
breeding season, but scant records have been made of their arri\'al 
and departure. 

In the fall of 1912 Mr. Clarence Birdseye, of New York City, 
went to Labrador as resident manager for a fox farming company. 
The winter of 1912-13 was spent at Battle Harbor. The following 
summer a permanent site for the fox farm was selected near Sand- 
wich Bay, and the two following winters were spent at this place. 
During each winter long trips were made by dog sledge up and 
down the coast, and each summer he was absent for a few weeks 
while making a trip to New York City. Several years of field work 
for the U. S. Biological Survey had given Mr. Birdseye an excel- 
lent training for accurate observation, and during his residence in 
Labrador he has made copious notes on the bird life. He has 
turned over all these notes to me with a request that I publish the 
more interesting records. It must be understood, however, that 
watching the birds was a mere incident in a life filled full with 
exacting duties in other lines and that, therefore, the bird notes 
are not so numerous as his inclinations would have prompted. 

The additions to the list of the birds of eastern Labrador are: 
Chen hyperboreus hyperboreus, Zenaidura macroura carolincnsis, 
Mniotilta varia, and Dendroica virens, while the second records on 
this coast were obtained for Marila marila, Branta bcrnida leuco- 
gastra, Dendroica cestiva OBstiva, and Regulus calendula calendula. 

^"*'i9i^"''] Cooke, Labrador Bird Notes. 163 

Only two previous records had been published for Fulica americana 
and Colaptes auratus luteus. The known range of Cyanocitta eris- 
tata cristata on the south coast has been extended a long distance 

The fox farm is at Dykes Bay, near the entrance to Sandwich 
Bay, about four miles southwest of Cartwright, about 150 miles 
north of the eastern end of the Strait of Belle Isle, and about 70 
miles southeast of Rigolet, near which place Dr. Coues made many 
of his Labrador observations. The Sandwich Bay records refer to 
the fox farm. The settlement called Paradise where Cartwright 
spent much of his time, and which was often visited by Birdseye, 
is at the southwestern corner of Sandwich Bay, some fifteen miles 
from the fox farm. Battle Harbor is on St. Lewis Sound about 40 
miles north of the Strait of Belle Isle. Flowers Cove, Newfound- 
land, and Forteau, Labrador, are at the west end of the Strait of 
Belle Isle; West Ste. Modiste and Red Bay are in the middle of 
the Strait; Chateau Bay and Pleasure Harbor are just north of 
its eastern end; Caribou Island and Lewis Bay are near Battle; 
Hawke Harbor is 50 miles north of Battle; Seal Islands and 
Spotted Islands are 50 miles east of Cartwright and Table Bay 
half that distance; Woody Point and West Bay are on the coast 
between Cartwright and the mouth of Hamilton Inlet, while 
Ticoralak is on the north shore of Hamilton Inlet near Rigolet. 

1. Gavia immer. Loon. — Battle Harbor, May 15, 1913; Ticoralak; 
October 12, 1912. 

2. Cepphus grylle or mandti. Guillemot. — Several at Woody 
Point, December 30, 1912, and at Lewis Bay, February 15, 1913. 

3. Larus marinus. Great Black-backed Gull. — Unusually early 
arrivals were seen near Romaine, March 26, 1914, and at Rigolet April 9, 
1915. The species was still present on the Seal Islands November 2, 1912. 

4. Larus argentatus. Herring Gull. — The last at Battle Harbor 
was noted October 22, 1912. 

5. Puffinus gravis. Greater Shearwater. — Seen at Hawke 
Harbor, August 19, 1912. 

6. Mergus serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. — Arrived at 
Cartwright, May 2, 1915, which is probably about an average date. 

7. Anas rubripes. Black Duck. — Fiist seen at Caribou Island, 
May 1, 1913, and at Sandwich Bay, May 2, 1915. 

8. Nettion carolinense. Green-winged Teal. — This is a rare 
species on the Labrador coast, but the wing of one was seen which had been 
shot near Ticoralak. 

164 Cooke, Labrador Bird Notes. [ April 

9. Marila marila. Scaup Duck. — Two young males were shot at 
Ticoralak, October 11, 1912. The only other record for the whole coast of 
Labrador is that of one shot near Nain in October, 1899. 

10. Harelda hyemalis. Old-squaw. — The first fall migrant ap- 
peared at Pleasure Harbor, September 16, 1912. 

11. Somateria mollissima borealis. Northern Eider. — The 
breeding eider of this part of the coast of eastern Labrador is dresseri, but 
the winter birds are undoubtedly the northern species since Battle Harbor is 
at the extreme northern limit of the breeding range of dressai. In the fall 
of 1912 the Eider Duck shooting began near Battle Harbor on September 
20, but at that time the birds were scarce and only a few were obtained. 
Even a month later, October 24, the gunning season had not yet reached 
its height, and seven men in one day killed only about 80 birds. Later 
the numbers increased and the birds remained as long as they could find 
any open water. At West Bay on January 31, 1913, after the simultaneous 
discharge of six guns, 140 eiders were picked up and many more were lost. 
A flock of not less than 400 was seen at Rigolet Maich 14, 1913. The 
first northward migrants were noted at Battle Harbor, May 1, 1913, and 
on May 23, they passed by the thousand in companies of a hundred or more. 

12. Chen hyperboreus hyperboreus. Lesser Snow Goose. — Snow 
Geese are only stragglers on the Labrador coast; indeed a single doubtful 
record at Okkak is the only one for the whole coast. One was shot at 
Independent Harbor about October 1, 1914, where none of the inhabitants 
could remember seeing a white goose. Its skin is now in the U. S. Biologi- 
cal Survey collection and, strangely enough, it turns out to be the small 
form from western North America. 

13. Branta canadensis canadensis. Canada Goose. — The first 
were noted at Battle Harbor, May 1, 1913, and at Sandwich Bay, April 30, 
1915. These dates agree closely with those given by Cartwright, who 
records the first as arriving near this same locality on May 4, 1775, April 30, 
1776, May 1, 1779, and May 8, 1786. 

14. Branta bernicla glaucogastra. Brant. — There is no certain 
record of a Brant anywhere on the Labrador coast, except the one shot at 
Nain in October, 1899. One is reported to have been taken at Ticoralak 
the fall of 1912 and the record is probably correct. 

15. Botaurus lentiginosus. Bittern. — This species is known from 
Cape St. Francis only a few miles to the south of Sandwich Bay, and hence 
the report that it l^reeds near this latter place is probably correct. 

16. Fulica americana. Coot. — One was shot at Table Bay in 
October, 1913, and is now in the collection of the Biological Survey. The 
only othei records for the whole east coast of Labrador are of one taken 
near Nain in 1880 and one at Sandwich Bay in August, 1899. 

17. Phalaropus fulicarius. Red Phalarope. — A late record for 
the coast of Labrador is that of several Red Phalaropes seen at West Ste. 
Modiste, September 13, 1912. 

18. Gallinago delicata. Wilson's Snipe. — It may be well to record 

Vo'jX?Otni] Cooke, Labrador Bird Notes. 165 

two Wilson's Snipe seen at Flowers Cove, Newfoundland, September 10, 
1912, for this is near the northern limit of the range of the species. 

19. Pisobia maculata. Pectoral Sandpiper.— Those individuals 
that were still present at Ticoralak October 12, 1912, were remaining later 
than usual. 

20. Pisobia fuscicollis. White-rumped Sandpiper. — This species 
remained still later than P. maculata, for single birds were seen at Battle 
Harbor to October 29, 1912, while in August they were abundant in flocks 
of hundreds. 

21. Pisobia minutilla. Least Sandpirer. — This species migrates 
so late that the first was not seen at Battle Harbor until June 1, 1913. 
Migrants returned to Battle Harbor August 7, 1912, and remained for 
about three weeks. 

22. Totanus melanoleucus. Greater Yellow-legs. — The first 
were seen at Battle Harbor May 14, 1613, and at Sandwich Bay June 4, 
1915. These places are near the normal northern range of the species. 
Several were noted September 15, 1912, at Chateau Bay and the last were 
seen October 12, 1912, at Ticoralak. 

23. Numenius borealis. Eskimo Curlew'. — Though this species 
may become extinct in the near future, it still existed in 1912, and during 
that year a few were seen August 17 on Caribou Island; one was recorded 
at Cartwright in September and four at West Bay during the same month. 

24. Zenaidura macroura carolinensis. Mourning Dove. — The 
most northern previous record on the Labrador coast for the Mourning 
Dove is at Red Bay in the Straits of Belle Isle. The known range can now 
be extended to Battle Harbor where one was seen October 20, 1912, and 
one found dead on the beach at Spotted Islands during August of the same 
year. One was shot near Battle Harbor in September, 1912. A close 
observer of bird life who has lived at Sandwich Bay for fifty years says that 
during all that time he has seen Mourning Doves only twice, once in 1909 
and once the following year. 

25. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. Osprey. — To the very few 
records of this species on the eastern coast of Labrador may be added that 
a pair was seen at Sandwich Bay May 28, 1915, and again the next day. 
The species breeds on both North River and White Beai River which flow 
into Sandwich Bay. 

26. Nyctea nyctea. Snowy Owl. — " Many of the people at Sandwich 
Bay set steel traps on isolated stumps for owls. These birds are usually 
very fat and are good eating. The fat is not at all strong " (Birdseye). 

27. Colaptes auratus luteus. Northern Flicker. — This species 
is probably not so rare as its few records for the eastern coast of Labrador 
would indicate. One was taken at Sandwich Bay in August, 1908, and one 
at Okpatok Island, Hudson Strait, October, 1882. These are the only 
published records for eastern Labrador, but a man who lived at Sandwich 
Bay and had taken a specimen there the spring of 1909 said that they nested 
in that neighborhood. In confirmation of this two individuals were heard 
there June 5, 1915. 

166 Cooke, Labrador Bird Notes. [x^u. 

28. Otocoris alpestris alpestris. Horned Lark. — The last one 
noted in 1912 was at Ticoralak October 12, and the first returning migrant 
was seen at Sandwich Bay, April 22, 1913. 

29. Cyanocitta cristata cristata. Blue Jay. — The known range of 
this species was decidedly extended by the capture of a specimen in 1912 
at Harrington on the south coast of Labrador near Romaine. It had not 
been previously lecorded east of Mingan. 

30. Euphagus carolinus. Rusty Blackbird. — The last one seen 
in 1912 at Flowers Cove, Newfoundland, was seen on September 10. It 
is there a common breeder. 

31. Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis. Snow Bunting. — This species 
is an abundant migrant at Battle Harbor, but does not breed there and is 
rare through the winter. During the spring migration great numbers are 
killed for food, as many as twenty being taken at a single shot. After 
November 6, 1912, the only ones seen were one on December 29, 1912, and 
one on February 15, 1913. The first song was heard May 1, 1913, when the 
species was abundant, but most left the latter part of that month, the last 
seen being three on May 31, and one the next day. 

32. Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus. Lapland Longspur. — 
Neither breeding nor wintering at Battle Harbor, the first spring arrival 
of the Lapland Longspur was noted there May 13, 1913. 

33. Passerherbulus sandwichensis savanna. Savannah Spar- 
row. — The last record made of a Savannah Sparrow at Battle Harbor 
was on September 12, 1912, when the species was still common. The first 
arrived the next spring on May 15. 

34. Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys. White-crowned Spar- 
row. — An abundant breeder on the Labrador coast. The last was seen at 
Forteau September 11, 1912, and the first at Battle Harbor May 22, 1913, 
and at Sandwich Bay May 28, 1915. 

35. Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated Sparrow. — There 
seems to be no published record of the occurrence of the White-throated 
Sparrow on the Labrador coast north of Battle Harbor. It is rare there, 
and the first arrived May 19, 1913, and several were heard May 22. The 
last was heard in 1912 at Forteau on September 11. 

36. Spizella monticola monticola. Tree Sparrow.— This spe- 
cies was abundant in migration at Forteau, September 11, 1912. It 
seldom nests on the coast, but is a common breeder in the wooded country 
inland, nesting for the most part on the ground and occasionally in the 
trees. The first arrived at Battle Harbor in 1913 on May 15. 

37. Junco hyemalis hyemalis. Slate-colored Junco. — Labrador 
is much too cold for the Junco or " snowbird " to winter and in the Sand- 
wich Bay district it is not common at any time. One was seen at Lewis 
Bay August 13, 1912, and one at Rigolet September 30, 1912. The follow- 
ing spring a single bird appeared at Battle Harbor on the unusual date of 
April 16, and a few were seen for ten days; then they disappeared and were 
not noted again until their usual time of arrival the middle of May. In 
1915 the first appeared at Sandwich Bay on May 12. 

^^'^'i^ie^"^] Cooke, Labrador Bird Notes. 167 

38. Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. — The last one seen at 
Forteau in 1912 was on September 11. 

39. Passerella iliaca iliaca. Fox Sparrow. — The last were seen 
at the head of Chateau Bay September 15, 1912, and on the coast of New- 
foundland, near Flowers Cove, September 10, 1913. The first was heard 
on Sandwich Bay, May 5, 1915. 

40. Mniotilta varia. Black and White Warbler. — The first 
record for Labrador is that of one seen at Sandwich Bay June 2-4, 1915. 
It was undoubtedly a straggler for the species had not previously been 
known northeast of Anticosti Island. 

41. Dendroica sestiva sestiva. Yellow Warbler.— The only 
previous record of a Yellow Warbler on the eastern coast of Labrador 
seems to be that of the one taken on Hamilton Inlet, Spetember 1, 1905. 
To this record can now be added that of a pair seen at Sandwich Bay June 
6, 1915. 

42. Dendroica coronata. Myrtle Warbler. — The earhest war- 
blers to appear at Sandwich Bay the spring of 1915 were about a dozen 
Myrtle Warblers that arrived May 24. 

43. Dendroica striata. Black-poll Warbler. — The fu-st were 
noted at Battle Harbor, June 6, 1913, and at Sandwich Bay May 27, 1915. 
This is a good example of the fact that a late migrant advances on the 
average more miles per day than an early migrant. The Black-poll 
Warbler arrived at Sandwich Bay in 1915 only thi-ee days later than the 
Myrtle Warbler, though it arrives at Washington, D. C, on the average 
more than thii-ty days behind the latter. It is also interesting to note in 
this connection that, assuming May 5 as the average date of arrival at 
Washington, the Black-poll Warbler occupies about twenty-five days in 
passing over the fifteen hundred miles thence to the Labrador coast, an 
average of about sixty miles a day, while the Black-poll Warblers that are 
to nest in Alaska are averaging more than a hundred and fifty miles a day 
during this same part of May and by the end of the month reach Kotzebue 
Sound a thousand miles farther north than Sandwich. 

44. Dendroica virens. Black-throated Green Warbler. — ■ The 
list of the known birds of the east coast of Labrador has been increased by 
the addition of the Black-throated Green Warbler, a specimen of which 
was seen at Battle Harbor June 6, 1913. The most eastern previous 
record was that of one at Eskimo Point. 

45. Anthus rubescens. Pipit. — The last was seen at Ticoralak in 
1912 on October 11, and the first arrival the following spring at Battle 
Harbor on May 16. 

46. Regulus calendula calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — 
One was seen at Sandwich Bay May 26, 1915. There seems to be only 
one previous record of the species on the coast of eastern Labrador and that 
was at Rigolet on August 6, 1860. 

47. Planesticus migratorius migratorius. Robin. — The last 
was seen at Forteau September 11, 1912, and the first at Sandwich Bay 
May 1, 1915 


168 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Qicebec. [Ap'rii 



QUEBEC — 1911 -19L5. 


{Concluded from p. 73.) 

53. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus). Bobolink. — Abundant sum- 
mer visitant; May 9 to Aug. 16. Average date of arrival (for five 
years) May 13; of departui-e (for three years) Aug. 14. Eggs: June 6 to 
16. The Bobolink here seems to be increasing in numbers as during the 
past two summers, I have^ found it nesting not only in its former haunts, 
but in many other places where I had not noticed it previously. The 
males usually arrive about a fortnight in advance of the females, the exact 
dates this year (1915) being, males May 11, and females May 25. 

54. Molothrus ater ater (Boddsert). Cowbird. — Rare summer 
visitant; April 16 to June 30. Eggs: June 27. It is with feelings of 
regret that I have now to include the Cowbird as a summer visitant, after 
four years of its inclusion as a transient only, as previous to the present 
summer, 1915, I had only seen four examples of the bird in April, 1913. 
This summer however, two pairs could generally be seen in the neighbour- 
hood from April 24 to the end of June, with the result that at least one 
Yellow Warbler and Red-eyed Vireo were victimized, an egg being found in 
the nest of the former and a young bird in that of the latter. Mr. L. M. 
Terrill's experience at Bury about 35 miles northeast of Hatley, somewhat 
coincides with mine, as writing in the ' Ottawa Naturalist ' November, 1904, 
he says: " I did not find any Warbler's nests containing eggs of the Cow- 
bird, in fact the only individual intruded on was a Bluebird." In my 
limited experience of the bird I have found the females to an-ive with the 

55. Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus (Linnaeus). Red-winged 
Blackbird. — Abundant summer visitant; April 6 to Aug. 17 (Sept. 24, 
Oct. 21, Nov. 1). Average date of arrival (for five years) April 8; of 
departure (for three years) Aug. 15. Eggs: May 13 to June 15. During 
the spring and summer of 1912 this liird, always a plentiful one, fairly 
swarmed and nested in many new localities which have not been tenanted 
since. The favourite situation here for nests is low down in the large 
cat-tail beds, only on three occasions have I found them in small bushes. 
By the middle of August all the birds have generally disappeared, the late 
dates in September, October and November being for two to four birds 
only on each occasion, which dropped into the cat-tail beds in the marsh 
late in the evening. The males usually precede the females by several 

^"'- 1^^6^"'] MousLEY, Birds oS Hatiey, Quebec. ' 169 

weeks, the exact period in 1915 being one month, males March 25, females 
April 25. Four eggs in a set seem to be the usual number; only on two 
occasions have I found five, and these out of fifty-seven nests examined. 

56. Sturnella magna magna (Linnaeus) . Meadowlark. — Rare 
summer visitant; April 11 to Oct. 25. I have only seen fifteen examples 
of this bird altogether, and these, with the exception of two, were some miles 
away from my house, two in June of 1913 near Massawippi, which were 
evidently breeding, one having building material in its beak, nine at Comp- 
ton in October of the same year, one again at Massawippi in May, 1914, 
and one in June, 1915, near Coaticook. The remaining two were seen close 
to my house, one in April and the other in May. 

57. Icterus galbula (Linnaeus). Baltimore Oriole. — Fairly com- 
mon summer visitant; May 11 to Aug. 25. Average date of arrival (for 
five years) May 14; of departure (for thi'ee years) Aug. 22. Eggs: June 8. 
The usual nesting site selected here is near the top of some fair sized tree, 
generally a maple. The nests vary somewhat in depth, which in some cases 
may be as much as six inches, whilst one l^uilt in a maple opposite my house 
only measures three and one half inches. After the young leave the nest, 
all the Orioles seem to disappear, and are not seen again until towards 
the beginning or middle of August on their w^ay south for the winter. 
The males generally precede the females by some few days, the exact time 
in 1915 being a week, males May 16 and females May 23. 

58. Euphagus carolinus (Midler). Rusty Blackbird. — Rare tran- 
sient; Oct. 1 to 27. The only example I had seen of this bird (previous 
to the present year, 1915) was that of an immature shot on the morning of 
October 21, 1914, and shown to me in the flesh the same evening. This 
year however, a flock of 25 visited the marsh on October 1 and remainded 
in the neighbourhood for some weeks. 

59. Quiscalus quiscula aeneus (Ridgway). Bronzed Grackle. — 
Common summer visitant; April 14 to Oct. 20. Average date of arrival 
(for five years) April 16; of departure (for four years) Oct. 10. Eggs: 
May 29. The Bronzed Grackle is not nearly as plentiful here as the Red- 
winged Blackbird. At one time a few of them used to nest in hollow stumps 
in the marsh but lately all seem to have taken a liking for evergreen trees, 
more particularly fir and pine, in which they construct their somewhat 
bulky nests. They are interesting birds, showing great development 
along many lines, but their egg robbing proclivities makes it undesirable 
to have many of them about. Speaking from memory only, I fancy I have 
always noticed the males and females arriving together hke the Cowbu'd. 

60. Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina (W. Cooper). Evening 
Grosbeak. — Occasional but rare winter visitant; Feb. 12. The above 
date in 1913 is the first on which I had the pleasure of seeing a small flock of 
nine of these rare birds at close quarters, as they were feeding on the buds 
of the row of maple trees that runs through the centre of the village of 
Hatiey. The weather at the time was very cold, the thermometer register- 
ing 2° below zero. On the following day a male was observed amongst a 

1/0 MoTJSLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. LAprii 

flock of Pine Grosbeaks about a mile and a half south of the village, but 
although a careful lookout was kept for some weeks, this was the only 
other occasion on which any were seen. 

61. Pinicola enucleator leucura (Miiller). Pine Grosbeak. — 
Irregular winter visitant; Jan. 23 to March 28. My first acquaintance 
with these interesting birds was made on February 8, 1912, when small 
flocks visited the apple and maple trees round my house, feeding on the 
old apples still remaining on the former and doing considerable damage to 
the buds of the latter, before they left on March 28. The following winter 
they arrived on Jan. 23 and it was not until March 21, that I saw the 
last of them. Most of the flocks consisted of females and young birds 
with only a few red ones amongst them as a rule. 

62. Passer domesticus domesticus (Linnaeus) . House Sparrow. — 
Common resident. Eggs: May to July. This great pest luckily is not 
very abundant here so far, many of the farms having none at all, and at 
those where they have taken up their abode they do not seem to increase in 
numbers very materially, nor do the villages seem to be particularly over- 
burdened with them. 

63. Carpodacuspurpureuspurpureus (Gmelin). Purple Finch. — 
Fairly common summer visitant; May 2 to Oct. 25 (Nov. 28). Average 
date of arrival (for four years) May 10; of departure (for three years) 
Oct. 17. This is quite a common bird at migration times, but during the 
summer months its numbers are very limited, and I have not yet been able 
to locate a nest, although two or three old ones found in the fall would 
seem to belong to this species judging from their situation and construc- 
tion. The late date in November is for a single female only, which was 
in the company of a large flock of Goldfinches. 

64. Acanthis linaria linaria (Linnseus). Redpoll. — Irregular 
winter visitant; Nov. 30 to April 13. So far as I have been able to judge 
the Redpoll is decidedly an irregular and erratic visitor, and the largest 
flock that I have come across consisted of only forty birds. 

65. Astragalinus tristis tristis (Linnseus). Goldfinch. — Common 
summer visitant, sometimes in winter; May 3 to Nov. 28 (Dec. 18, 31, 
Jan. 4). Average date of arrival (for four years) May 15; of departure 
(for two years) Nov. 28. Eggs: June 3 to Aug. 20. Notwithstanding 
careful searching I have not observed the Goldfinch during the winter and 
early spring months, until the present year 1915, when a pair of birds were 
seen on each of the dates in December, and five on Jan. 4, 1916. The verj' 
early and hot summer of 1911 was no doubt responsible for the unusually 
early date of June 3 for a set of eggs. Out of ten nests examined two 
contained a set of six eggs. 

66. Spinus pinus (Wilson) . Pine Siskin. — Irregular winter visitant; 
Nov. 7 to May 25. My first acquaintance with the Pine Siskin was in 
December of 1914, and from then on to May 25, 1915, I encountered 
them almost daily in flocks of from 5 to 25 birds. They were especially 
fond of a Uttle swampy cedar wood upon the seeds of which they could be 

^**''l9i^"^] MousLEY, Birds of H alley, Quebec. 171 

found feeding almost any day. From the actions of a few scattered pairs 
I felt sure they were breeding, but it was not until May 12 that I had the 
satisfaction of twice seeing an adult bird feeding a fully grown young, and 
on September 18 on the outskirts of a large wood (at a spot where I well 
remember having seen a pair of birds on two or three occasions early in 
April), I found what I feel sure was a nest of this species. It was situated 
25 feet up in a tall fir tree well concealed and saddled on to a branch at its 
junction with the main trunk, and is different from any other nest I have 
ever found here before. The foundation consisted of a platform of small 
fir twigs and a few gi-ass stems 5| inches in width, upon which rested the 
nest proper. This was composed of very fine strips of bark and grasses, 
warmly lined with animal fur, thistledown and some horse hair, the whole 
structure looking remarkably large and flat for such a small bird. The 
other measurements as near as I could get at them, seeing that the nest 
had been occupied, and was some few months old, are as follows, viz: out- 
side diameter Sf, inside 2 inches, outside depth 1\, inside f of an inch. A 
good deal of the young birds' droppings still remained attached to the fir 
twig foundation. No doubt the eggs had been laid very early in April. 

67. Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis (Linnaeus). Snow Bunting. — 
Irregular winter visitant; Oct. 28 to March 18. Most of the flocks so far 
observed of this interesting Bunting have been small ones, consisting of 
from eight to twenty birds, the only exception being on Jan. 2, 1913, when 
one which must have numbered well over a thousand birds paid us a visit 
and remained in the neighbourhood for the best part of the day. 

68. PooBcetes gramineus gramineus (Gmelin). Vesper Sparrow. 
— Common summer visitant; April 16 to Oct. 12. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) April 22; of departm-e (for four years) Sept. 25. Eggs: 
May 20 to July 15. This sparrow can generally be found nesting in most 
of the fields, but more especially those that are sparsely covered with grass 
and weeds. It is not a very abundant breeding species at any time, and 
during the present season (1915) has really been scarce, only one nest 
having been located. It is the only sparrow of which I have not yet found 
a set of 5 eggs, as out of 17 nests examined nearly aU contained four eggs, 
which would appear to be the usual number for this district. At migra- 
tion times in common with most of the other sparrows it is seen in greatly 
increased numjjers. 

69. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (Wilson). Savannah 
Sparrow. — Fairly common summer visitant; April 16 to Oct. 12. Aver- 
age date of arrival (for four years) April 25; of departure (for four years) 
Oct. 7. Eggs; May 24 to July 14. This is the rarest of the breeding 
sparrows here, only a few pairs nesting in a very restricted area, in fact 
two fields overlooldng the marsh are the only ones in Avhich I have found 
their nests so far. These in my experience, with one exception, are always 
well sunk in the ground, the rims being flush with the sm'face and generally 
long grass covers the top, which makes them very difficult to locate. Out 
of ten nests examined two only contained a set of five eggs, and one had 

172 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. [April 

moss in its construction, a somewhat unusual material for this bird to make 
use of. The bird Avhen flushed from a partly built nest or one containing 
one or two eggs, invariably deserts it, at least this has been my experience 
on several occasions. 

70. Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys (J. R. Forster). White 
Crowned Sparrow. — Rare transient; Oct. 16. The above date in 1914, 
is the only one on which I have seen an example of this handsome sparrow. 
The bird was on a wood pile in my garden and when first noticed had the 
feathers on the top of the crown erected which drew my attention to it 
more especially, and forms a minor means of identification when one can 
catch the bird in the mood. However irrespective of this I had ample 
time to notice the other marks which separate it from the White-throated 

71. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). White-throated Sparrow. — 
Common summer visitant; April 23 to Oct. 25. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) April 29; of departure (for four years) Oct. 16. Eggs: 
May 25 to July 19. This most aristocratic of sparrows is by no means very 
plentiful, although a pair can generally be found in most suitable openings 
in the woods. The nest is quite distinct from that of the other sparrows 
breeding here, being a larger and more substantial structure, and generally 
in my experience having skeleton leaves as part of the foundation, and 
green moss in the outer rim, the latter never being absent,. and forming an 
invariable clue to the owner. 

The average dimensions of nine nests are as follows, viz.: outside 
diameter 4|, inside 2| inches; outside depth 2|, inside 2 inches. Out of 
20 nests examined only 3 contained a set of 5 eggs, 4 being the general 
number. Like the Savannah it is a particularly sensitive bird and flushing 
it from an incompleted nest or one containing one or two eggs, generally 
results in its being abandoned. I have heard two of these sparrows sing- 
ing as late as September 25 at six o'clock in the evening. 

72. Spizella monticola monticola (Gmelin). Tree Sparrow. — 
Fairly common transient, April 22, Oct. 4 to Nov. 13. Average date of 
arrival (for two years) Oct. 14; of departure (for two years) Nov. 10. It 
was not until October 4, 1914, that I first noticed one of these little spar- 
rows, and then no more were seen until the end of the month, when they 
became fairly common in the cat-tail beds in the marsh, on the heads of 
which they were fond of perching in contrast to the elusive ways of the 
Swamp and Savannah Sparrows, whose one object in life seems to be to 
keep out of sight. On the date in April of the present year, 1915, only two 
examples were seen, but during the fall migration they have been far more 
plentiful than last year. 

73. Spizella passerina passerina (Bechstein). Chipping Sparrow. 
— Common summer visitant; April 20 to Oct. 12. Average date of ar- 
rival (for five years) April 24; of departure (for four years) Oct. 6. Eggs: 
May 22 to July 17. This small sparrow can usually be found nesting not 
only round every farm house, but generally all over the country side. 
Curiously enough the first nest I ever found contained a set of six eggs, a 

^°'l9l^'"] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. 173 

very unusual number, and one I am not likely to duplicate, and this remark 
applies also to one of three eggs, which to all intents and purposes are all 
immaculate. In addition to these out of 43 nests examined I have found 
three sets of five, which are uncommon, four and three being the most 
general number and about equally divided. 

74. Junco hyemalis hyemalis (Linnaeus). Slate-colored Junco. — 
Common summer visitant; abundant transient; April 1 to Nov. 13. Aver- 
age date of arrival (for four years) April 6; of departure (for four years) 
Nov. 11. Eggs: May 20 to July 17. If only one tenth of the birds seen 
at the spring migration stayed behind to breed they would more than equal 
the Song Sparrow in abundance. As it is, only a limited number of pairs 
remain as a rule, but during the present season (1915) quite a change has 
taken place, more pairs being noted and nests located than ever before. 
Out of a total of 21 nests examined only three contained a set of five 
eggs, and all were on the ground with the exception of one which was ten 
inches up in a cedar bush. 

75. Melospiza melodia melodia (Wilson). Song Sparrow. — 
Abundant summer visitant; April 1 to Nov. 8. Average date of arrival 
(for five years) April 8; of departm-e (for four years) Nov. 1. Eggs: 
May 17 to July 29. This is certainly the most abundant sparrow here. 
Their nests are invariably placed on the ground in this locality, only four 
having been found in low bushes from two to six feet above the ground, 
one in May and the others in June and July, these latter evidently being 
second or third broods. This sparrow would appear to lay five eggs in a 
set more generally than four , as out of sixty-two nests examined, 32 con- 
tained sets of five as against 20 of four. 

76. Melospiza georgiana (Latham). Swamp Sparrow. — Fairly 
common summer visitant; April 9 to Oct. 25. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) April 20; of departure (for four years) Oct. 23. Eggs: 
May 23 to June 14. This sparrow although it can generally be found in a 
few favoured localities is not by any means very plentiful (except at the 
fall migration) and during 1914 was really scarce, careful searching only 
revealing one nest as against three or four of previous years. In the case 
of the Song Sparrow the number of nests containing five eggs was just over 
fifty per cent, with this species it is just a little under, as out of twelve nests 
examined five contained the full complement only. 

77. Passerella iliaca iliaca (Merrem). Fox Sparrow. — Rare 
transient; Oct. 16, Nov. 5. The above dates in 1914 are the only ones 
on which I have observed this large and handsome sparrow, and then only 
one example was seen on each occasion. 

78. Zamelodia ludoviciana (Linnajus). Rose-breasted Gros- 
beak. — Rare summer visitant; May 24 to Sept. 2. Eggs: May 31. 
The Rose-breasted Grosbeak is decidedly a rare breeding bird about here, 
only one nest and eggs having been so far located in five years. This was 
a frail affair placed in a small tree about six feet above the gi'ound at the 
side of a much frequented road, and contained three eggs upon which the 

174 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. LApril 

male was sitting. In addition to this bird, only fourteen other examples 
have been seen, two each in May and July, nine in August and one in 
September. In connection with the peculiar and interesting distribution 
of this bird in Maine and the suggestion of the late Mr. Ora W. Knight in 
his ' Birds of Maine ' 1908, p. 441, that the northern representatives of 
the species enter the State from the west and pass across it by some regular 
migration route; and also the previous surmise of the late Mr. Henry A. 
Purdie (Amer. Naturalist, Vol. 3, 1869, p. 331) that some birds not common 
on the central and southern Maine coast may reach the northeastern 
coast of Maine by the St. Lawrence and Maine Central water route, I 
would here like to ventiu-e the opinion that if this is so, the birds enter 
Maine from the west and the St. Lawrence, by way of the river St. Francis, 
the following of whose course would eventually bring them in the vicinity 
of Lake Megantic at which place or near abouts they probably enter the 
State of Maine. Much fiu-ther study however will be necessary before this 
interesting problem can be solved, but in the meantime I feel sure that apart 
from this theory the river St. Francis as already suggested elsewhere, does 
form a minor if not a principal highway of migration for birds passing 
through Hatley. 

79. Passerina cyanea (Linna;us). Indigo Bunting. — Rare sum- 
mer visitant; June 22 to June 27. Eggs: June 27. This is another rare 
breeding bird, only a pair having been seen and their nest located in five 
years. This was placed in a small shrub about four feet above the ground 
at the side of a little frequented road, and contained the remarkably small 
set of two eggs only. I fovmd the nest soon after it was commenced and 
had it under observation every day, not taking the eggs until incubation 
had been advanced a few days. It was not until the nest was completed 
on June 22 that I became aware of the owners, never having been able to 
catch either of them near the site when I had visited it previously. The 
female was very secretive in her manner never rising above the underbrush. 
If it had not been for the location I could almost have assigned the nest in 
the first instance, as belonging to an Alder Flycatcher; which in outward 
appearance it greatly resembled. 

80. Piranga erythromelas ( Vieillot) . Scarlet Tanager. — Rare 
transient; May 15 to June 1. I have only seen four examples of this 
handsome bird in five years, a male and female in June, 1912, and two males 
in May of the present year, 1915. 

81. Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons (Say). Cliff Swallow. — 
Common summer visitant; May 6 to Sept. 1. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) Maj^ 12; of departure (for three years) Aug. 29. Eggs: 
June 2 to 21. The Cliff Swallow is plentiful at all times especially during 
the fall migration. As a summer resident it probably comes next to the 
Barn Swallow as regards numbers, and its gourd shaped nests can be 
found crowded together imder the eaves of large barns or warehouses. One 
nest I found had two entrance holes, one on each side, the neck in each case 
being very flat and short, thus leaving a clear passage right through the 
top of the nest. 

^"''igie^""] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. 175 

82. Hirundo erythrogaster (Boddsert). Barn Swallow. — Com- 
mon summer visitant; April 25 to Sept. 7. Average date of arrival (for 
four years) May 1; of departure (for three years) Sept. 6. Eggs: June 
4 to July 10. This is probably the most common swallow here at all times, 
especially where there are plenty of the old-fashioned barns and open 
outbuildings, to which the swallows have easy access. As the more modern 
barns increase with their greater tightness and difficulty of entrance, I 
presume this swallow will show a falling off in numbers, unless they take 
more to building under the outside eaves. 

83. Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot). Tree Swallow. — Fau-ly com- 
mon summer visitant; April 19 to Sept. 7. Average date of arrival (for 
four years) April 24; of departure (for three j^ears) Aug. 30. Eggs: June 
7 to 19. In my experience the nesting site here is generally some small 
cavity in the eaves or cornices of farm buildings, but I have found it also 
nesting in deserted Woodpeckers' holes in birch trees overhanging a pond. 
Unless at migration times, it is not nearly so numerous as the Barn and 
Cliff Swallows, but probably at those times equals, if it does not exceed, 
them in numbers. 

84. Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). Bank Swallow. — ^ Fairly common 
summer visitant; May 6 to Aug. 30. Average date of arrival (for two 
years) May 11; of departure (for two years) Aug. 22. Eggs: June 3. 
It was not until the summer of 1914 that I came across a small colony of 
these birds, which were nesting in the bank of a little stream at the south 
end of Massawippi village, and again this year two or three pairs were 
found as well at another spot on the roadside (previously unoccupied) 
about half a mile from the first, so that it looks as though the species were 
extending their area of operations in that locality, the soil of which is more 
of a sandy natm'e than round here. Some of the nesting holes that I 
examined extended two feet into the bank. 

85. Bombycilla cedrorum (Vieillot). Cedar Waxwing. — Fairly 
common summer visitant; (April 10, 23) May 27 to Sept. 5. Average date 
of arrival (for four years) May 31. Eggs: June 15 to July 22. Previous 
to the year 1914 Cedar Waxwings had been quite an uncommon bird, but 
during the past two years have been fairly plentiful. The earlier date in 
April is for a single only, and the later for a flock of 19 (the largest I 
have seen so far) both for the present year 1915. They are fond of hawking 
over the marsh taking their food after the manner of a Kingljird. A pair 
built their nest in a small fir tree quite close to the verandah of my house, 
and it was most interesting to watch their lovable ways. 

86. Lanius borealis (Vieillot). Northern Shrike. — Rare transient; 
Nov. 3, Dec. 11. The above dates in November, 1913, and December, 1915, 
are the only ones on which I have observed this bird, and to make identifi- 
cation sure I shot the example in November, and the skin is now in my 
collection. I have since been informed that a bird, which from the descrip- 
tion given, I take to be one of this species, was seen killing an English 
Sparrow on Nov. 24, 1914. 

176 MousLET, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. lAprH 

87. Lanius ludovicianus migrans (W. Palmer). Migrant Shrike. 

— Rare summer visitant; April 13 to Sept. 10. Average date of arrival 
(for two years) April 20; of departure (for two years) Sept. 4. Eggs: 
May 21. I have only seen this shrike on very few occasions, and then with 

• one exception not within three miles of Hatley. In the spring of 1913 I 
located a nest near Massawippi in an old apple tree quite close to the road, 
which contained young birds. On visiting the locality again the following 
spring another nest was found containing five eggs also in an apple tree, 
and within thirty yards of the previous one, and these two are the only 
records I have, as the birds could not be found in the locality this year. 

88. Vireosylva olivacea (Linnaeus). Red-eyed Vireo. — Common 
summer visitant; May 20 to Sept. 10. Average date of arrival (for four 
years) May 24; of departure (for two years) Sept. 10. Eggs: June 11 to 
July 22. This is certainly the most abundant of the Vireos, although 
since 1912 when nests of the two rarer species the Yellow-throated and 
Blue-headed were found, and this and the Warbling Vireo were more than 
usually plentiful, it has really been scarce, no more than three nests having 
been located during the past two years, whereas in 1912 one could hardly 
go out for a walk without finding one or two. This and the Yellow Warbler 
are the only birds that I have found victimized by the Cowbird, the one 
nest found this year containing a young Cowbird and one addled egg of 
the owner only. 

89. Vireosylva gilva gilva (Vieillot). Warbling Vireo. — Fairly 
common summer visitant; May 20 to Aug. 20. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) May 24; of departure (for two years) Aug. 17. Eggs: 
June 13. This Vireo can generally be found nesting in the woods as well 
as in shade and apple trees in orchards, for which latter it seems to have a 
special liking. A pair have nested for three years in succession in an or- 
chard near my house, twice in an apple tree and once in a maple, but 
during the present season, 1915, I have only observed the species at migra- 
tion times. 

90. Lanivireo flavifrons (VieUlot). Yellow-throated Vireo.^ 
Rare summer visitant; May — to Aug. 13. Eggs: June 24. I have only 
come across one nest of this species so far in 1912, which like that of the 
Blue-headed was a handsome affair, suspended from a forked branch of a 
beech tree nine feet above the ground, and contained four quite distinctive 
eggs, the spots being much larger and browner on three of them, than is 
usual in Vireos' eggs, whilst the fourth is immaculate, the average size of 
the set being .81 X .60. I can give no specific date of arrival in 1912 nor 
have I seen it since except in the fall of the present year 1915 when a num- 
ber were observed on August 13 migrating in company with the Warbling 

91. Lanivireo solitarius solitarius (Wilson). Blue-headed Vireo. 

— Rare summer visitant; May — to . Eggs: June 26. Only a 

pair of this handsome species has been noted so far and their nest located 
in 1912. This latter was an elegant structure suspended in the forked 

^"''me'^"^] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. 177 

branch of a cedar tree six feet above the ground. It contained a full set of 
four eggs somewhat heavier marked and larger than those of the Red-eyed, 
their average size being .82 X .58. The birds were not at all shy and kept 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the nest on several occasions when I 
visited it. I am unable at present to give any specific date of arrival or 
departiue, not having observed the birds at those periods. 

92. Mniotilta varia (Linnajus). Black and White Warbler. — 
Fairly common summer visitant; May 4 to Sept. 10. Average date of 
arrival (for four years) May 6; of departure (for three years) Sept. 5. 
Eggs: June 4 to 9. This tree creeping little warbler is more plentiful at 
migration times than in the summer, only a limited number of pairs re- 
maining to breed. Of the three nests I have succeeded in finding so far, 
one was hidden away in a small hollow under a fallen tree trunk, another 
was placed at the foot of an alder sapling, and the third was in the uptiu-ned 
roots of a fallen tree three feet above the ground. They were all com- 
posed of dry leaves, moss and strips of bark, heavily lined with long black 
and white horse hairs, the average dimensions of the three being: outside 
diameter 3f , inside If inches; outside depth 2 J, inside 1^ inches; the second 
nest contained a rare set of six eggs, one of which was wreathed at the 
smaller end, the third a full set of five, and the first was either robbed or 
abandoned as I never found any eggs in it. 

93. Compsothlypis americana usneae (Brewster). Northern 
Parula Warbler. — Rare summer visitant; May 14 to June 26. Eggs: 
June 5 to 26. The present year (1915) has certainly been a warbler one, 
and this may account for my good fortune in finding two nests of this 
charming and smallest of warblers, in a district where usnea lichen does 
not abound, and where at all events the bird must be rare at any time. 
Certainly I have failed to notice it in previous years in the only swampy 
wood where usnea longissima hangs in long festoons from a very limited 
number of trees. Here the two exquisite little nests were found both in 
fir trees, the first some thirty-five feet up, and the second about twenty-five 
feet, both pensile, attached to long streamers of usnea, and composed 
almost entirely (especially the latter one) of this lichen, only a very little 
plant down, fine red rootlets and hair being used as a lining, and containing 
four and three eggs respectively. The average dimensions of the two are 
as follows, viz: outside diameter 2f, inside \\ inches; outside depth 2|, 
inside 2| inches. As only a pair of birds were located at any one time, and 
seeing that the construction of both nests are similar, and the date of the 
second one somewhat late, I have come to the conclusion that it contained 
the second set of eggs from this one pair of birds. This nest (which was 
situated just sixty yards from the site of the first one) with the branch it 
was attached to, I have presented to the Victoria Memorial Museum at 
Ottawa, where I hope it will eventually give pleasure to innumerable bird 
lovers, who have not the opportunities of viewing such works of art in their 
natural surroundings. After the taking of this nest the birds were not seen 
again, nor did the fall migration produce any. 

178 MouSLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. [April 

94. Dendroica sestiva aestiva (Gmelin). Yellow Warbler. — 
Irregular summer visitant; May 9 to Aug. 17. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) May 14. Eggs: May 31 to June 30. It seems strange to 
have to apply the term irregular to such a common and generally distrib- 
uted warbler, nevertheless the following facts seem to justify the epithet. 
During the summer of 1911 only one pair of birds were seen and afterwards 
found nesting. In 1912 not a single one was observed, and the year follow- 
ing only one male was seen, and one nest located. In 1914 five males and 
three females were seen and three nests located, and the same number 
were found during the present year, one of which contained the Cowbird's 
egg already refened to. This nest was five feet up in a small fir and when 
found on June 27 contained the Cowbird's egg, and four of the owner, one 
of which had been built over liy the Warbler, no doubt in mistake for the 
Cowbird's. On this date I removed the egg of the Cowbird, and also raised 
up the built over one of the Warbler, and concluded as the female had 
begun to sit she would go on doing so. Judge of my surprise when visiting 
the nest three days later to find that the Warbler had not only laid another 
egg, but had replaced the one in the hole I had removed it from, and had 
also embedded another at the side of it, and was sitting on three eggs only, 
surely a unique occurrence. I have the nest which is a perfect two storied 
one, and shows the two holes in which the owner's eggs fit, and when there 
only the tops are visible. The height of the eight nests found varies from 
three to twelve feet above the ground, two contained a full set of five eggs, 
one three, and the remainder four, the average dimensons being, outside 
diameter 2f ins., inside If ins.; outside depth 2| ins., inside If ins. In 
the " Ottawa Naturalist " for November, 1904, Mr. L. M. Terrill writing 
of the status of this bird at Bury some 35 miles northeast of here, says: 
" The Yellow Warbler, one of the most common summer residents in Mon- 
treal was notable by its absence, as I did not see a single specimen either as 
summer resident or migrant." Mr. Terrill's experience seems to bear out 
my own, and would appear to indicate that in this southeast corner of the 
Province, the bird is not nearly so plentiful as it is at Montreal and else- 
where, where large river valleys exist. 

95. Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens (Gmehn). Black- 
throated Blue Warbler. — Rare summer visitant; May 14 to Sept. 10. 
Average date of departm-e (for two years) Sept. 6. It was not until the 
fall of 1914 that I became acquainted with this handsome and sleekly 
groomed bird. At that time only two examples were observed, but during 
the present year (which I have already remarked has been a great warbler 
one) several were seen from May to September, including a singing male 
on June 23, together with a female, which latter was flushed from some 
dense underbrush nearby, but no nest could be found, although from the 
actions of the birds, I am sure it could not have been so far off. On the 
above data I have ventured to include it as a rare breeding visitant more 
common during migration times. 

96. Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus). Myrtle Warbler. — Rare 

^"'me^"^] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. 179 

summer visitant ; abundant transient; April 26 to Oct. 16. Average date 
of arrival (for four years) May 1; of departure (for four years) Oct. 13. 
Eggs: May 27 to June 18. Of all the warblers at migration times this is 
the most abundant and during the fall of 1914 it was more numerous than 
ever, being found in small parties in almost every conceivable place. In 
the spring the gi-eater bulk pass further north, only a very limited number 
remaining to breed. Of the five nests that have come under my notice, 
all were situated in small fir trees close to the trunk from three to six feet up, 
and were composed externally of fine fir twigs and grass stems, lined inside 
with horse hair, and a good supply of feathers from various small birds. 
This feather lining which is usually present forms an interesting feature of 
these nests in as much as in some cases, the bases of the feathers are im- 
bedded in the bottom of the nest, with the tips protruding above, thus 
forming a kind of little canopy over the nest. So pronounced was this 
in one case, where the smaller feathers of a Blue Jay had been used that I 
could not see the contents, until some of the tips had been put on one side. 
Unfortunately this interesting nest was destroyed after two eggs had been 
laid, the other four containing four young birds, one set of five, and two 
sets of fom- eggs respectively, the average dimensions of the nests being: 
outside diameter Sj inches, inside 2 inches; outside depth 2| inches, 
inside 1^ inches. 

97. Dendroica magnolia (Wilson). Magnolia Warbleb. — Fairly 
common summer visitant; May 9 to Sept. 7. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) May 19; of departure (for three years) Sept. 5. Eggs: 
June 5 to 15. This warbler is not nearly so plentiful at migration times 
as the Myrtle, but the number of pairs remaining to breed exceed those of 
the latter bird. Of the six nests I have found so far all were in small firs 
from one foot three inches to nine feet up, saddled on to the branches, in 
one case close to the trunk, in the others from a few inches to two feet away. 
They were all composed of dry grasses held together by what look like little 
balls of some brown or white woolly substance, usually heavily lined inside 
with long black horse hairs, and fine red rootlets, the average dimensions 
being: outside diameter 3j, inside If inches; outside depth 2, inside Ij 
inches. One contained four young birds, another a set of three, and the 
remainder sets of four eggs each. 

98. Dendroica pensylvanica (Linnaeus). Chestnut-sided Warbler. 
— Fairly common summer visitant; May 16 to July 20. Average date 
of arrival (for two years) May 20. Eggs: June 6 to 25. It was not until 
the spring of 1914 that I noticed this dainty httle Warbler, and then only 
two pairs were located. The present season however has been more pro- 
ductive, double the number having been found breeding. Of six nests 
located so far, three were on the roadside the others in second growth on 
the outskirts of woods, one being within four feet of a Black-billed Cuckoo's 
nest, which somewhat weighs against the recent statement of a writer in 
' The Oologist ' that one need never look for anything in the vicinity of a 
Cuckoo's nest, owing to their habit of eating the eggs and young of other 

180 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. [April 

birds, which propensity however, does not seem to be altogether generally 
admitted. All were in forks of low bushes at a height of from a foot and a 
half to three feet and a half above the ground, and were composed in some 
cases of dry grasses and fir twigs, held together by spiders silk, and lined 
with black and white horse hair and fine red rootlets, in others the fir twigs 
were absent, grasses and strips of birch bark being used, with fine grasses 
and rootlets as a lining, sometimes fine grasses only. Five contained sets of 
four eggs each, the remaining one a set of three, the average dimensions 
being: outside diameter 3, inside If inches; outside depth 2f, inside Ij 
inches. I have no fall records, the last bird seen in 1914 being on June 25 
and in 1915 on July 20. 

99. Dendroica castanea (Wilson). Bay-breasted Warbler.— 
Rare transient; May 29; Aug. 27 to Sept. 9. Average date of departure 
(for two years) Sept. 3. The above date in May of the present year (1915) 
is the only one on which I have seen an adult pair of these birds in breeding 
plumage. In September, 1914, three males were seen, and this fall six were 
observed in August making a total of eleven birds only for the past five 

100. Dendroica fusca (Muller). Blackburnian Warbler. — Rare 
summer visitant; May 14 to Aug. 23. Average date of arrival (for two 
years) May 17; of departure (for two years) Aug. 17. It was not until the 
spring of last year, 1914, that I had the satisfaction of seeing a pair of this 
exceedingly handsome warbler on the outskirts of a large wood, and later on 
in the fall a single male. The present great warbler year however, has 
brought different results, 23 examples being seen in May, besides the 
locating of two pairs all through June, which were undoubtedly breeding, 
but whose nests I failed to discover, notwithstanding presistent watching 
and searching. The male spends most of his time singing and darting 
about in the tops of the tall fir and hemlock trees, and in a somewhat dense 
growth of these it is by no means an easy task to follow him or his mate to 
the nesting site. 

101. Dendroica virens (Gmehn). Black-throated Green War- 
bler. — Fairly common summer visitant; May 11 to Sept. 10. Average 
date of arrival (for four years) May 18; of departure (for two years^ Sept. 
6. This is not a particularly abundant warl^ler at any time, and only quite 
a limited number of pairs remain to l^reed. With regard to the finding 
of its nest and eggs, luck has been against me all along, for notwithstand- 
ing the fact that I have seen the female with food and building material in 
her beak on one or two occasions, I have never been able to follow her to 
the site of the nest. Searching high up and low down in firs, pines and 
hemlocks has brought no results except one vacated nest nine feet up in 
a fir which differed shghtly in its construction from any other warbler's 
nest I have found, and which I feel sure belonged to this species, as I had 
seen a pair of birds about the locality earlier in the season. At Bury 35 
miles to the northeast of Hatley, the species would seem to be more 
plentiful according to Mr. Terrill's experience, see ' Ottawa Naturalist ' 
for November, 1904. 

^"'loie^"^] MousLEY, Birds of H alley, Quebec. 181 

102. Dendroica vigors! (Audubon). Pine Warbler. — Rare tran- 
sient; Aug. 27 to Sept. 7. Average date of departure (for two years) 
Sept. 5. This is a warbler which seems to have escaped my notice during 
the spring migration, in fact it was not until last fall that I came across it 
at all and then only two specimens were seen; and three more during the 
same period of the present year, 1915, although more persistent searching 
may prove it to be more plentiful than would appear from the above 
records. The great migration route is through the Penobscot Valley in 
Maine, some 160 miles or more to the east of Hatley, but even there com- 
paratively few remain to breed. It is a busy little searcher after food, 
creeping in and out amongst the leaves, and at migration times can be 
found almost anywhere in the woods, and not necessarily in pine groves, 
at least that is my experience. 

103. Dendroica palmarum hsrpochrysea (Ridgway). Yellow 
Palm Warbler. — Rare transient; May 4. The above date in 1912, is 
the only one on which I have had an opportunity of observing this warbler, 
and then only one example was seen, but so near was I to the bird that there 
was no chance of confusing it with the Palm Warbler, as the reddish Ijrown 
or rufous breast streaks were plainly visible. 

104. Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnajus) . Ovenbird. — Fairly common 
summer visitant ; May 1 1 to Sept. 10. Average date of arrival (for two 
years) May 14; of departure (for two years) Sept. 10. Eggs: June 23 to 
July 7. Although most of the woods contain a pair or more of these birds, 
I have only been able to locate three nests so far, two in June, one of which 
contained a set of 4 eggs, the other being destroyed after one egg had been 
laid, and the third in July containing 3 eggs, no doubt a second set. 
All three were on the ground at the foot of little bramble or other shoots 
and ferns, and were arched over. They were composed of moss, leaves, 
and grasses, lined inside with skeletonized leaves, fine grasses, rootlets and 
a few long horse hairs, the average dimensions of two being; outside length 
5, inside 2f inches; outside depth 4f, inside 3 inches; height 5^ inches; 
entrance hole 2j X 2 inches. 

105. Geothlypis trichas trichas (Linnaeus). Maryland Yellow- 
throat. — Common summer visitant; May 12 to Sept. 9. Average date 
of arrival (for four years) May 20; of departure (for three years) Sept. 7. 
Eggs: June 8 to July 19. Although this is a somewhat plentiful little 
warbler, its nest is by no means very easy to find, being well hidden away 
amongst the grass at the foot of some small bush, or in the midst of a tuft 
of long grass, surrounded with water. Of the five found so far three con- 
tained sets of three, and two sets of four eggs each. All were somewhat 
bulky being composed of dry leaves and coarse grasses with sometimes a 
little bark, the inside being lined with finer grasses and perhaps a few horse 
hairs, the average dimensions being, outside diameter 31, inside If inches; 
outside depth 3?, inside 1^ inches. Sets of this species vary a good deal 
in shape, size, and markings, one I have being very oblong with one egg 
marked at the small instead of the large end. 


182 MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. [j^n 

106. Wilsonia pusilla pusilla (Wilson). Wilson's Warbler. — 
Rare transient; May 21. I have only seen one example of this little black- 
cap flycatching warbler in five years. This was a male in 1911, which was 
flitting about in some low bushes near a little stream on the outskirts of a 
small swampy wood, and not being at all shy I had a very good opportunity 
of watching it for some time and making sure of its identity. 

107. Wilsonia canadensis (LinuEeus). Canada Warbler. — Fairly 
common summer visitant; May 16 to Aug. 26. Average date of arrival 
(for two years) May 20; of departure (for two years) Aug. 19. Eggs: 
June 9 to 12. The finding of this elegant little warbler's nest is by no means 
an easy raatter, and I consider myself lucky in having located two so far, 
the first of which was neatly hidden away under the fallen branch of a tree 
amongst a tangle of rich vegetation on the outskirts of a cool damp wood. 
The second was in similar surroundings, but at the foot of an alder sapling, 
and both contained a beautiful full set of five eggs. They were composed 
of dry leaves, strips of bark, moss and coarse grasses, lined inside with finer 
grasses and long horse hairs, the average dimensions being: outside 
diameter 4|, inside If inches; outside depth 3|, inside 1^ inches. Last 
year I only saw three examples of this warbler, but during the present (1915) 
spring migration I counted ten examples at various times during May, 
besides locating three breeding pairs in June. 

108. Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus). American Redstart. — Com- 
mon summer visitant; May 14 to Sept. 9. Average date of arrival (for 
four years) May 15; of departure (for two years) Sept. 5. Eggs: June 3 
to 13. This gay and charming little warbler is to be found in most of the 
woods especially those of a damp nature. Here I have generally found its 
nest in the crotch of a willow or alder sapling from 7 to 15 feet above the 
ground. It is a very compact affair composed of grasses, strips of bark, 
plant fibres and spiders webs woven together into a cup shape, and lined 
inside with fine grasses, rootlets and long horse hairs, and in two cases a 
few feathers were added. The average dimensions of five nests are: out- 
side diameter 2f, inside 1^ inches; outside depth 3, inside I5 inches. Eggs 
vary considerably in size, one very beautiful set I have, besides being very 
small is heavily wreathed right round the centre of each egg. 

109. Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus). Catbird. — Fairly com- 
mon summer visitant; May 23 to Sept. 18. Average date of arrival (for 
four years) May 26; of departure (for two years) Sept. 13. Eggs: June 
21 to July 17. The Catbird is not very plentiful either during the summer 
or at migration times, and during the present season, 1915, 1 have not found 
a single nest and have seen very few bu'ds. 

110. Nannus hiemalis hiemalis (Vieillot). Winter Wren. — 
Fairly common summer visitant; April 20 to Oct. 21. Eggs: June 9. 
This little wren is generally more plentiful at migration times, but as a 
breeding species is decidedly restricted, one nest only having been located 
so far. This was found by flushing the bird from a small decayed stump 
(in the damp low lying part of a hilly wood) in a cavity of which the nest 

^°'' 19^"^] MousLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. 183 

of moss and leaves lined with feathers was neatly secreted, the hole in the 
side being the only indication of its whereabouts, so well did it harmonize 
with its surroundings. It contained five eggs faintly marked with reddish 
spots, incubation somewhat advanced. On a late date in June of the 
present year (1915) I saw two family parties, quite a pretty sight, and there 
is no doubt that this has been the most productive year of the past five. 

111. Certhia familiaris americana (Bonaparte). Brown Creeper. 
— Fairly common transient; April 24 to May 6; (Aug. 13) Sept. 23 to 
Nov. 12. Average date of arrival (for four years) April 28; of departure 
(for three years) Nov. 1. This restless little bird is by no means plentiful 
and I have never seen more than two individuals together. The early 
date in August is for a single seen this year, 1915. I do not suppose a bird 
could be found whose habits whilst seeking its food are more like a piece 
of machinery, as starting from the foot of a tree he winds his spiral way to 
the top and then down he flies to the foot of another and repeats the process 
hour after hour. Writing in the ' Ottawa Naturalist ', Vol. 17, 1903, Mr. 
Terrill gives an interesting account of finding a nest of this species at 
Robinson, a village some thirty miles to the northeast of Hatley, so it is 
just possible the bird may summer here on rare occasions. 

112. Sitta carolinensis carolinensis (Latham). White-breasted 
Nuthatch. — Common resident. The White-breasted Nuthatch is far 
oftener seen during the fall and early winter months than at any other time. 
So far I have been unable to locate a nest probably owing to the bird's habit 
of frequenting the larger and deeper woods, during the breeding season, 
where it is hard to follow them. 

113. Sitta canadensis (Linnaeus). Red-breasted Nuthatch. — • 
Fairly common transient; May 6 to 21; (June 26); Aug. 8 to Nov. 28, 
(Dec. 25) . Previous to the present year, 1915, 1 had only seen four examples 
of this bird, two in May, 1912, and one each in August and September of 
1914, the year 1913 producing none at all. However this year things have 
changed entirely and the bird has been met with commonly in small parties 
of five or six or singly from August to the end of November, the date in 
December being for a pair only. The status of the bird at Bury, a village 
some thirty-five miles to the northeast of Hatley, appears to be entirely 
different, for there Mr. L. M. Terrill speaks of it as a common perma- 
nent resident and mentions flocks consisting of as many as 75 indivi- 
duals. Possibly the summer date of June 26 may indicate that a pair 
at least have bred here this season. It is more often seen at the top of 
some tall fir tree feeding on the seeds of the cones, than running up and down 
the tree trunks like its near relative the White-breasted Nuthatch. 

114. Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus (Linnaeus). Black- 
capped Chickadee. — Common resident. Eggs: May 14 to June 1. 
The Chickadee is certainly more numerous during the fall and spring, than 
it is in the summer. I have generally found its nest in decayed stubs within 
two or three feet of the ground, the usual number of eggs being from five 
to seven, and on one occasion nine. Whilst out shooting one day a Chick- 

184 MousLEY, Birds of H alley, Quebec. [April 

adee flew down from a nearby tree and perched right on the end of the 
barrels of my gun (which at the moment I was resting on my hip) where it 
remained for a minute or so surveying me with evident interest and curiosity. 
As regards the so called love note or nesting song a high whistled " Phe-be," 
I can only say that 1 have heard the birds utter it during nearly every 
month in the year, so that if it is a love note which I don't dispute, it is 
certainly not peculiar to the nesting season alone, as some 1 believe imagine. 

115. Penthestes hudsonicus littoralis (Bryant). Acadian Chick- 
adee.— Rare transient; April 20. Always on the lookout for this form 
of the Chickadee it was not until the above date of the present year, 1915, 
that I had the pleasm-e of making its acquaintance, on a fir clad slope at the 
edge of a rather large and damp wood. There were only a pair of birds 
which I followed about and watched for the best part of half an hour, 
during which time they gave me many chances of thoroughly identifying 
them. Their notes are certainly somewhat different and weaker than those 
of the Black-capped Chickadee and it was this difference that first drew 
my attention to them. Many times I visited the spot during the next few 
weeks but never saw them again. Mr. L. M. Terrill writing in the 
' Ottawa Naturalist ', Vol. 17, 1903, gives an interesting account of a nest, 
he found of the Hudsonian [presumably Acadian?] Chickadee at Robinson, 
a village some 30 miles to the northeast of Hatley, so that it seems within 
the bounds of possibility that it may be found breeding here also some day. 

116. Regulus satrapa satrapa (Lichtenstein). Golden-crowned 
Kinglet. — Common transient; April 16 to 21; Sept. 17 to Nov. 28 
(Dec. 25). The fall is the time when these elegant little birds are most 
generally to be found in small flocks frequenting the tops of fir trees more 
especially, from which they make sudden darts, returning to the tip of 
some branch, where on quivering wings after the manner of a humming- 
bird, they abstract some minute insect. At Robinson, a village thirty miles 
to the northeast of Hatley, Mr. L. M. Terrill in December of 1908 and 1909 
saw several flocks daily and says that apparently they are the most common 
birds there at that season. The above date in December of the present 
year, 1915, is for a pair of birds only. 

117. Regulus calendula calendula (Linna;us). Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet. — Fairly common transient; May 2 to 13; Sept. 18 to Oct. 21. 
This delicate and sober hued little gem is by no means as plentiful as the 
previous one, and in my experience has oftener been seen nearer the ground 
in thick undergrowth than in the tree tops. There is something fascinating 
to me in the eye of this species, which no doubt owing to the whitish eye 
ring, looks very large and expressive for such a small bird. 

118. Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens (Stephens). Veery. — 
Fairly common summer visitant; May 12 to Aug. 8. Average date of 
arrival (for two years) May 13. Eggs: June 2 to 15. This is by no 
means an abundant bird here, only five nests having been located during the 
past two years, as against about three times this numljer of the Hermit 
Thrush. Of the above five nests, all were placed as usual near the ground 

^"''ign;^"^] Mousley, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. 185 

in damp situations, except one which must form almost a record, it being 
10 feet up in a fir tree close against the trunk. The eggs in my experience 
are just a little smaller and darker if anything than those of the Hermit 
Thrush, and the nests are somewhat distinctive in that the lining has always 
consisted of dry leaves and rootlets, as against grasses and rootlets in those 
of the latter, which are also placed in drier situations. 

Since wi-iting the above I find Dr. Townsend in his book " Birds of 
Essex County " quotes an instance in 1878 of a nest having been found at 
the extraordinary height of 25 feet above the ground. 

119. Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tschudi). Olive-backed 
Thrush. — Rare summer visitant; May — , to Sept. — . Eggs: June 11. 
On the above date in June, 1914, I came across a nest of this species in a 
small maple sapling 9 feet above the ground, containing three eggs upon 
which the female was sitting. The nest was composed of coarse rootlets, 
fir twigs and dry leaves, and lined inside with fine grasses and black rootlets. 
I can give no specific date of arrival or departure, never having seen the 
bird except on the above occasion. 

120. Hylocichla guttata pallasi (Cabanis). Hermit Thrush. — 
Common summer visitant; April 21 to Nov. 13. Average date of arrival 
(for four years) April 24; of departure (for two years) Nov. 6. Eggs: 
May 18 to July 3. This beautiful songster is without a doubt the thrush 
of the district, although' there are years when it is not so plentiful as others. 
Their nest in my experience is invariably placed on the ground and gener- 
ally at the foot of some small fir or hemlock tree whose lowest branches 
touch the ground, and form a good cover, the only exception to this being 
one that was built four feet up in a small fii' tree, close to the trunk and 
which contained 3 fresh eggs on June 26 of the present year, 1915. I 
have already referred to the difference in construction of nest and size of 
eggs etc., to the Veery under the heading of that bird. 

121. Planesticus migratorius migratorius (Linnajus). Robin. — 
Abundant summer visitant; March 24 to Oct. 24 (Nov. 12). Average 
date of arrival (for five years) April 1 ; of departure (for four years) Oct. 10. 
Eggs: May 14 to July 26. As a rule all the Robins have disappeared by 
the end of September, the late date of Nov. 12 being for a single specimen 
only in 1914. Sets of five eggs are decidedly rare as I have not come across 
one during the past five years although I have examined some 68 nests 
with this object in view. Robins here are particularly fond of using ' 
pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margarilacea) in the foundations of their 
nests, which have been found in almost every conceivable place, but only 
once actually resting on the ground under a projecting ledge of rock on a 
sloping hillside. A pair of birds have built their nests for two successive 
years in a small fir tree near my house, and have reared two broods each 
season in -the same nest. Is it merely a coincidence that when, specially 
on the lookout this year, I noted males on March 24, but no females were 
seen until April 9, or do the males really precede the females? I can find 
no reference to the subject in any of my books. 

186 MotTSLEY, Birds of Hatley, Quebec. [April 

122. Sialia sialis sialis (Linnaeus). Bluebird. — Common summer 
visitant; March 24 to Oct. 22. Average date of arrival (for five years) 
April 8; of departure (for four years) Oct. 15. Eggs: April 27 to July 30. 
Bluebirds are fairly plentiful here and during the past two years have been 
more abundant than ever. I once witnessed a pair of these birds drive 
out a Hairy Woodpecker from a half completed nesting hole it had made, 
and after gaining possession of it they immediately set to work building a 
nest which was completed and four eggs laid in the remarkably short space 
of six days. Is it also merely a coincidence the same as in the case of the 
Robin that I noticed males on March 24 of this year, but no females until 
April 5; or do the males of this species also really precede the females, as 
no mention of it either is made in any of my books? 

Synopsis of principal events Years 1911-1915. 

1911. Early nesting of Goldfinch June 3, set of 6 Chipping Sparrow's 
eggs found, also one of 3, all immaculate. 

1912. Great Vireo year. Yellow-throated and Blue-headed found 
breeding, also Indigo Bunting, Scarlet Tanager seen, Pine Gro.sbeaks 
plentiful, Red-winged Blackbirds very abundant. Yellow Palm and Wil- 
son's Warblers seen. Hermit Thrush plentiful. 

191S. Bartramian Sandpiper found breeding, also Rose-breasted Gros- 
beak. Evening Grosbeaks seen, Pine Grosbeaks again plentiful. Swamp 
Sparrows and Black-capped Chickadees nesting more freely than usual. 

1914. Woodcock seen, Olive-backed thrush and Veery found breeding, 
Vireos scarce. Crested Flycatcher plentiful, also Cedar Waxwings, Bobo- 
links and Myrtle Warblers. Pine Siskins first observed. 

1915. Great Warbler year. Northern Parula found breeding, also 
Prairie Horned Lark, Sora, Cowbird and Blue Jay, Vireos scarce, White- 
throated Sparrows, Slate-colored Juncos and Hermit Thrush breeding 
plentifully, Acadian Chickadee, Killdeer and Semipalmated Plovers seen, 
also Green-winged Teal, Canada Spruce Grouse, Magpie and Canada Jay. 


Page 69, line 3, for leucomelas read villosus. 
" 69, " 3, for Northern Hair.y read Hairy. 
" 69, " 12, for Northern Downy read Downy. 
" 73, " 15, for Common Resident read Resident. 
" 73, " 31, for March 10 read March 1. 

^°'- ^^"^] Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. 187 



In 'The Auk' for April, 1911 (Vol. XXVIII, No. 2), Mr. Howard 
Lacey gives a list of 'The Birds of Kerrville, Texas, and Vicinity.' 
Embodying as it does, the observations of a close student of nature 
for nearly thirty years, it is a reasonably complete enumeration 
of the avifauna of the region covered; so that the following notes 
are merely meant to supplement his article, either by the addition 
of several species found by the writer; by replacement with forms 
recently differentiated, of species he has recorded; or by extension 
of breeding and migration dates. 

Ingram (formerly Ingraham) is a small village, situated in the 
valley of the Guadaloupe River, seven miles due west of Kerrville, 
and of nearly the same altitude (1675 feet); but the hills in the 
vicinity of the first named place, rise more abruptly and attain a 
greater elevation, than near Kerrville; and it is on these higher 
hills, and the draws that head among them, that the Upper Sono- 
ran marks its eastern extension in Texas. A characteristic plant 
of this zone is the beautiful ' Wintergreen ' or Texas Madrona 
{Arbutus texana); which with the Cedar (Juniperus mexicana), 
constitutes the principal arborescent growth on many of the 
hilltops. Ingram itself, lies well within the lower Sonoran, as 
may be inferred from the scattering mesquite growing near by;^ 
as well as the Cypress (Taxodium distichum) lining the river. It 
is noteworthy that within sight of this village are several large 
trees of the American Elm {Ulmus americana) ; also a deciduous 
Sophora, possibly S. affinis. 

All notes pertain to observations made within a radius of ten 
miles of Ingram; during a period extending from November 18, 
1914, to July 15, 1915. Altogether some 150 forms were recorded 
from this area. 

Querquedula discors. Blue-winged Teal.— There is little doubt 
that this teal breeds in the region as it was present throughout June, 
usually frequenting the small streams tributary to the Guadaloupe. 

Pisobia fuscicollis. White-rumped Sandpiper. — Opposite Ingram, 

188 Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. [April 

the river broadens out, forming a number of small mud flats; it was there 
that most of the wading birds were observed. The present species was 
noted between May 8 and 25 and during most of that period, was the 
most abundant member of its family. 

Pisobia bairdi. Baird's Sandpiper. — On May 26 a lone individual 
of this species was recorded; it was in the company of a small flock of 
Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

Pisobia minutilla. Least Sandpiper. — As far as I could ascertain, 
the Least Sandpiper was much less numerous than the following with 
which it generally associated. Both species appeared early in May, and 
remained up to about June 1. 

Ereunetes pusillus. Semipalmated Sandpiper. — This species was 
quite abundant, considering the limited area suited to its requirements; 
especially so during the final two weeks of its stay. Neither this nor the 
preceding tln-ee species are listed by Lacey. 

Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus. Western Solitary Sand- 
piper. — It was the western subspecies of the Solitary Sandpiper that I 
found occurring. It was present during May but never more than one or 
two birds were seen in a day, and at all times very shy. 

Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — Lacey surmises that the 
Spotted Sandpiper breeds in the region. This is undoubtedly so, as I saw 
the species up to the day preceding my departure. It was first noted 
about May 5. 

Colinus virginianus texanus. Texas Bob-white. — Nests contain- 
ing sets of 23 and 30 eggs were found. These were in all probability com- 
munity nests, as the eggs in both followed several types in form and were 
of considerable difference in size. 

Meleagris gallopavo intermedia. Rio Grande Wild Turkey. — 
There can be little doubt that, at the present time, Wild Turkeys exist in 
greater numbers in Kerr and adjoining counties than in any other part of 
Texas. Their abundance may be accounted for, as the result of the en- 
croachment of the Cedar and various species of scrubby oaks upon lands 
formerly under cultivation or in pasture; to the decrease in numbers of the 
Armadillo ( Tatu novemcinctum texanum) which of late years have been 
much hunted for commercial purposes; and to the enactment of a law 
limiting the open season and the number that may be killed. During the 
winter spent in the region several heavy snowfalls occurred. These caused 
many turkeys to seek open spots in the valleys and along fence rows, often 
^n the vicinity of human habitations, and I recall one flock of seven hunt- 
ing for several hours within a hundred feet of the building I lived in. 

Polyborus cheriway. Audubon's Caracara. — - Seen on several dates 
during March, usually along the river, but occasionally small streams 
higher up in the hills. 

Strix varia albogilva. Texas Barred Owl. — Although Lacey 
judges this owl to be a rather common resident, I was able, during my 
residence, to locate but one, and to hear perhaps one or two others. Evi- 

^°'m6^"'] Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. 189 

dently the growth existing at the present day along the river is not dense 
enough to suit its requirements, and it is only in the heavily wooded 
draws among the hills that it is now found. 

Otus asio hasbroucki. Ridgw. — The Screech Owls that breed along 
the Guadaloupe, and its tributaries, within the limits defined, seem typical 
of this recently described subspecies. All the examples I collected con- 
form in every particular with the original description (Ridgway, Birds of 
N. and Mid. Amer., Vol. VI, 694), as compared with 0. a. mccalli; and 
when compared with 0- a. aikeni, are found to have the barrings much 
heavier, especially on the thighs, as well as in being dichromatic. Two 
specimens secured during the evening of June 26; one an adult female, 
and the other an immature two-thirds grown, that was being fed by the 
old bird, both were in the brown phase of plumage, proving this assertion. 

Coccyzus americanus (occidentalis?) California Cuckoo. — 
Based upon an examination of the material I collected, the cookoos 
found along the upper Guadaloupe had better be considered as intermedi- 
ates. Several males in this series barely average the measurements of 
typical americanus. 

Ceryle americana septentrionalis. Texas Kingfisher. — The 
Texas Kingfisher was rarely observed until a point about three miles above 
Ingram was reached; but from thence up the river it was fairly common (a 
pair or two for each mile) . Only once did I meet with it along the smaller 
streams, although the Belted Kingfisher favored these commonly. 

Centurus aurifrons. Golden-fronted Woodpecker.^ A limited 
number of this species were resident in the valley, but it rarely ascended 
into the hills; and then only during the late fall and winter. 

Colaptes auratus luteus. Northern Flicker.— It is apparent that 
during the winter of 1914-5, an irruption of this Flicker occurred within 
the region, as Mr. Lacey. in a recent conversation with me, stated that he 
had never met with luteus within Kerr County. I found it present almost 
throughout the winter, at times outnumbering C. cafer collaris. Inter- 
mediates between the two were collected. 

Nuttallornis borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. — • I found this 
species to be a common spring transient, occurring between May 1 and 
June 1, inclusive. It frequented both stream courses and hillsides. 

Empidonax trailli trailli. Traill's Flycatcher. — This Flycatcher 
made its appearance al)out May 10 and was often observed up to the 21st. 
It showed the usual partiality for brushy growth fringing streams; perch- 
ing well within cover of the foliage and as it rarely uttered any note, would 
have been difficult to detect, had it not been for the fact that it remained 
in one position but a short time. 

Empidonax minimus. Least Flycatcher. — Recorded as a common 
transient between May 8 and 25, inclusive. The first individual ob- 
served was found perched in a clump of Spanish Oak (Quercus te.xana) 
on an otherwise barren hilltop. It generally preferred the immediate 
vicinity of watercourses, but was less prone to seek heavy cover than 

190 Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. [^pni 

Irailli; although equally quiet during its presence. Lacey's account does 
not include this or the preceding species. 

Aphelocoma texana. Texas Jay. — This very local form keeps well 
within the Upper Sonoran, except on occasions when it descends to the 
streams to drink, mostly after dry weather has set in; but it quickly re- 
turns to its natural haunt — hillsides covered with a mixed growth of cedar 
and oak. It was found to congregate in flocks, even during the breeding 
season which, as Lacey has correctly stated, occupies late March and early 
April, so perhaps only a portion of its numbers nest annually. The Texan 
Jay while affecting a varied diet is very fond of the acorns of the Spanish 
and shin oaks, searching these out and eating them after they have sprouted. 
Until the plumage of this Jay is much worn, it closely resembles .4. wood- 
housei, for the brown on the back is much obscured by a slaty cast in 
the fresh plumage while many of the adults have the under tail coverts 
strongly tinged with blue. 

Molothrus ater ater. Cowbird. — Judging from material secured this 
is the breeding form; but several examples taken in late March and in 
April possess a heavier, shorter bill than is usual in true ater; although 
seemingly not variety obscurus. 

Astragalinus tristis tristis. Goldfinch. — This common winter 
visitant was noted as late as April 7 frequently associating in flocks with 
the following. 

Astragalinus psaltria mexicanus.i Examination of a large series 
of adult males from the region shows a uniformity in the intensity of the 
black on the upperparts. Even examples taken in winter present little 
evidence of a greenish tinge. Although Lacey considers it as a summer 
visitant only, I found it throughout my stay. Limited in numbers during 
most of the winter but of common occurrence after March 1. 

Passerculus sandwichensis nevadensis. Great Basin Savannah 
Sparrow. — The form found commonly wintering was alaudinus, as was 
shown by the identifications made by the Biological Survey. One skin 
however (taken March 7) was returned labelled rievadensis. Savannah 
Sparrows were present up to April 5. 

Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatus. Western Grass- 
hopper Sparrow. — As Lacey seems to consider the Western Grasshopper 
Sparrow only a winter visitant, it seems worthy of record to give the 
final date — May 8 — -upon which I noted it. This bird was most fre- 
quently encountered on hilltops where the cedar was scattered enough to 
allow grass to grow. 

Zonotrichia querula. Harris's Sparrow. — The presence of this dis- 
tinguished looking sparrowwas coincident with the coldest period of the year, 
or from January 25 to Februar>^ 5, when small flocks were several times seen. 

Zonotrichia albicoUis. White-throated Sparrow. — Appears to 
be an uncommon winter visitant. Lacey gives one record only, while I 
observed at least two in company of various other sparrows, February 6. 

1 The race mexicanus is not recognized in the A. O. U Check-List. 

^°''l9i^"^] Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. 191 

Aimophila ruficeps eremoeca. Rock Sparrow. — I found the Rock 
Sparrow most numerous during the winter months. It is however, a com- 
mon resident of the region; much more abundant over a given area than 
I found either scotti in Arizona, or ruficeps in CaUfornia. It keeps closely 
to heavy brush covering hillsides, or (principally in winter) weedy patches 
along streams. During the breeding season, males were now and then to 
be seen, mounted on the topmost branch of a tree, singing in a rather 
dispirited manner. 

Spizella pallida. Clay-colored Sparrow. — The date of departure, 
given by Lacey for this species, is April 24. I only noted it between May 10 
to 13; when a limited number, mostly singly or in pairs, were seen feeding 
along roadsides. 

Spizella pusilla arenacea. Western Field Sparrow. — During the 
winter months this is the prevailing form; it withdraws rather gradually, 
not finally departing until after the middle of April when pusilla alone 
remains to breed. 

Melospiza melodia juddi. Dakota Song Sparrow. — In the list 
given by Lacey, melodia is the name given to the Song Sparrows visiting 
the region; and it is quite likely that the eastern form does occur though 
all examples that I forwarded to the Biological Survey were assigned to 
the variety /uddi. The species is a common winter visitant, usually found 
in brush or weeds in vicinity of streams. Departs early, none seen after 
March 17. 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus. Towhee. — On 
January 19, the familiar notes of the Towhee, issuing from a plum thicket, 
drew my attention. The bird being secured, proved to be a female, of 
large size, and in high plumage. I presume it to be an unusual visitant, 
as this was the only instance that I met with it, and Lacey makes no men- 
tion of it. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons tachina. Lesser Cliff Swallow. — There 
can be little doubt that true lunifrons occurs in migration but all examples 
of this species secured, from the date it was first seen (April 15), seem to 
be fairly typical of tachina. This form is by far the most numerous of the 
breeding Cliff Swallows. P. fulva pallida appears not to occur in the 
eastern half of the county, being first met with about six miles west of 
Ingram, where several isolated colonies nest. 

Lanivireo solitarius solitarius. Blue-headed Vireo. — I met with 
the Solitary Vireo on two dates, April 28 and May 17. The single bird 
observed on the later date, was located by its rich and voluble song, with 
which I was previously unacquainted. 

Vireo atricapillus. Black-capped Vireo. — This conspicuously 
marked species arrived about April 5. Nest-building had begun, a nearly 
completed one being found April 13. The Black-capped Vireo is some- 
times found breeding in proximity to V. griseus but generally its choice 
of nesting site is in its favorite feeding haunts — low shin oak, or dwarf 
plum thickets, on dry hillsides rarely resorted to by the White-eyed Vireo. 

192 Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. [^^^^ 

The male atricapillus is rather easy to locate by reason of its subdued, 
though persistent, song; the female however, being of duller plumage and 
quiet mien, is less likely to be met with, and when incubating can almost 
be touched before leaving the nest. 

Vermivora celata celata. Orange-crowned Warbler. — The 
Orange-crowned Warbler was found to be present throughout the winter, 
mostly associated with flocks of Kinglets, Chickadees {Penthestes carolinen- 
sis agilis) and Titmice {Boeolophus atricristafus sennetti) usually hunting 
among the cedar brake. It remained up to at least April 21. 

Dendroica auduboni auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. — While 
not mentioned by Lacey, this species was to be expected in the region. 
On April 24, I found several individuals hunting over a cypress, growing 
along the river, near Ingram. 

Dendroica dominica albilora. Sycamore Warbler. — The arrival 
of this species was much delayed in 1915. Lacey gives the average date 
of its appearance as March 22, yet I did not meet with it until April, 
although frequently visiting its favorite haunt — the cypress groves along 
the river. As this is the western limit of the breeding range, it was 
to be expected that the individuals found here would develop the sub- 
specific characters, which is evidently true, as none of the skins I have 
examined show any trace of yellow on the superciliary stripe. 

Dendroica chrysoparia. Golden-cheeked Warbler. — This much 
remarked species did not make its appearance until March 27, the lastest 
date, according to Mr. Lacey, within his experience. The adult males, 
(third year), preceded the females and younger males by some five days. 
Until nidification is well advanced, it was seldom found outside of the 
' cedar brake '; thereafter it was of more general dispersion and after the- 
young were on the wing, resorted to the walnut thickets. It is my 
impression that the Golden-cheeked Warbler hunts over, rather than 
through, the foliage of a tree. A perhaps peculiar trait of this species is its 
U-shaped sallies after flying insects, from the lower limbs of a tree. While 
as a rule a very active bird, I have seen it sitting motionless for minutes at a 
time at any hour of the day. 

Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. Grinnell's Water-Thrush. — 
It is a coincidence, worthy of note, that the single record Lacey gives for 
this form. May 10, 1895, is the same day of the month upon which I secured 
the only individual seen. 

Oporornis tolmiei. McGillivray's Warbler. — Several birds of 
this species were seen, and one secured, May 21. Apparently an original 
record for the county. 

Dumetella carolinensis. Catbird. — Lacey considers this familiar 
bird an uncommon visitant, yet I met with it twice in the region — May 
10 and 13. 

Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. CaSon Wren. — Dr. Louis B. 
Bishop writes me that Mr. 01)erholser considers the Canon Wrens from 
the region to constitute a distinct form, polioptihis. It is a generally dis- 
tributed re.sidcnt wherever bluffs occur. 


^°'l™"^] Smith, Birds of Kerr Co., Texas. 193 

Thryomanes bewicki eremophilus.' Among the large series of 
Texas Wrens collected, one skin was found that could not be allocated, 
it being much paler in plumage than cryptus, the common resident form, 
and also differed from bairdi. On being sent to the Biological Survey, it 
was pronounced by Mr. Oberholser to be eremophilus, and he informs me 
that it must be considered as a rare or casual visitant to the region. The 
example in question was taken March 12. 

Troglodytes aedon parkmani. Western House Wren. — A rather 
common winter visitant. A bird shot April 24, appears to record an unus- 
ually late date for the bird so far south. 

Certhia familiaris americana. Brown Creeper. — One shot at 
the edge of a cedar brake, April 2; not otherwise noted. 

Regulus satrapa satrapa. Golden-crowned Kinglet. — I found it 
present nearly throughout the winter, usually outnumbering R. calendula. 
It is probably of irregular irruption, as Mr. Lacey told me he missed it 
some years entirely. The last individuals were observed April 2. 

Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni. Olive-backed Thrush. — A single 
bird shot May 17, as it was perching in the underbrush of a heavily wooded 
draw, adds another species to the county list. 

Hylocichla guttata pallasi. Hermit Thrush. 

Hylocichla guttata sequoiensis. Sierra Hermit Thrush. — These 
two forms of the Hermit Thrush were commonly present throughout the 
winter; the latter variety remaining until April 16. 

Planesticus migratorius propinquus. Western Robin. — A bird 
shot March 18 is identifiable as above. P. migratorius, the eastern form, 
is a common winter visitant; departing April 13, in 1915. 

'This race is not regarded as separable from bairdi in the A. O. U. Check-List. 

194 Nichols and Mowbray, Two New Petrels. [A^"n 



In 'The Auk,' April, 1906, p. 217, Mr. Thomas S. Bradlee re- 
corded as gularis an Mstrelata from Bermuda. Since that date 
the mounted bird has been in the Bermuda Museum of Natural 
History, by which it has recently been courteously loaned to Mr. 
Mowbray and critically examined by the writers. It is closer to 
brevipes Peale, of the western Pacific, but unquestionably distinct. 
This specimen is here made the type of a new species, and a Ber- 
muda Puffinus (larger than Iherminieri which breeds rather com- 
monly in the Bermudas) the type of a new race. 

iEstrelata cahow sp. nov. 

The type specimen, a mounted bird, Coll. Bermuda Museum of Natural 
History, was taken by Mr. Mowbray, Feb. 22, 1906, in a rock crevice, 
about 20 feet above high water. Southeast side of Castle Island. 

Upper surfaces dark sooty, darkest on the primaries, grayish on the back 
and nape. Tail coverts (partially lost) dark gray, with white bases. 
Rectrices grayish black with white bases. Inner web of the two outer 
feathers white almost to the tip. Sides of the breast sooty gray. Primaries 
dark beneath. Under wing-coverts white, with a peculiar oval dark spot 
just inside the exposed primaries, as in hasitata. Tail cuneate. Forehead, 
lores and underparts white. Center of forehead and white region above 
the eye finely speckled with dark. The dark color from the side of the 
neck extends narrowly forward under the eye. Bill dark. Legs, basal 
third of foot, and inner toe, pale, remainder of foot dark. Wing 10|- in. 
Tail 6^. Cuimen 1-^. Tarsus if. Middle toe and claw if. 

The name " cahow" was used by early settlers in Bermuda for an 
Mstrelata abundant at Cooper's Island, a mile at the most from 
where the type was taken and presumably of the same species. 
Numerous partially fossil bones (including skulls) which, after 
comparison, we believe to belong to the form here described have 
been found by Mr. Mowbray in various caves in the eastern end of 
the Bermudas, some about a half mile from where the bird was 

"igie J Nichols and Mowbray, Two New Petrels. 195 

Pufiinus puffinus bermudae subsp. nov. 

The type, a skin, Coll. of L. L. Mowbray, March 10, 1905, sitting on a 
single white egg in a crevice in Gurnet Head Rock. 

Close to the Manx Shearwater of which it is made a race, but differing 
from that species about as much as does P. yelkouanus of the Mediterranean. 
Slightly larger than puffinus, with less gray on axillars and under tail- 
coverts than yelkouanus. The three should probably stand as geographic 

Above sooty black. Below white, the colors somewhat mingled at the 
line of demarkation at the level of the gape. Under tail-coverts white, 
the lateral ones outwardly mottled with gray. Under wing-coverts white. 
Axillars with subterminal dark gray bars and white tips. Wing 9 in. Tail 
3^. Bill ly^. Tarsus l|f . Middle toe and claw 2^. 

The bird has been compared with a specimen from the Orkneys 
in the American Museum, two from Wales and one from the 
Bosphorus in the collection of Dr. Jonathan Dwight. The British 
birds have the culmen slightly less than l| to Ij, tarsus l{| to Ijg. 
middle toe and claw l| to 2. In the Bosphorus bird the culmen. 
measures just over l|, tarsus l^f, middle toe and claw 2jg. 

This is doubtless the form recorded as anglorum breeding in the 
Bermudas (Savile G. Reid. The Birds of the Bermudas, Zoologist, 
Oct. and Nov., 1877, reprint 1883, p. 41). No bones of this species 
were found with those referred to Mstrelata cahow, although mixed 
with them were skulls and other bones clearly referable to P. 

19u General Notes. [April 


The Type Locality of Uria t. troille. — The Common Murre ( Uria 
troille troille) was named by Linnaeus in his 'Fauna Suecica,' ed. 2, 1761, 
p. 52. He gives only one reference, Martens' ' Spitzbergische Reise,' which 
contains both description and a plate of a specimen taken July 25, 1671, in 
the northeastern part of Spitzbergen. There is nothing in Martens' descrip- 
tion or plate that would not apply equally well to Uria lomvia, and as a fact 
this is the bird which Martens had in hand, for the bird we now know as 
Uria troille does not occur anywhere in Spitzbergen, while Uria lomvia still 
occurs there " by thousands " as Martens says he found them there at 
latitude 80° N., much farther north than troille ever ranges. 

The description of Linnaeus is fuller in some particulars than that of 
Martens showing that Linnseus had a specimen, which would have come 
from the coast of Sweden and which would actually have l^een the species 
now known as troille, since this is the form which occurs there and not 
lomvia. Therefore the type locality of Uria troille troille should be given 
as Sweden instead of Spitzbergen. — Wells W. Cooke, Biological Survey 
Washington, D. C. 

The Pomarine Jaeger and the Purple Gallinule in Western Mis- 
souri. — A Pomarine Jaeger {Stercorarius potnarinus) was taken at Eaton 
Bend on the Missouri River, a few miles below Kansas City, Mo., on 
November 28, 1915, by Joe Barlow. As far as I can learn this is the first 
record of the capture of this species in Missouri. On December 31, 1915, 
an immature Purple Gallinule {lonornis martinica) was captured alive on 
the flats near Kansas City, Mo., and given to Miss Clements of Independ- 
ence, Mo., who brought the bii'd to the attention of the Kansas City Bird 
Club. Widmann gives two records for the Purple Gallinule for Missouri, 
both in April, 1877, in the vicinity of St. Louis. (Birds of Missouri, p. 61) . — 
Ralph Hoffmann, Kansas City, Mo. 

The Breeding Range of Leach's Petrel. — In ' The Auk ' for April, 
1915, p. 173, Mr. R. C. Murphy states that the breeding range of Oceano- 
droma leucorhoa should be given as follows: — "Southern Greenland 
and the Fseroes south to Maine and the Hebrides." Cm-iously enough the 
breeding. range of this species is incorrectly given in both the ' Hand List 
of British Birds ' and also in the ' B. O. U. List of British Birds.' In the 
former it is said not to breed in Europe outside the British Isles, and in the 
latter to " occur," in Iceland. As a matter of fact there is a large breeding 
colony on the Westmann Islands, southwest Iceland, but as far as I am 
aware there is no evidence of nesting anywhere on the Fseroes. Laubmann 
in his recent paper, 'Fauna Farceensis,' makes no mention of it, and 
Muller & Feilden state that it is not known to breed there. If Mr. Murphy 

Vol.xxxillj General Notes. 197 

has more recent information on the subject, it would be as well to publish 
it. The onlj' known breeding places on the East Atlantic are the West- 
mann Isles in Iceland, the Flannans, St. Kilda group and N. Rona in 
Scotland and islets off the Kerry and Mayo coast in Ireland. — F. C. R. 
JouRDAiN, Appletoyi Rectory, Abingdon, Berkshire, England. 

Barrow's Golden-eye at Wareham, Mass. — I am indebted to Mr. 
C. A. Robbins for the freshly-prepared skins of a female Barrow's Golden- 
eye and for permission to report that the bird was killed in Wareham by 
L. P. Hacket, a local gunner, on November 27, 1915. Mr. Robbins states 
further that " it was shot from a stone breakwater within one hundred 
yards of the shore and at a point almost exactly at the head of the broadest 
expanse of Buzzard's Bay. Although other Golden-eyes were feeding or 
in flight near by, this bird was accompanied by but one other (a female or 
young male)." On comparing the specimen with series of skins in my 
collection I find that with respect to every essential characteristic of both 
form and coloring it is a perfectly typical representation of C. islandica. 
The interest attaching to its occurrence is enhanced by the fact that so few 
birds of its sex and species have heretofore been reported from anywhere 
along the Massachusetts Coast. No doubt they visit this oftener than we 
realize, being overlooked because so closely similar to female Whistlers. — 
William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 

Lesser Snow Goose {Chen h. hyperboreus) in Massachusetts. — On 

December 7, 1915, a bird of this species was shot as it swung in alone to 
some decoys at Eagle Hill, Ipswich, Mass., by Mr. Wm. O. Thrasher of 
Peabody. He gave it to Mr. Charles E. Clarke of Tuft's College, Mass. 
The latter had gone to Ipswich to study the birds, and had recognized this 
rare species hung up outside the shooting shack. Mr. Clarke kindly gave 
the bii'd to me for my collection and for record. It proved to be a male in 
good condition but not fat. Its plumage indicated a bird of the previous 
year. The feathers about the head and breast were tinged yellowish brown 
as if stained with iron rust. 

Definite records of this goose in Massachusetts are few, although it is 
probable that the majority of the indefinite records of Snow Geese belong 
to this species and not to Chen h. nivalis. The only previous records for 
Essex County of specimens of the Lesser Snow Goose are: one, now in the 
Peabody Academy, taken at Lynn Beach in 1866, one taken by B. S. 
Damsell at Amesbury in 1888, and one, now in the collection of Mr. 
William Brewster, taken at Ipswich on October 26, 1896. — Charles W. 
TowNSEND, M.D., Boston, Mass. 

Blue Goose {Chen caerulescens) in Maine. — Last winter when visiting 
some of the islands of Penobscot Bay, Knox County, Maine, in quest of sea 
birds, I saw and examined a mounted specimen of the Blue Goose in pos- 
session of Mr. Walter Conley of Isle Au Haut. 

198 General Notes. [^^'Ja 

Mr. Conley shot the bird November 13, 1913, at Little Spoon Island, a 
small island liear Isle Au Haut. This specimen is of so unusual occurrence 
on the Atlantic coast that I am interested to have this instance recorded. 
At the present time I understand that the bird is still in Mr. Conley's 
possession. — Charles E. Clarke, West Somerville, Mass. 

A Banded Canada Goose. — On December 13, I shot a very large 
Canada Goose at the Pine Island Club, N. C. Both legs carried aluminum 
bands. The right numbered 312, the left, 314. This note if published in 
' The Auk ' may possibly be seen by the bander who would natm-ally in 
return give the facts regarding the banding. — Harold Herrick, 25 
Liberty St., New York. 

Two Trumpeter Swan Records for Colorado. — A specimen of this 
species {Olor buccinator), the sex of which was not determined was shot by 
Mr. Walter Scott, near Timnath, seven miles southeast of Fort Collins, 
Colo., on November 18, 1897. Another specimen, a male, was found dead 
by Mr. J. L. Gray, at Rocky Ridge Lake, seven miles north of Fort Collins, 
on November 25, 1915. 

Both specimens are mounted in the College Museum. — W. L. Burnett, 
Colorado Agricultural College, Ft. Collins, Colo. 

King Rail {Rallus elegans) in Massachusetts in November. — On the 

r2th day of November, 1914, a King Rail was captured in Longmeadow. 
This is the latest time in the autumn that the presence of one of these birds 
has been noted in this region. Early writers on bird life in Massachusetts 
placed the King Rail in the class of birds whose presence in this State was 
accidental, and with only two records of their appearance in any part of 
the State, while now there are in collections here a half a dozen specimens 
of this bird that have been taken in the vicinity of Springfield in recent 
years. — Robert O. Morris, Springfield, Mass. 

Willets in Migration. — During the last days of May, 1907, while on 
my way from Havre to New York on the S. S. ' La Loraine,' I saw at sea a 
remarkable congregation of Willets (Catoptrophorus semipahnatus) . 

It was in the middle of the morning of a gi'ay, but not foggy, day, when 
we were off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, that I noticed a consider- 
able gathering of birds resting on the water in the immediate path of the 
ship. As we approached them I thought they looked like shore birds, and 
as the vessel drew quite close to them those immediately near it rose on 
wing and flew off to right and left, and again alighted on the water among 
their fellows. In the way in which they left the path of the vessel they 
reminded me of similar flights of waterfowl seen in Alaska. 

When the birds took wing, they were at once recognized as Willets, and 
there must have been somewhere near a thousand of them, not all packed 
tbgether in a dense clump on the water, but more or less scattered out, in 

^°S™"'] General Notes. 199 

gi'oups of forty, fifty or a hundred, yet all fairly near one another, and 
suggesting a single flock. They seemed to leave the water reluctantly and 
gave me the impression that they were weary. 

The long flights demonstrated for many shore birds had always puzzled 
me, for it seemed hardly possible that such flights could be made without 
rest or food. Here, however, was an apparent explanation of the matter. 
The birds might stop to rest anywhere in the course of their long journey, 
and, no doubt, in many places food in abundance might be found floating 
on the water. 

Though I had never seen or even heard of anything like this sight, I have 
taken it for granted that ornithologists had often observed and reported 
on this matter. I think I once mentioned it incidentally in ' Forest and 
Stream' in connection with some notes on shore birds. Mr. E. W. Nelson, 
to whom I mentioned the matter recently, advised me that the matter was 
new to him and suggested that this note l)e .sent to ' The Auk.' — - Geo. 
Bird Grinnell, New York City. 

American Golden Plover ( Charadrius d. dominicus) at Nantucket Is- 
land. — On September 6, 1915, I drove to the extreme western end of the 
island, and remained there an hour or two without seeing any birds. I 
interviewed the crew of the Life Saving Station at Maddeket, several of 
whom I knew, none of them had seen, or heard any Golden Plover or Es- 
kimo Curlew passing this summer. One of the men said he had heard of 
five Golden Plover living in a certain field, the owner of which preferred 
watching, to shooting them. In the afternoon I drove to the south side of 
the Island (Surfside). I called at once on the former captain of the Life 
Saving Station located there, who was an old acquaintance, and a gunner. 
He informed me that his grandson had shot a Golden Plover the day before, 
he showed me the legs which I identified. He said there had been four in 
all living at Noljadeer pond, and that I could probably find the other three 
still there. I suggested we harness up his horse and ride down to the pond, 
he and his grandson taking their gims. On arrival we saw the three Golden 
Plover running about, two black and white breasted birds, and one ' pale- 
breast ' (young); we succeeded in shooting the latter, which I later had 
made into a skin . I am of the opinion that these birds were the same ones 
which occupied the protected pasture mentioned above. They constitute 
the only records of this plover I have been able to obtain for the island of 
Nantucket this season. I also saw, while at the Nobadeer Pond, two 
Hudsonian Curlew, and two of the larger Yellowlegs. — George H. 
Mackay, Boston, Mass. 

Nest of the Alder Flycatcher on the Pocono Mt., Pa. — Among the 
low shrubs, birches and swamp grass, Ijordering a lake on the Tobyhanna 
River, Monroe County, Pa., the Alder Flycatcher {Empidonax trailli 
alnorum) is apparently not imcommon, for at least three pair can be found 
within a radius of two or three miles. The discovery of the nest is, how- 

200 General Notes. [^^fi 

ever, a diflBciilt problem, and has eluded the search of a number of ornithol- 
ogists around this very lake for several years. On June 12, 1915, the nest 
was found by J. D. Carter in a low shi'ub well hidden and within twenty- 
four inches of the ground. One egg was laid on the 14th, but the nest was 
found destroyed on the 27th when it was again visited. On July 17 I 
found a new nest containing three fresh eggs in almost the same spot or 
within six feet of the first one; it was also well hidden, and it was by the 
luckiest chance that I happened to see it. The bu-d was not flushed either 
time, and was generally heard uttering the short harsh note from a hundred 
to five hundred feet away, giving little clew to the general position of the 
nest. While I was photographing, the parent bird ventured within fifteen 
feet of me, but all the time hidden in the thicket and occasionally uttering 
an unconcerned low single note. The nest was built of soft bleached gi'ass, 
lined with fine thin material, the eggs being rich cream and spotted almost 
exactly like the Wood Pewee's eggs. I think this nest is the first recorded 
for the State of Pennsylvania. — Wm. L. Baily, Ardmore, Pa. 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher {Empidonax flavioentris) Breeding on the 
Pocono Mountain, Pa. — A nest containing four eggs was found along 
the Tobyhanna Creek, on Pocono Mountain in Monroe County, Pa., by 
Geo. H. Stuart, 3rd., in company with J. Fletcher Street on June 27, 
1915. I had found a nest containing four fresh eggs in almost the identi- 
cal spot eight years previous, June 23, 1907, in company C G. Abbott, 
and though we did not collect the nest we obtained excellent photographs 
of the eggs and one of the birds on the nest. On July 17, 1915, 1 found a 
third nest containing three young about two days old, which I photo- 
graphed; and I also obtained another picture of the parent near the nest. 
Duritig an hour's stay within about thirty feet of the nest, both birds 
were near by, somewhat anxious, and uttering every few seconds their 
drawling " pe-a." 

The nesting sites were all in little open sunny spots of wet sphagnum in 
the dense secluded forest of spruce, hemlock, balsam and tamarack; and 
all through the moss grew the wintergreen, bunch berry and occasionally 
the fragrant white swamp azalia. The nests were hidden in the sides of 
little mounds of sphagnum; only a little black flat hole was visible, which 
did not even look suspicious. The nest which had young was composed 
first of small spruce twigs, and then lined thickly with pine needles only, 
and set right in the sphagnum deeply cupped. As I had not flushed the 
bird, I poked my finger into it for investigation before I knew it to be a nest. 
Mr. Stuart's nest, which contained eggs, was simply lined with pine 
needles. This is the only spot on Mt. Pocono where we have found this 
species breeding, and it is safe to state that there were at least three pairs 
in the vicinity. — Wm. L. Baily, Ardmore, Pa. 

Swainson's Hawk in Illinois. — An interesting record is the capture 
of a beautifully marked specimen of Buteo swainsoni, near Waukegan, by 

Vol.XXXIIIj General Notes. 201 

a boy, on October 13, 1914 (H. K. C. No. 17970). This bird was taken to 
Mr. R. A. Turtle, the Chicago taxidermist, who kindly presented it to me. 
It measures: length 20 in., extent 49 in., wing 14.75 in., tail 8.75 in. Cere, 
legs and feet yellow. Iris slaty brown. It is dark brown above, mottled 
with light brown and yellowish buff; below from bill to tail, clear yellowish 
buff with dark brown markings on the sides of the breast. This is the first 
Swainson's Hawk I have ever seen taken here. — ■ Henry K. Coale, 
Highland Park, Illinois. 

Nesting of the Crossbill (Loxia curoirosira minor) in Crook Co., 
Oregon. — During the summer of 1914 while camped in the yellow pine 
forest near the little town of Sisters, Crook County, Oregon, I was fortu- 
nate enough to locate the nest of the Red Crossbill. On July 21, while 
standing near camp I saw a female fly from the ground with a large bunch 
of grass in her bill. She flew to a tree near by, where she perched for a 
moment, and was joined by the male, when both birds flew to another tree 
farther on. I arrived under the tree just in time to see the female disap- 
pear in a dark mass that I soon made out to be the nest. The male perched 
on a small twig near by for some time, but finally flew away leaving the 
female in the nest, where she stayed several minutes, giving me the im- 
pression that house building was about over. I watched this pair several 
days and saw the female carry several loads of nesting material, but, al- 
though the male was often near I did not see him help in any way. Both 
birds were very noisy while near the nest. On July 26, my time was up 
in this locality, so on that date the female parent, the nest, and the one egg 
it contained were taken. The nest was located near the end of a branch, 
about fifteen feet from the trunk and about ninety feet from the ground in 
a large yellow pine {Pinus ponderosa). Dry sage-brush twigs, rootlets, 
weed and grass stems were used in its construction. The whole appearance 
of the nest suggested that of the House Finch nest on a slightly larger plan. 
The one egg was pale bluish, spotted and streaked with shades of brown 
and purple, mainly about the larger end. — Stanley G. Jewett, Portland, 

The Barn Owl '(/4/uco pratincola) in Massachusetts. — On October 
31, 1915, a male Barn Owl was captured in Longmeadow, a few miles from 
Springfield, Mass. There is but one other record of the occurrence of this 
species in so much of the Connecticut valley as lies within the borders of 
Massachusetts.— Robert O. Morris, Springfield, Mass. 

Cowbird wintering in Massachusetts. — On November 26, 1915, 
beside a small swamp, on the borders of Flax Pond, Lynn, Mass., I found 
a male Cowbird {Molothrus ater ater) in company with a flock of English 
Sparrows. On December 26, 1 received a postal from my friend, Mr. G. M. 
Bubier, announcing that he had that day seen a male Cowbird, associating 
with English Sparrows, beside Strawberry Brook, the outlet of Flax Pond, 

202 General Notes. lApril 

and about three fourths of a mile fi'om where I saw the Cowbird in Novem- 
ber. Today, December 30, I found Mr. Bubier's Cowbird within a few 
rods of the place he reported him, and still accompanied by his English 
retinue. — Arthur P. Stubbs, Lynn, Mass. 

Another Hybrid Warbler from Northern New Jersey. — On July 8, 
1915, while in company with Mr. Samuel N. Rhoads on the edge of a 
rhododendron swamp near Sussex, N. J., the writer secured a specimen 
of the hybrid, supposed to result from the interbreeding of the Golden- 
winged and the Blue-winged Warblers {Vermivora chrysoptera and V. 
pinus). The specimen was a young bird of the year on which the wing 
bands were not fully developed. Nevertheless they were developed 
sufficiently to show bright yellow. This marking, taken with the general 
appearance of the bird, made it approximate leucobronchialis, but on the 
other hand the under parts were quite strongly suffused with yellow and the 
throat was dusky. ■ , < . .• . ,- 

This bird, in company with several other young, at least two more, and 
with an adult male chrysoptera, was under our observation for nearly an 
hour. On several occasions the birds were within a few feet of us, so that 
fairly accurate field observations were possible, and yet they were flitting 
about so constantly in search of insect life, which was very abundant on 
the sunny edge of the swamp, that it was almost impossible to get a good 
shot at any of them. The depth of the water between the swampy islands 
also impeded us greatly. 

Our conclusions in regard to the birds we did not secure, were as follows: 
one adult bird was certainly present and that was a pure male Golden- 
winged Warbler. This bird, though not actually observed feeding the 
young, was with them at all times, sometimes occupying the same branch 
with them and exhibiting the subtle behavior of a parent bird. If the other 
parent was present, we could not distinguish it from the young. It should 
be stated, however, that a Blue-winged Warbler, sex undetermined, had 
been noted in the neighborhood not a hundred feet away, but this bird was 
constantly associated with other warblers and was not once seen with the 
hybrid family in question. As to the color of the other young birds, I 
noticed particularly that they were all very light, especially on the under 
parts. One of them had a more pronounced, dusky throat than the others, 
and none of them seemed to have the under parts suffused with yellow, as 
did the specimen secured. And yet they might have had, as the character 
of under parts is very difficult to determine in the field, even when birds 
are as close as these were. 

It was most unfortunate that we were chased away by an excited farmer, 
otherwise we might have contributed something more definite to the store 
of knowledge gradually accumulating about these interesting species. 

The specimen was mailed to Dr. Witmer Stone at the Academy of Natural 
•Sciences, Philadelphia. Unfortunately it arrived in such bad condition 
that it could not be preserved, but before it was thrown away, it was 

v^i-xxxiiij Q^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 203 

carefully compared with specimens in the Academy's collection. Dr. 
Stone stated that it was undoubtedly one of the hybrid warblers, and that 
it was somewhat similar to a specimen in the collection marked leuco- 
bronchialis. — Robert Thomas Moore, Haddonfield, N . J . 

Cape May Warbler in Virginia in Winter. — On December 7, 1915, 
about 8:00 p.m., a Cape May Warbler ( Dcndroica tigrina) was brought to 
me alive but in a much weakened condition. According to the captor of 
the specimen, it was secured in the morning, in the snow, being barely able 
to flutter along. It revived considerably when taken to warmer quarters, 
but refused to eat. On the morning following it seemed even better, and 
ate banana from the hand. It rejected peanuts, but ate the banana 
readily. By the following evening it seemed weaker, however, and the 
next morning it was dead. The bird was apparently a young male, and 
with the exception of the fact that it had but three tail feathers, the plum- 
age was comparatively perfect. — George M. Sutton, Bethany, W. Va. 

The Occurrence of the Western House Wren on Smith's Island, 
Northampton County, Virginia. — On May 13, 1910, I collected an 
adult male of Troglodytes aedon parkmani at Smith's Island, Northampton 
County, Virginia. The specimen is Cat. No. 312912, U. S. National 
Museum. (Original number, 18946.) It was identified by Messrs. 
Ridgway, Oberholser, and Mearns. — Edgar A. Mearns, Washington, D. C. 

Bicknell's Thrush in Northeastern Illinois. — On September 6, 
1909, while collecting migrating warblers in the woods near Highland 
Park I shot a rather small specimen of Hylocichla alicice, which on more 
careful examination proves to be a typical example of Hylocichla alicice 
Mcknelli. It is an adult male (H. K. C. No. 13169), and measured before 
skinning: length 7 in., extent 11.5 in., wing 3.75 in., tail 2.70 in. The 
average measurements of several males of Hylocichla alicice alicice in my 
collection are: length 7.5 in., extent 13 in., wing 4.25 in., tail 3.25 in. The 
only other record for the state is a specimen taken by Charles K. Worthen 
at Warsaw, May 24, 1884 (Ridgway, Orn. 111. 1889).— Henry K. Coale, 
Highland Park, HI. 

Additions to the Birds of Custer County, Montana. — In the months 
of November and December, 1909, I spent some time in the extreme south- 
eastern part of Custer County, Mont., close to the South Dakota border. 
During this time I found tlu-ee species of birds not included in the late 
Mr. E. S. Cameron's list of the Birds of Custer and Dawson Cos. (Auk, 
Vol. XXIV, p. 241 to 270 and .389 to 406. Vol. XXV, p. 39 to .56.) I sent 
these records to Mr. Cameron, who wrote me that he intended to publish 
some additions to his list later, and would include them then. Since the 
recent death of Mr. Cameron prevented the publication of these additions. 
I have decided to put them on record myself. 

204 General Notes. [^^^^ 

During the past summer 1 had an opportunity to examine the collection 
of birds at the University of Montana. In this collection I found a large 
number of specimens from Miles City and vicinity, taken by Mr. C. F. 
Hedges. Two of the birds I had observed were represented and a number 
more as well that are new to the region, including one that is entirely new 
to the State. In addition to this I have found a number of Mr. Hedges' 
specimens in the collection of Dr. L. H. Bishop at New Haven. The com- 
bination of these records presents sixteen species new to the region, as well 
as some other notes of interest on species that are not new. 

Nuttallornis borealis, Omve-sided Flycatcher. — One male, Miles 
City, June S, 1902. 

Otocoris alpestris arcticola. Pallid Horned Lark. — One male. 
Miles City, March 30, 1901. 

Astragalinus tristis pallidus. Western Goldfinch. — Comparing 
Mr. lletiges' specimens with Connecticut specimens in the same collection, 
I believe that they belong to the western race. One specimen taken at 
Miles City, December 25, 1S99, makes the first winter record from this 

Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. Alaska Longspur. — A specimen 
in Dr. Bishop's collection was taken at Miles City, September 24, 1900. A 
series of this species in the University of Montana collection, taken from 
September 20 to 27, 1900, probably also belong to this race, though they 
are labelled ' Calcarius pictus.' 

Spizella pusilla arenacea. Western Field Sparrow. — One, Miles 
City, May 11, 1902. 

Junco aikeni. White-winged Junco. — ^A series of ten specimens 
taken at Miles City between April 22 and 27, 1900. I found this bird in 
the Long Pine Hills, and secured a specimen Doc^ember 5, 1909. Mr. S. S. 
Visher also found it breeding in this region Julv 20, 1910. (Auk, XXVIII, 
p. 14.) 

Junco hyemalis connectens. Shufeldt's Junco. — One specimen, 
Miles City, January 15, 1900. 

Melospiza melodia montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. — One 
female. Miles City, September 27, 1900. There are also several specimens 
of M . m. }nclodia from the region with which to compare this bird, which is 
markedly grayer in iilumage. 

Melospiza georgiana. Swamp Sparrow. — One female, Miles City, 
February 17, 1901. Though there are two other records of this species 
from Montana, this is the first from this region, and the first that can be 
accepted without question. 

Piranga ludoviciana. Western Tanager. — One female. Ft. Ke- 
ough, June 1, 1902. 

Stelgidopter3rx serripennis. Rough-winged Swallow. — One male, 
Miles City, May 30, 1902. 

Mniotilta varia. Black-and-white W'arbler. — One male. Miles 
■City, May 21, 1902. This is the first record of this species for the State. 

Vol.XXXIllj General Notes. 205 

Dendroica- auduboni. Auduwon'h Warbler. — Four specimens. 
Three from Little Pumpkin Creek, April 2.'i, 2G and 27, 1000, and one from 
Ft. Keoufrh, May 25, 1902. 

Oporornis tolmiei. MacGillivray's Wardijor. — One male. Ft. 
Keoufrh, May 2r,, 1002. 

Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Waruler. — One specimen 
in Dr. iiishop's collection, Sej)tcmber 22, 1900. 

Sitta canadensis. JIed-hreasted Nuthatch.— Seven specimens. 
Little l'unii)kin and (Jtter Creeks, April 25-27, 1900, and one from Ft. 
Keouffli, May IS, 1902. I observed several of these birds in the Long Pine 
Hills, November Hi, 1909. 

Regulus satrapa (.subsj)ecies?j. GoLUEN-(;Rf)"WNED Kinglet.— I olj- 
served two of these birds in the Long Pine Hills, November 29, 1909. 

Regulus calendula calendula. Ruhy-crowned Kinglet. — One 
male. Ft. Keough, September 22, 1900.^ Areta.s A. Saunders, West 
Haven, Conn. 

The Rose Beetle Poisonous to Young Birds. - In. 1914, Mr. Ernest 
Napier, President of the New .Jersey Fish and Game Commission reported 
to the Biological Survey the loss of hundreds of pheasant chicks and of 
numerous young ducks and chickens from eating rose beetles {Macro- 
dactylus suhspinosus). Four young Ring-necked Pheasants were examined 
and rose beetles found to compose 48, .30, .50 and 17 per cent respectively 
of their food. The largest number of rose beetles in any one was 12. The 
crops of these birds were only from one-fourth to three-fourths full and 
thoroughly ground up remains of the beetles were present in each gizzard, 
showing that the insects were being digested in regiilar course. There 
being no evidence of crop binding, to which the trouljle had been attri- 
buted, ^ and a positive diagnosis of white diarrhoea being obtained, it was 
concluded that the rose beetles were not the' direct of the mortality. 

It is of great interest, therefore, that the beetle has recently been 
■di.scovered to " contain a neuro-toxin that has an effect upon the heart 
action of both chickens and ralibits and is excessively dangerous as a food 
for chickens." ^ In experimental feeding of beetles to young chicks 
death resulted in from 9 to 24 hours. Similar results were obtained with 
an extract of rose chafers. Resistance to the poison increased rapidly with 
the age of the chicks and none over ten weeks old was killed. 

Besides the obvious economic a.spect of this discovery, and the indicated 
necessity of keeping young domesticated birds away from rose-beetles, the 
facts have an interesting bearing on the theory of " protected " insects and 
their warning colors. This, a poisonous insect according to the theory 

> Prof. F. E. L. Heal informs the writer that it is sometimes necessary to open the 
crops of young turkeys because of clogging up by rose bugs. 

2 Lamson, George H., Jr. — The poisonous effects of the rose chafer upon chickens. 
Journ. Ec. Ent., 8, No. 6, Dec., 1915, p. 548: Science, N. S., 43, Jan. 28, 1916, p. 139. 

206 General Notes. [.April 

should have bright warning colors, yet is of a uniform and inconspicuous 
brownish yellow. According to hypothesis, furthermore, birds are sup- 
posed to learn about disagreeable insects when young and thus be trained 
when adult to ignore them. In this case, however, experiment is usually 
followed by death, so that experience is not conserved. What is more, the 
insect is not dangerous to adult birds, so that, adopting this style of argu- 
ment for the moment, early bad experience proliably would l)e overcome 
by later satisfactory trials. 

We do not know whether eating rose chafers has a bad effect upon the 
young of wild birds, but we do know that the adults of a number of species 
feed upon these insects. So far, rose-beetles have been found in stomachs 
of 12 wild species. The Kingbird seems especially fond of them, from 12 to 
40 rose-chafers being found in each of several collected stomachs. 

The case is analogous to that of numerous birds feeding extensively upon 
the fruits of poison sumacs. A known poisonous principle, which at first 
thought we should be inclined to consider a preventive against eating by 
wild animals, is proved by the ol:)served facts to have no such effect. Other 
analogies are by no means rare, and it would seem that if carefullj' pondered, 
they would .serve to check the enthusiasm with which anthropomorphic 
explanations of animal behavior are advanced. — W. L. McAtee, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

A Fossil Feather from Taubate. — Fossil lairds are rare enough wluni 
we come to consider how very few of them have fallen into the hands of 
sciience, as compared with the great (quantity of material we have repre- 
senting the fossil forms of other Vertebrata; and, as to fossil feathers, they 
are many times rarer than those of the birds themselves. Without in- 
viting special attention to the literature on this subject — for numerous 
authors have contributed to it, myself among the number — I would say 
that the specimen here to be described was kindly sent me for that purpose 
by Herr Director Dr. von Ihering, of the Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; it came by registered mail, the letter of transmittal being dated 
January 8, 1915. 

The locality where this specimen was found has yielded many fine fish 
fossils, which have been described by Dr. A. S. Woodward, of the British 
Museum, while the locality itself has l)een touched upon by Di'. von Ihering 
himself in an article entitled: ' Observacoes soV)re os peixes fosseils de 
Taubate,' which appeared in volume iii (p. 71) of the ' Revista do Museu 
Paulista ' for the year 1898. As the locality is fully described in that con- 
tribution, it will not be necessary to further refer to it in this note. 

The matrix is of dark chocolate brown, with a leathery roughness on the 
side carrying the fossil; on the other side it is somewhat lighter in color, 
and exhibits evidences of cleavage horizontally. In size the slab measures 
al)out 14 cm. b}^ 7.5 cm., and it has an average thickness of 3 mm. It 
bears evidence of having been cut out of its place where collected with some 
shai'j) instrument — perhaps a strong knife. .\s noted above, the specimen 

'^"'me^"'] Recent Ldterature. 207 

contained in this matrix is upon its dark side, and is, without doubt, the 
feather of some rather large bird. When the slab is wet, this feather 
comes out much more clearly into view, and when it was in that condition, 
I made a photograph of it natural size, to file, along with similar ones, in 
my collection. 

Although this fossil feather has the appearance of being somewhat 
plumulaceous in character, I am strongly of the opinion that it is a primary 
feather from a wing. Its quill has a length of about 4 cm., and the vane 
about 7.3 cm. In other words, it was a feather about 11.3 cm. long, and 
apparently belonged to a bird of considerable size. As the photograph 
shows, the impression is very faint, and even with a strong lens it is quite 
impossible to make out the minute structure or any part of it, as is so fre- 
quently the case in fossil feathers. This specimen is No. Ill in the Paulista 
Museum, and is of interest from the fact that it furnishes evidence of the 
existence of highly developed birds in that particular formation in which 
it occurred. — R. W. Shufeldt, Wafthington, D. C. 


Bryan's Natural History of Hawaii.' — Quoting the words of the 
author in his preface ; "In the preparation of the following pages it has been 
the aim of the author to bring together into one volume the more impor- 
tant and interesting facts about the Hawaiian Islands and their primitive 
inhabitants, as well as information concerning the native and introduced 
plants and animals of the group." 

The results of the author's labors appear in a large volume of nearly 
600 pages, illustrated by 117 full-page plate photographs. The scope 
of the volume and the subjects treated appear from the following chapter 

Coming of the Hawaiian Race; Tranquil Environment of Hawaii and its 
Effect on the People; Physical Characteristics of the People; Their Lan- 
guage; Manners and Customs; Religion of the Hawaiians : Their Method 
of Warfare and Feudal Organization; The Hawaiian House: Its Furnish- 
ings and Household Utensils; Occupations of the Hawaiian People; Tools, 
Implements, Arts and Amusements of the Hawaiians; Coming of Pele 

' "Natural History of Hawaii." Being an Account of the Hawaiian People, the Geology 
and Geography of the Islands, and the Native and Introduced Plants and Animals of the 
Group. By William Alanson Bryan, B. Sc, Professor of Zoology and Geology in the 
College of Hawaii. The Hawaiian Gazette Co., Ltd., 1915. Price, $5.50. 

208 Recent Literature. [aptL 

and an Account of the Low Islands of the Group; The Inhabited Islands: 
A description of Kauai and Niihau; Island of Oahu; Islands of Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui and Kahoolawe; Island of Hawaii; Kilauea, the World's 
Greatest Active Volcano; Condensed History of Kilauea's Activity; 
Plant Life of the Sea-shore and Lowlands; Plant Life in the High Moun- 
tains; A Ramble in a Honolulu Garden; Tropical Fruits in Hawaii; Agri- 
culture in Hawaii: Its EfTect on Plant and Animal Life; Various Animals 
from Land and Sea; Introduced Birds; Birds of the Sea; Birds of the 
Marsh, Stream and Shore; Birds of the Mountain Forests; Hawaiian 
Fishes; Introduced Fresh Water Fish ; Important Economic Insects; Na- 
tive Insects; Land and Fresh Water Shells; Shells from the Sea-shore; 
Plants and Animals from the Coral Reef. 

The long residence of the author in the archipelago, his extensive knowl- 
edge of biological subjects, and his sympathetic acquaintance with the 
natives and their ways eminently fit him for his self-imposed task, and the 
result is a volume which cannot fail to be of great value to the general 
student of island history, the visitor who seeks for information and an 
explanation of what he sees about him, and for the residents. Hitherto 
much of the information in regard to the islands and the natives, especially 
on scientific subjects, has been locked up in special treatises not accessible 
to the general public, or in expensive volumes out of reach of all but the 

Readers of 'The Auk' will be chiefly interested in the chapters on birds, 
which fill pages 304 to 338, and contain brief accounts, but no formal 
descriptions, of many of the islands' native birds and also the seven intro- 
duced species; English Sparrow, Rice Bird, Chinese Turtle-dove, Mynah, 
Sky-lark, Pheasant, and California Partridge. 

Under the caption Birds of the Sea and Oceanic Islands the author 
treats of many of the more interesting species permanently residing on the 
islands or spending the winter on them. Under this head are included also 
the Laysan Islands birds, which are of special interest to the ornithologist. 

Under the caption 'Birds of the Mountain Forests' are mentioned the 
more notable of the native woodland birds, including the famous and now 
extinct Mamo, and the O-o. 

American ornithologists will hardly be able to understand the statement 
that were it not for the presence of a dozen or more species of birds that have 
been introduced into Hawaii by accident or design, it is doubtful if the 
average tourist would see or hear a single bird during his journeys through 
the islands. Nevertheless, the statement is literally true, so closely are 
the native species confined to the deep forests and steep mountain-sides 
and so difficult of access are these semi-tropical fastnesses. 

Recalling the roving disposition of our mainland crows, the American 
ornithologist will be surprised to learn that the Hawaiian Crow {Corvus 
hawaiiensis) is restricted to a part of one island, and not only has failed to 
occupy the other islands of the group, but fails to enter even the neighbor- 
ing districts where vegetation is similar and food appears equally abundant. 

^°'m6^"^] ^<^ceni Literature. 20^ 

Even more remarkable is the case of one of the Drepanine birds, Viri- 
donia sagiUiroslris, which is confined to a tract of the deep forests in Hawaii 
a few miles square, although the surrounding forest seems to be in every 
respect similar. 

Seven black-and-white plates fairly well illustrate the more interesting 
of the Hawaiian birds. As many of these birds are beautifully colored, it 
seems a pity that adequate illustrations in color could not have been 
furnished. The 'accounts of the Hawaiian birds, while not written for the 
professional ornithologist, contain many facts of interest and give an excel- 
lent birds-eye-view of the subject. The non-professional, however, for 
whom the accounts of the islands birds are chiefly intended, will find the 
treatment given by the author entirely adequate to his needs. The index 
and glossary to the volume have been made a special feature. They have 
been prepared with great care, and render the contents of the book readily 
accessible to every seeker for the wealth of material which it contains. — 
H. W. H. 

The B. O. U. Jubilee Supplement to the Ibis, No. 2.i — In December, 
1908, the British Ornithologists' Union, as part of the activities connected 
with the celebration of its fiftieth anniversary, arranged to send an expedi- 
tion to Dutch New Guinea to explore the Snow Mountains, with especial 
consideration of its avifauna. This expedition under the leadership of 
Mr. Walter Goodfellow met with unforeseen obstacles and while it acquired 
much valuable information and many specimens, it failed to accomplish 
all that was hoped for. The ornithological results appeared in 'The Ibis' 
for 1913, pp. 76-113. 

A second expedition, under Mr. A. F. R. WoUaston, who had accom- 
panied the first one, met with complete success, reaching the highest peaks 
of the Snow Mountains and bringing back large collections. The present 
report covers both collections — representing 321 species and includes 
additional forms obtained by other expeditions. It contains a vast amount 
of information upon the relationship and status of the birds of this portion 
of New Guinea which could only be obtained from adequate series of speci- 
mens such as are here available. Many important facts regarding the 
plumage of Birds of Paradise are brought out for the first time. 

As might have been expected, Bowdler-Sharpe's statement that the glossy 
green racket shaped tail feathers of the King Bird of Paradise are appar- 
ently derived from the curved brown ones without molt, proves to be 
erroneous. The green racket shaped feathers are acquired in the fourth 
year by a regular molt, encased in curious circular sheaths "for all the world 
like miniature motor-tyres." There are also numerous valuable field 

' The Ibis, Jubilee Supplement No. 2. 1915. Report on the Birds collected by the 
British Ornithologists' Union Expedition and the Wollaston Expedition in Dutch New 
Guinea. By W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. pp. i-xx + 1-336, 8 plates and two maps. December, 

210 Recent Literature. [April 

notes by the members of the expedition which add much to our knowledge 
of the habits of the birds of this wonderful country. 

Many new forms have already been described from these collections, but 
others, recognized as the critical study of the material progressed, are here 
described for the first time. These are: Cicinnurus regius claudii (p. 16) 
Lophorhina superba fetninina (p. 27); Ptilotis salvadorii utakwensis (p. 71) 
Pachycephala soror klossi (p. 88); Lalage karu microrhyncha (p. 118) 
and Pseudogerygone conspicillata mimikae (p. 168). New forms described 
from other parts of New Guinea or elsewhere are as follows: Diphyllodes 
rothschildi (p. 24), Salawatti; Pachycephala soror bartoni (p. 88), British 
New Guinea; Rhipidura harterti (p. 149), Rendova, Solomon Isls.; Poecilo- 
dryas brachyura duniasi (p. 162), Northern New Guinea; Microeca grisei- 
ceps bartoni (p. 174), Mt. Manacao; Alcyone richardsi aolae (p. 206), 
Aola, Guadalcanar, Solomon Isls.; A. r. bougainvillei (p. 207), Bougainville, 
Solomon Isls. 

Mr. Ogilvie-Grant has evidently spared no pains to make his report as 
full and accurate as possible and he has succeeded in producing one of the 
most valuable contributions to the ornithology of New Guinea that has 
yet appeared. With so many points of excellence to its credit it is regret- 
table to find the old custom perpetuated of designating two types — a male 
and female. In case these should eventually prove to belong to different 
forms — and such things have occurred ! — we immediately have an 
opportunity for a nomenclatural entanglement, which would have been 
entirely avoided by designating but one type specimen. — W. S. 

Chapin on New Birds from the Belgian Congo. » — Continuing the 
critical study of the collection obtained by the American Museum Congo 
Expedition, Mr. Chapin describes four new species. These are a Starling, 
Stilbopsar leucothorax (p. 23), from the Ituri District; Paludipasser uelensis 
(p. 24), from the Upper Uele District, a curious Weaver Finch, apparently 
congeneric with Mr. S. A. Neave's Paludipasser locustella from Lake Bang- 
weolo; another Weaver, Malimbus flavipes, (p. 27), Ituri District and a 
warbler, Bradypterus carpalis (p. 27), from the papyrus swamps of the 
Upper Uele. Drawings of head and feet accompany the excellent descrip- 
tions and a few remarks on habits are added, forming a welcome relief 
from the all too prevalent meagre diagnoses which characterize many 
present day systematic papers. — W. S. 

Oberholser on Races o£ the Crested Tern.^ — This is another of Mr. 
Oberholser's careful monographs, treating of a group that has recently 

1 Four New Birds from the Belgian Congo. By James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., XXXV, Art. Ill, pp. 23-29. February 21, 1916. 

- A Synopsis of the Baces of the Crested Tern, Thalasseus bergii (Lichtenstein) . By 
Harry C. Oberholser. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 49, pp. 515-526, Plate 66. December 
23, 1915. 

^''^me'''"^] Recent Literature. 211 

received considerable attention from authors, notably Mr. Mathews and 
Mr. Stresemann. As Mr. Oberholser's material was not available to either 
of these authors his investigations have a peculiar value in checking up their 

Eleven races are recognized, all but one of which fortunately are already 
provided with names. This form from Pata Island, southern Philippines, is 
described as Thalasseus bergii halodramus (p. 522). Mr. Bang's race 
boreolis from the Riu Kiu Islands is synonymized with T. b. cristatus. 

While there may be a difference of opinion as to the advisability of raising 
Thalasseus to full generic rank it is a satisfaction to see this name used for 
this group instead of for the Caspian Tern as is done in the A. O. U. Check- 
List, a mistake against which the reviewer has long contended. Mr. 
Oberholser's statement regarding one form of which he was unable to see 
specimens is significant. He says, "there is no trouble at all in distinguish- 
ing it. . . .merely from the measurements given by Mr. Stresemann." 
Had Mr. Stresemann neglected to give measurements as has been done in 
some recent diagnoses of new forms, the status of this race could not have 
been settled in the present monograph! — W. S. 

Riley on a New Hazel Grouse.' — The United States National Museum 
having recently acquired a series of typical Tetrasles bonasia septentrionalis 
Mr. Riley finds that specimens from Manchuria formerly referred to that 
form are quite distinct and he proposes for them the name T. b. amurensis 
(p. 17), type locality I-mien-po, N. Kirin. — W. S. 

McGregor on a New Prionochilus.^ — This new flower-picker which is 
here named Prionochilus anthonyi (p. 531) was procured on Polls Mountain, 
Luzon, in the mossy forest at 2000 ft. elevation. It differs in pattern of 
coloration from any other Philippine species. A colored plate accompanies 
Mr. McGregor's paper. — W. S. 

Chapman on New Colombian Birds.' — Dr. Chapman here proposes 
twenty-five new species and subspecies as a result of his further studies of 
the collections of the American Museum. As in his previous papers the 
descriptions are accompanied by extended remarks on allied forms which 
add materially to our knowledge of the groups treated. The new forms here 
described belong to the following genera, Crypturus, Tachytriorchis, Herpe- 
totheres, Aulacorhynchus, Picumnus, Conopophaga, Microbates, Xiphorhyn- 
chus, Siptornis, Automolus, Manacus, Phyllomyias, Habrura, Microcer cuius, 

1 Description of a New Hazel Grouse from Manchuria. By J. H. Riley. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., XXIX, pp. 17-18. January 25, 1916. 

2 Description of a New Species of Proniochilus from the Highlands of Luzon. By 
Richard C. McGregor. Philippine Jour, of Sci., IX, No. 6, Sec. D. November, 1914. 

' Diagnoses of Apparently New Colombian Birds. IV. By Frank M. Chapman. 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIV, Art. XXIII, pp. 635-662. December 30, 1915. 

212 Recent Ldterature. [April 

Poliopiila, Sporophila, Catamenia, Phrygilus, Cyanerpes, Iridosornis, and 
Cacicus. The northern races of Phrygilus unicolor are considered at 
length.— W. S. 

Coale on the Birds of Lake County, lU.i — The separate before us 
constitutes Chai)ter XIV of a history of Lake County pubHshed in 1912, 
pp. 353-370, although this fact does not appear on the cover. It consists 
of a list of 269 species with brief annotations and records of rare occurrences 
and forms a very satisfactory county list. — W. S. 

Roberts' 'The Winter Bird -Life of Minnesota.' ^ — This brochure 
is Dr. Roberts' first publication since occupying the position of ornitholo- 
gist in the department of animal biology in the University of Minnesota 
and of the Natural History Survey. It is an excellent summary of the winter 
bird life of Minnesota, illustrated by a number of half-tones from photo- 
graphs and a colored plate of the Evening Grosbeak. The species are 
grouped under the following heads. Permanent Residents 35; Winter Visi- 
tants 17; "Half Hardy" 12; Accidental 27, while in a summary at the end 
they are all arranged systematically in one nominal list. It would seem 
that the reverse of this method would render the list more easy of consulta- 
tion, as it is much easier to find a species in a single list than to hunt for it 
in four, while nominal lists under the above headings could be better con- 
trasted. However this may be a matter of opinion and in no way detracts 
from the excellence of Dr. Roberts' work. He has brought together a mass 
of valuable data and his list should be of much assistance to the ornithol- 
ogist, the Audubon Society and the conservationist. The same paper 
without the summary and colored plate appeared a few weeks earlier in 
' Fins, Feathers and Fur, ' the official bulletin of the Minnesota Game and 
Fish Department, for December, 1915. — W. S. 

Kellogg's Report upon Mammals and Birds of Trinity, Siskiyou 
and Shasta Cos., Cal.^ — This report deals with the results of two trips 
into the Trinity, Salmon and Scott Mountains of northern California 
undertaken during February-March, and June-August, 1911, by Misses 
Annie M. Alexander and Louise Kellogg. A collection of 449 birds and 976 
mammals was obtained which has been presented by Miss Alexander to the 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California. The 
greater part of the report treats of the mammals, but there is a briefly 
annotated list of the birds, with dates and localities where they were 
observed. This comprises 95 species. 

1 Birds of Lake County. By Henry Kelso Coale. [1912]. 

- The Winter Bird-Life of Minnesota. Being an annotated list of birds that have been 
found within the State of Minnesota during the winter months. By Thomas S. Roberta, 
M. D. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Minn. Zool. Div. Occasional Papers: Number 1, 
pp. 1-20, pi. r February, 1916. 

' Report upon Mammals and Birds found in Portions of Trinity, Siskiyou and Shasta 
Counties, California. By Louise Kellogg. Univ. of Cal. Publ. in Zool., Vol. 12, No. 13, 
pp. 335-398, plates 15-18. January 27, 1916 

^"'loi^"'] /''ccejii Literature. 213 

Another paper by Dr. Joseph Grinnell immediately follows Miss Kcllogg's 
and deals with an ' Analysis of the Fauna of the Trinity Region. of Northern 
California ' i based upon the collection above mentioned. His conclusions 
are that the boreal element of the fauna of the Trinity region is nearest to 
that of the Sierra Nevada, with but little Humid Coast element, while the 
Sonoran "islands" of the region are nearest to the Sacramento Valley in 
their faunal characteristics. The Trinity region seems to show but very 
slight endemic individuality. .These two papers form a valuable contribu- 
tion to the series which Dr. Grinnell and his associates are issuing from time 
to time and which are rapidly assuming the proportions of a natural history 
survey of the State. — W. S. 

Lincoln's The Birds of Yuma County, Colorado.' ^ — This is a 
very briefly annotated list of 164 species. Presumably it is based upon 
field work carried on by representatives of the Colorado Museum of 
Natural History but on this point the several paragraphs of introduction 
throw no light, merely stating that systematic work in Yuma county 
" was deemed likely to be exceptionally productive." It is to be regretted 
that some account of the expedition and a detailed analysis of its results 
do not accompany the list. — W. S. 

Witherby's Report on the ' British Birds ' Marking Scheme.'' — 

During the seven years that 'British Birds' has been conducting its 
systematic bird marking scheme, 67,614 birds have been banded. Of the 
59,847 banded to the end of 1914 no less than 1835, or 3.06 per cent, have 
been heard from. Several Swallows, a Sand Martin and a Wryneck 
banded in 1914 returned to England and were identified the following year, 
while a Martin banded at Kinnelhead June 26, 1913, was recovered at the 
same place August 17, 1915. Three Mallards banded in Great Britain in 
February were recovered in Sweden and Holland, in November and August 

These are only some of the interesting records which this report contains, 
and it is deeply to be regretted that the war is so seriously interfering with 
the progress of this valuable line of ornithological work. — W. S. 

Recent Papers by Van Oort. — Several recent publications by Dr. 
E. D. Van Oort are before us. In one he summarizes the work of the 
Leiden Museum in bird banding,^ giving some 47 cases of birds recovered 

' An Analysis of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Trinity Region of Northern California. 
By Joseph Grinnell. Univ. of Cal. Publ. in Zool.. Vol. 12, No. 14, pp. 399-410. January 
27, 1916. 

-The Birds of Yuma County, Colorado. By F. C. Lincoln. Proc. Colo. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., pp. 1-14, Dec, 191.5. [Neither volume nor part indicated]. 

'The "British Birds" Marking Scheme. Progress for 1915 and Some Results. By 
H. F. Witherby. British Birds, IX, No. 9. February 1, 1910. 

* Resultaten van het ringonderzoek van het Rijks Museum te Leiden, .\rdea, 191.5, 
pp. 119-126. 

214 Recent Literature. [April 

in 1914 and 1915. These include representatives of a number of different 
species, Gulls, Titmice, Starlings, etc. In another paper ^ he records the 
occurrence of Puffinus gravis in the Netherlands for the first time while 
a third contribution ^ consists of a description of a new Bird of Paradise, 
Falcinellus meyeri albicans (p. 228) from the Snow Mountains of Central 
New Guinea. — W. S. 

Didier's ' Le Macareux du Kamtschatka.' ' — This brochure consists 
of a brief monograph of the Crested Puffin, with descriptions of birds in 
various stages of plumage, accounts of nest, egg, habits, distribution, synon- 
ymy, etc. There is also a lithographic plate of the adult birds and a cut 
of the egg. — W. S. 

Annual Report of the National Association of Audubon Societies 
for 1915.'' — This report shows the National Association, the ' parent body ' 
of bird protectionists in America, to be in excellent condition. About 
$100,000. of income has been expended during the year in the interests of 
wild bird life. Besides the secretary's report which touches briefly upon 
the various lines of work carried on during the year, we have reports of 
field agents, in Maine, Massachusetts, Virginia, Ohio and the Pacific States; 
the report of H. K. Job, head of the department of Applied Ornithology, of 
Mary S. Sage, organizer in schools, and thirty-nine reports from State 
Societies and independent clubs. In conclusion there is the report of the 
treasurer and the list of members. This report as well as the substantial 
Audubon department in each number of ' Bird-Lore ' will prove interesting 
reading to all who have at heart the growth and development of the great 
work of bird protection. — W. S. 

Recent Bird Biographies by Miss Stanwood. — Numerous sketches 
of birds and their nesting activities have appeared during the last few years 
from the pen of Miss Stanwood, all of them evidently based upon careful 
study and written in a style that is pleasing and yet serious enough to 
suit the importance of many of the facts that are recorded. These sketches 
can well be taken as models for others who have the time to make careful 
studies of the activities of birds' nests, and ability to set them down in bio- 
graphical sketches. Miss Stanwood has recently contributed an excellent 
account of the nesting of the Red-breasted Nuthatch,^ a species that but 

1 Een voor de Nederlandsche fauna nieuwe stormvoglesoort Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly) 
Ardea, 1915, pp. 130-131. 

2 On a New Bird of Paradise from Central New Guinea, Falcinellus meyeri albicans. 
Zool. Mededeelingen, Deel I, Afl. 3^. 

' Le Macareux der Kamtschatka {Lunda cirrhala (Pall.)) Dr. Robert Didier. Suppl. 
au No. 82 de la Revue Fran?aise d'Ornithologie. 191G. pp. 1-16. PI. I. 

♦ Annual Report of the National Association of Audubon Societies for 1915. Bird-Lore, 

1915, pp. 493-560. 

' The Red-breasted Nuthatch. By Cordelia J. Stanwood. Home Progress, January, 

1916, pp. 213-215. 

"igie j Recent lAterature. 215 

few have had the opportunity to study carefully in its summer home, 
another on the nesting of the Redstart i and an account of a tame Olive- 
backed Thrush - which she raised from a nestling. — W. S. 

Washburn's ' Further Observations on Minnesota Birds.' ^ — Min- 
nesota birds bid fair to be well cared for in the future, for in addition to Dr. 
Roberts' list we have another circular from the Agricultural E.xperiment 
Station on common birds, by the State Entomologist, Mr. F. L. Washburn. 
This is issued in response to the great demand in the schools for a similar 
earlier publication (Circular 32). Twenty-three familiar species arc 
described in a popular way and illustrated by cuts from 'Citizen Bird' 
representing paintings by Louis Agassiz Fuertes, which have been verj' 
well printed. Mr. Washburn's pamphlet should prove very satisfactory 
for school use. — W. S. 

Recent Papers on Bird and Game Protection. — Dr. Walter P. 
Taylor * at the Meeting of the American Association of Museums in San 
Francisco read an important paper, reviewing the carelessness of legislative 
bodies in passing laws affecting wild birds and animals which have operated 
toward the extinction of really valuable species. He then pointed out an 
important function of the museum in placing at the service of the State 
the results of its technical and economic investigations and in training 
experts who can work directly for the State in the investigation and con- 
servation of the native fauna. 

Two recent pamphlets from the Biological Survey are Mr. Henshaw's 
report as Chief of the Survey ^ and the report of the governor of Alaska 
on the Alaska Game law." The bird work outlined by Mr. Henshaw has 
been largely published in special reports already noticed in these columns, 
and covers the mortality of wild ducks on Great Salt Lake; ducks in rela- 
tion to oyster industry; food of wild ducks; collecting of data on migration 
and distribution; notes on conditions of ten national bird reservations are 
given and on the enforcement of the Migratory Bird Law. Importations 
of foreign birds total 270,000 for the year 1915, of which 216,000 were cana- 
ries. In Alaska the bag limit for game birds has been of great value in 

1 A Skillful Architect [The Redstart]. By Cordelia J. Stanwood. The House Beauti- 
ful, February, 1916. pp. xl-xlii. 

- The Chronicle of a Tame Olive-backed Thrush. By Cordelia J. Stanwood. Wilson 
Bulletin, No. 93, December, 1915. 

» Further Observations on Minnesota Birds: their Economic Relations to the Agricul- 
turist. By F. L. Washburn. Circular 35, Minn. Exper. Sta. January 15, 1916. 

* The Museum of Natural History and the Conservation of Game. By Dr. W. P. Taylor. 
Proc. Amer. Asso. of Museums, IX, pp. 96-103, 1915 

5 Report of Chief of Bureau of Biological Survey. By H. W. Henshaw. Ann. Rep. U. S. 
Dept. Agr., 1915, reprint, pp. 1-15. 

• Report of the Governor of Alaska on the Alaska Game Law By J. F. A. Strong, pp. 

216 Recent Literature. \\^^\ 

saving from extinction grouse, ptarmigan and water fowl in certain sec- 
tions, while the law against spring shooting is generally respected. 

The New Jersey Audubon Society has issued an attractive annual report, ^ 
devoted especially to the Junior Audubon class work. — W. S. 

A Beginning of Philippine Economic Ornithology. — Mr. Richard 
C. McGregor, Ornithologist of the Philippine Bureau of Science has imder- 
taken the study of the economic value of birds in the Philippines, in which 
work he has the support and cooperation of the Agricultural Congress. 
A circular requesting information has been issued, accompanied by a 
card upon which the data can be entered. There has been published also a 
press bulletm ^ intended to arouse interest in the work. This publication 
illustrates some common types of Philippine birds, and contains general 
notes on the food of many species, and specific data on a few. 

It is to be hoped that good progress can be made on the elucidation of 
the economic ornithology of the Philippines, and that the results in rational 
protection of birds will be satisfactory. — W. L. M. 

CoUinge's ' Some Observations on the Rate of Digestion in Differ- 
ent Groups of Wild Birds.' — Under this caption, Professor Walter E. 
Collinge summarizes ^ the investigations of other workers, and presents 
the results of his own studies on rate of digestion in the Rook, Starling, and 
House Sparrow. The various findings agree very well that the contents 
of the stomach are completely digested in about four hours. From this 
it would seem that the human plan of three meals a day must be largely 
prevalent among birds. The reviewer has presented evidence * that a 
much larger number of meals may be taken when the food consists of partic- 
ularly delicate insects. — W. L. M. 

Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomological Publications. — 

In "Some notes on the western twelve-spotted ... cucumber beetles,"* 
Mr. R. A. Sell notes that "The only birds observed actually eating these 
insects were the purple finch, the bush-tit, the linnet and the canon wren." 
The Biological Survey records add to this list: the Pipit, Wren-tit, 
Tule Wren, Red-shafted Flicker, Steller's Jay, Yellow Warbler, Western 
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Traill's Flycatcher, Brewer's Blackbird, West- 
ern Yellow-throat, Lutescent Warbler, Barn Swallow, Russet-backed 
Thrush, Bullock's Oriole, California Shrike, Valley Quail, Gambel's Quail, 
Cliff Swallow, California Towhee, Spurred Towhee, Black Phoebe, Vigor's 
Wren, and Black-headed Grosbeak. Some of these birds feed extensively 

1 Fifth Annual Report of the New Jersey Audubon Society. Oct. 5, 1915. pp. 1-23. 

2 No. 32, rev. Bureau of Science, 14 pp., Dec. 29, 1915. Birds in Their Economic Rela- 
tion to Man. 

3 Journ. Econ. Biol., Vol. X, No. 3, Sept., 1915, pp. 65-68. 

« Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1912 (1913) pp. 402-403. 
» Journ. of Economic Ent., Vol. 8, No. 6, Dec. 1915, p. 518. 

^"'■m6^"T Recent Literature. 217 

on the beetle (Diabrotica soror). From Mr. Sell's account it appears that 
natural enemies other than birds are negligible. 

A few birds that feed upon grasshoppers are mentioned in Harrison E. 
Smith's report on 'The Grasshopper outbreak in New Mexico, during the 
summer of 1913.' ' The irruption described was largely of one species, 
the long-winged grasshopper {Dissosteira longipennis) . It extended over 
about 500 square miles in which area grasses and crops were in great part 
devastated. "Among the more important bird enemies noted to be feed- 
ing upon grasshoppers during this invasion were the Desert Horned Lark 
[Otocoris alpestris leucolcema), Western Meadowlark {Sturnella neglecla), 
Desert Sparrow Hawk {Falco sparverius phalcena), Nighthawk (Chordeiles 
virginianus) , Killdeer {Oxyechus vociferus), and Quail {Colinus virginianus) " 
(pp. 6-7). 

A Woodpecker is given high credit as an enemy of a destructive pine 
moth by Josef Brunner of the Bureau of Entomology." - It is said that: 
"In most sections of the Rocky Mountains the Rocky Mountain Hairy 
Woodpecker {Dryobates villosus monticola) is unquestionably the most 
efficient natural force in restraining the Zimmerman pine moth. Thou- 
sands of trees are each year regularly infested by the moth in comparatively 
small areas, and this bird as regularly destroys almost all of the larvae in 
all of them during early winter, so that, although hundreds of trees may be 
examined at a time, it is only on rare occasions that larvae are found after 
December in wounds in the trunks of trees which had been infested during 
the previous summer. This woodpecker seems to have a decided prefer- 
ence for the caterpillar of the pine moth wherever the writer and the 
entomological rangers assigned to the Northern Rocky Mountain Field 
Station have had opportunities for observation. In the extreme south- 
eastern part of Montana, and particularly that portion covered by the 
Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation and by the Custer National Forest, 
the moth has apparently neither bird nor insect enemies. In all other 
localities this woodpecker is fully able to eliminate this insect as a serious 
factor m timber destruction. Especially will the work of the bird become 
effective when the habits of the moth are more generally understood and its 
"brood trees" are eliminated through use by man." 

In recent papers by W. W. Froggatt, Government Entomologist of New 
South Wales, are some interesting notes on the food of birds. He dis- 
cusses ' at some length the bird enemies of sheep-maggot flies {Calli- 
phora spp.). The Crow {Corvus coronoides) is credited with destruction of 
large numbers of the maggots. Other birds recorded among their enemies 
are Magpies (Gymnorhina) and Soldier-birds and other Honey-eaters 
{Meliphagidoe) . The writer adds a word of caution against indiscriminate 
spread of the Starling. 

I Bull. No. 293, U. S. Dept. of Agr., 12 pp., 2 figs., Oct. 7, 1915. 

5 Bull. No. 295, U. S. Dept. of Agr., Oct. 28, 1915, p. 6. 

3 Farmers' Bull. No. 95, Dept. of Agr., N. S. Wales, March, 1915, pp. 39-11. 

21o Recent Literature. lApril 

la au article ou 'Pests and disease of the cocoauut palm'^ the same 
author notes that a small cockatoo of the Solomon Islands, which from the 
description is Cacatua ducorpsi (fide Alex Wetmore), does a great deal of 
damage by gnawing holes in small green cocoanuts. — W. L. M. 

The Ornithological Journals. 

Bird-Lore. XVII, No. G. November-December, 1915. 

The Behavior of the Least Bittern. By Arthur A. Allen. — Excellent 
illustrations from photographs. 

A Family of North Dakota Marsh Hawks. By Florence M. Bailey. 

Grouse Camp-Mates. By Roy C' Andrews. — Spruce Grouse in the 

The Nuthatches are the subject of the colored plate, with notes on 
migration and plumage of the several species. 

The Educational Leaflet, by T. G. Pearson, treats of the Surf Scoter. 

In the Audubon Society department there is a well illustrated article 
' Cruising the Klamath.' 

Bird-Lore. XVIII, No. 1. January-February, 1916. 

Some Canadian Grouse. By H. H. Pittman. 

The Chickadees are figured in the colored plate and their migration and 
plumage discussed. 

Bird-Lore's Sixteenth Christmas Census covers 25 pages. 

Educational Leaflet, The Shoveller. By T. G. Pearson. 

The Condor. XVII, No. 6. November-December, 1915. 

The Yellow-billed Loon, a Problem in Migration. By W. W. Cooke. 

Notes on the Nesting of the White-tailed Ptarmigan in Colorado. By 
W. C. Bradbm-y. 

Characteristic Birds of the Dakota Prairies. II. Along the Lake 
Borders. By Florence Merriam Bailey. 

A Convenient Collecting Gun. By L. H. Miller. 

Further Remarks on the Kern Red-wing. By J. Mailliard. 

Nesting of the White-tailed Kite at Sespe, Ventura County, California. 
By Lawrence Peyton. 

Additional Observations on the Birds of the Lower Colorado Valley in 
California. By A. B. Howell and A. Van Rossem. 

The Condor. XVIII, No. 1. January-February, 1916. 

Philadelphia to the Coast in Early Days, and the Development of 
Western Ornithology Prior to 1850. By Witmer Stone. 

Characteristic Buds of the Dakota Prairies. III. Among the Sloughs 
and Marshes. By Florence Merriam Bailey. 

New and Interesting Bird Records from Oregon. By S. G. Jewett. 

« Science Bull. No. 2, Dept. Agr. N! S. Wales. 3d Ed., July 1914, p. 54. 

^""me^"^] Recent LUerature. 219 

A Personal Supplement to the Distributional List of the Birds of Cali- 
fornia. By W. L. Dawson. 

The Wilson Bulletin. XXVII, No. 3. September, 1915. 

Field Observations on the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. By I.N. Gabrielson. 

Birds by the Wayside, in Egypt and Nubia. By Althea R. Sherman. 

Owls as Regarded by the Scientist, the Agriculturist and the Sportsman. 
By R. W. Shufeldt. 

Plainfield, New Jersey, Bird Census. By W. D. Miller and C. H. 

Mississippi Kite in Nebraska. By D. H. Bailey. 

The Wilson Bulletin. XXVII, No. 4. December, 1915. 

The Home of the Great Crest. By I. N. Gabrielson. 

A Two-year Nesting Record in Lake County, III. By C. C. Sanborn 
andW. A. GceUtz. — 71 species. 

The Chronicle of a Tame Olive-backed Thrush. By C. J. Stanwood. 

Five Hours on Butler's Lake, Lake Co., 111. By W. A. Gcelitz. 

Cardinals in Northeastern Iowa. By M. E. Hatch. 

The Oologist. XXXII, No. 12. December 15, 1915. 

A Belated Nest of the Olive-sided Flycatcher. By R. W. Tufts.' 

Notes on the Acadian Flycatcher in the Vicinity of Philadelphia. By 
R. F. MQler. 

The Oologist. XXXIII, No. 1. January 15, 1916. 

The Golden Eagle in Cochise County, Arizona. By F. C. Willard. 

European Widgeon [in Virginia]. By H. H. Bailey. 

The Oologist. XXXIII, No. 2. February 15, 1916. 

The Bald Eagle in Florida. By O. E. Baynard. 

Blue Bird. VIII, No. 1. December, 1915. 

A Sketch of the Magnolia Warbler on his Breeding Ground. By Cordelia 
J. Stanwood. — With illustrations from photographs. 

Eggs of North American Water Birds. (Part iv) . By R. W. Shufeldt. — 
Two color plates of Murre's Eggs. 

Blue Bird. VIII, No. 2. January, 1916. 

Some Experiences in the Photography of Owls. By R. W. Shufeldt. — 
Numerous illustrations. 

Cemeteries as Bird Sanctuaries. By T. G. Pearson. — Reprinted from 
' The Craftsman.' 

The Ibis. X Series. Vol. IV, No. 1. January, 1916. 

A Revision of the Genus Haplopelia. By D. A. Bannerman. — Ten 
forms are recognized, two subspecies of H. larvata, six of H. siinplex, while 
principalis and forbesi are given specific rank. The latter, it is thought, 
will prove to be the female of another race of simplex, its locality being at 
present unknown. 

Notes on some of the Birds of Grand Cayman, West Indies. By T. M. 
Savage English. — Twelve species are added to Mr. P. R. Lowe's list (Ibis, 
1911). A colored plate of Spindalis salvini, benedicti and prelrei is given. 

Notes on the Birds of the Jhelum District of the Pun] ah. By Hugh 

220 Recent Literature. [ April 

Whistler. With Notes on the Collection by C. B. Ticehurst. — 267 species 
listed, of which Riparia riparia indica (p. 70) from Jhelum, is described as 

Notes on a remarkable Honey-eater (Woodfordia superciliosa North.) 
from Rennell Island in the Western Pacific. By C. M. Woodford. — With 
colored plate. 

Studies on the Charadriiformes — III. Notes in Relation to the Syste- 
matic Position of the Sheath-bills (Chionididos). By P. R. Lowe. — This is 
an admirably prepared paper on an important subject. Dr. Lowe's 
studies lead him to the opinion that the Sheath-bill is not a connecting 
link between the Plovers and Gulls as Kidder and Coues suggested, while 
it does not seem to be very closely related osteologically to the Oyster- 
catcher as some writers have contended. He finds not a particle of evi- 
dence to support Dr. Shufeldt's statement that " the skull of Chionis minor 
is a veritable columbo-gallinaceous one." Dr. Lowe considered that the 
evidence points to the Sheathbills having been differentiated from the main 
Charadriiform stock before it had split into the Plover and Snipe branches 
and prior to the differentiation of the Skuas and Gulls. They are however, 
a very specialized, not a generalized, group. 

Incidentally Dr. Lowe emphasizes the " very literal and patent fact " 
that the Gull is only a highly specialized Plover. 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. No. CCX. Decem- 
ber 3, 1915. 

Dr. Hartert described Stachyris leucotis goodsoni (p. 7), Borneo; and 
proposed the generic name Reinarda (p. 7) for Claudia preoccupied. 

^gialitis hiaticida tundrce (p. 7) is described as new by Dr. P. R. Lowe 
from the valley of the Yenesay, E. Siberia; and Mirafra cantillans william- 
soni (p. 9) by E. C. Stuart Baker from Bangkok, Siam. 

A general discussion was held on ' The Bearing of Oology on Classi- 

Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club. No. CCXI. Decem- 
ber 20, 1915. 

E. C. Stuart Baker described as new Mirafra assamica marionce (p. 34), 
from Central Siam, and Dr. Hartert the following: Malacocincla sepiaria 
iardinata (p. 35), Gunong Tahan, E. Malay Peninsula; Pomatorhinus 
schisticeps cryptanthus (p. 35), Margherita, Upper Assam; Enjthrocichla 
bicolor ivhiteheadi (p. 36), Borneo; and Macronus ptilosus reclusus (p. 36), 
Kina Balu, Borneo. It was announced that the Birds of Paradise intro- 
duced on the island of Tobago in 1909 had bred, and five young had been 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. No. CCXII. Febru- 
ary 3, 1916. 

Charles Chubb described the following new forms from Ecuador; Asio 
galapagoensis oiquatorialis (p. 46), Pichincha; Ciccaba albitarse goodfellowi 
(p. 46), Quito; Pyriglena caslanopterua (p. 47), Braza; Grallaria nuchalis 
obsoleta (p. 47), Pichincha; Automohis brooki (p. 48), Gualea. G. M. 

^"''me^"^] ^ecm< Uterahire. 221 

Matthews described Cookilaria cookii hyroni (p. 48) from Bj-ron Bay, 
northern N. S. Wales. 

A discussion was held on ' Bird Parasites and Bird Phylogeny.' 

British Birds. IX, No. 7. December 1, 1915. 

Notes on the Grey Plover on the Yenesei. By Maud D. Haviland. 

The Moults of the British Passeres with Notes on the Sequence of their 
Plumages. Part II. By H. F. Witherby. — This installment treats of 
the Fringillidse. Part III covering the same family appears in No. 8. 

British Birds. IX, No. 8. January 1, 1916. 

Henry E. Dresser, An obituary notice by Lord Rothschild. 

Some Birds New to the British List. Notes by several contributors. 

British Birds. IX, No. 9. February 1, 1916. 

The " British Birds " Marking Scheme. By H. F. Witherby (see p. 213) . 

Notes on the Lapland Bunting on the Yenesei River. By Maud D. 

Avicultural Magazine. VII, No. 2. December, 1915. 

Some Firefinches and other Gambian Birds. By E. Hopkinson (con- 
tinued in No. 4.) 

Avicultural Magazine. VII, No. 3. January, 1916. 

The Genus Zosterops. By A. G. Butler. 

Spring in New South Wales. By G. A. Heumann. 

Cassowaries. By Dr. Graham Renshaw. — Notes on breeding and 
rearing in the London Zoo. 

Humming Birds in their Native Haunts [Argentine and Chili). By F. E. 

The American Bittern in Captivity. By I. Dorrien-Smith. 

Avicultural Magazine. VII, No. 4. February, 1916. 

The European Goldfinch. By Dr. A. G. Butler.— With illustrations 
from photographs. 

Sunbirds in theu- Native Haunts [S. Africa]. By T. E. Blaauw. 

The Emu. XV, Part 3. January, 1916. 

Pcecilodryas albigularis. By A. J. Campbell. — With colored plate. 

A Trip to the Northern end of the Flinders Ranges. By S. A. White. 

Nesting Habits of the Mistletoe Bird (Dicaeimi hirundinaceum) . By 
S. A. Lawrence and R. T. Littlejohns. 

Notes upon the Yellow-mantled Parrot {Platycercus splendidus Gould). 
By H. L. White. 

Remarks on the Proposed Second Edition of the " Official Check-List 
of the Birds of Australia." By G. M. Matthews. 

Birds of a Murray Island. By C. Barrett. 

Bird Life at Dumblej-ung. By M. W. Elliott. 

Procellariiformes in Western Australia. By W. B. Alexander. 

Notes on the Ground Cuckoo-Shrike {Pteropodocys phasianella) . By 
C. F. Cole. 

Morning Song of the Noisy Miner {Mijzantha garrula). By R. Hall. 

South Australian Ornithologist. II, Part 5. January, 1916. 

222 Recent Literature. [\^i 

Birds of the North and Northwest of Australia. By G. M. Matthews. 

A New Parrot for South AustraUa. By S. A. White. — Barnardius 
barnardi lindoi (p. 115), Moolooloo, Flinders Range. 

The Migration of Swallows in South Australia. By A. M. Morgan. 

Aquatic Birds breeding near Adelaide. By A. M. Morgan. 

A Sketch of the Life of Samuel White (cont'd) . By S. A. White. 

The Austral Avian Record. Ill, No. 2. November 19, 1915. 

On Cerlhia atricapilla Latham. By G. M. Mathews. 

On the " Table des Planches Enlum." of Boddajrt. By G. M. Mathews 
and T. Iredale.— A list of new names proposed in this work and omitted in 
Sherborn's ' Index Animaliiun.' Among these is Fringilla canadensis for 
our Tree Sparrow, which will take us back again to the nomenclature of 
Audubon and his " Canada Bunting." 

Additions and Corrections to my Reference List. By G. M. Mathews. 

Austrotis australis melvillensis (p. 51), subsp. nov. from Melville Isl., N. 

Pluvialis dominicus fulviis description of the chick and immatiu-e bird. 

Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie. VII, No. 79. November 7, 1915. 

A Contribution toward an Ornithological Study of Provence. By J. 
L'Hermitte (continued in Nos. 81 and 82). 

Observations on the Birds of Newport, Belgium, during the War 1914- 
1915. By J. de Tristan. 

The Snipe. By M. de la Fuye (continued in No. 80). 

Birds and Electricity. By P. Bede. — Discussion of the killing of l)irds 
by telegraph wires. 

Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie. VII, No. 80. December 7, 1915. 

List of Birds Observed at Lemnos in April, 1915. By Dr. M. Millet- 

Note on Accipiter major (Degl. & Gerbe). By F. Daguin. 

Biological Observations on Birds of Kerguelen Island. By J. Loranchet 
(continued in No. 81). 

Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie. VIII, No. 81. January 7, 1916. 

Notes on a Collection of Birds from New Caledonia and Lifou. By L. 
Brasil. — ■ The following are described as new: Chalcophaps chrysochlora 
disjuncta (p. 195); Haliastur sphenurus johannoe (p. 201); Pandion haliai- 
tus microhaliaetus (p. 201); Sauropatis sancta canacorum (p. 203) from 
New Caledonia; and Tyto alba lifuensis (p. 202), from Lifou. 

Hunting and the Protection of Birds in French East Africa. By A. 

Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie. VIII, No. 82. February 7, 1916. 

Notes on a Collection of Birds from New Caledonia and Lifou (continued) . 
By L. Brasil. 

Note on the Ornithology of Marocca. By A. Vaucher. 

Messager Ornithologique. VI, No. 4. 

A Journey to the Southeastern and Southern Parts of the Russian Altai 
and to Northwestern Mongolia. Main Ornithological Results. By P. 


^"'"me^"'] Recent Literature. 223 

On the Ornithology of the Commander Islands. By B. M. Shitkov and 
S. G. Schtecher. 

Sitta europcea iaivana nom. emend. By S. A. Buturlin (p. 311). — New 
name for S. Jonnosana (nee S. formosa Blyth). 

Carduelis carduelis colchicus subsp. nov. By Alex. Koudashev (p. 313). 

Muscicapa atricapilla sibirica subsp. nov. By V. A. Chachlov. 

Birds collected by A. P. Velezhanin in the Basin of the Upper Irtysh. 
By G. I. Poljakow (continued). 

Ornithologische Monatschrift. XXXIX, No. 9. September, 1914. 

New Facts on the Method of Propagation in Cuckoos. By K. Wenzel. 

Ornithologische Monatschrift. XL, No. 1. January, 1915. 

Contains reports on the several German bird reservations. 

Ornithological Articles in Other Journals.^ 

Piers, Harry. The Occurrence of European Birds in Nova Scotia. 
(Proc. and Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Sci., XIII, Pt. 3, 1912-13, printed 
April 3, 1915.) 

Williams, M. Y. Notes on the Herring Gull. (Ottawa Natm-alist, 
November, 1915.) 

Bintoul, L. J., and Baxter, E. V. Some Notes on Birds Moulting in 
their Winter Quarters. (Scottish Naturalist, January, 1916.) 

Ticehurst, C. B. Notes on Migrants and Moult, with Special Refer- 
ence to the Moults of Some of our Summer Visitors. (Scottish Naturalist, 
February, 1916.) 

Butterfield, E. P. Observations on the Behavior of a Nesthng Cuckoo. 
(Zoologist, January, 1916.) 

B[ragg], L. M. Royal Terns on Devoe's Bank [S. C.]. (Bull. Charles- 
ton Mus., December, 1915.) 

Lucas, F. A. The Beginnings of Flight. (Amer. Mus. Journal, 
January, 1916.) 

Thomas, Rose H. White-collar Mendelising in Hybrid Pheasants. 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1915, pp. 279-284). 

Mitchell. P. Chalmers. Anatomical Notes on the Gruiform Birds. 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1915, pp. 413-423.) 

Miller, L. H. The Owl Remains from Rancho la Brea. (Univ. of Cal. 
Publ., Geol. IX, No. 8, pp. 97-104.) 

Hankinson, T. L. The Vertebrate Life of certain Prairie and Forest 
Regions near Charleston, Illinois. (Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., XI, 
pp. 281-303.) 

' Some of these journals are received in exchange, others are examined in the library 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The Editor is under obligations to 
Mr. J. A. G. Rehn for a list of ornithological articles contained in the accessions to the 
hbrary from week to week. 

2i2iA: Recent Literature. [April 

Dennis, D. W. Why do our Birds Migrate. (Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 
1914, pp. 145-148.) The author considers that birds building protected 
nests or wliich are able to protect them do not migrate, and that the others 
migrate in search of safety in nesting! Some of his hsted migrants are 
however resident over a large part of their range. 

Culbertson, Glenn. A Note on a Pecuhar Nesting Site of the Chimney 
Swift. (Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 1914, p. 279.) — In an old dry well. 

Beebe, C. William. A Tetrapteryx Stage in the Ancestry of Birds. 
(Zoologica II, No. 2, pp. 39-52.) — Finds well developed quills on leg of 
young dove just behind the femur, considered to be remains of ' posterior 

Lashley, K. S. The Color- Vision of Birds. I. The Spectrum of the 
Domestic Fowl. (Jom-. Anim. Behavior, VI, No. 1, pp. 1-26.) Finds 
that the fowl is sensitive to difference of wave length in light, irrespective 
of intensity. 

Levick, G. M. Natural History of the Adelie Penguin. (Brit. Ant- 
arctic Exped., 1910, Zool. 1, No. 2, pp. 55-84.) — The same material, in a 
general way, as is embodied in his recent book upon the penguins. 

Moulton, J. C. An Account of the Various Expeditions to Mt. Kina- 
balu, British North Borneo. (Sarawak Mus. Jour. II, pt. II, No. 6, pp. 
137-176.) — Contains list of ornithological papers. 

Lewis, Frederick. List of Birds Observed in the Vedda Country during 
July, 1914. (Spolia Zeylanica X, pp. 158-165.) — 129 species of Ceylon 

Coward, T. A. A Note on the Behavior of a Blackbird. — A Problem 
in Mental Development. (Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Philos. 
Soc, 1914, pp. 1-8.) — The bird returned again and again to combat its 
own image in a window. It seemed to remember the spot where its antag- 
onist was to be found but did not profit by the experience of continual 
failure to reach it. 

Alvarado, Rodolfo. Los Cohbries Mexicanos. (Bolet. Dirrec. Estad. 
Biolog. Mex. I, No. 2, pp. 45-95.) — A compiled resume with descriptions 
from specimens. 

Publications Received. — Chapin, James P. P'our New Birds from 
the Belgian Congo. (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXV, Art. Ill, 
pp. 23-29, February 21, 1916.) 

Chapman, Frank M. Diagnoses of Apparently New Colombian Birds. 
IV. (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIV, Art. XXIII, pp. 635-662, 
December 30, 1915.) 

Coale, Hem-y K. Birds of Lake County [Illinois.] [History of Lake 
County, 1912.] (Chapter XIV, pp. 353-370.) 

Didier, Dr. Robert. La Macareux da Kamtschatka. Supplement au 
No. 82 de la ' Revue Francaise d'Ornith.,' 1916, pp. 1-16. 

Grinnell, Joseph. Method of Caring for Study Skins of Birds. (Proc. 
Amer. Asso. Museums, Vol. IX, 1915, pp. 106-111.) 

^"'"me^"^] ^«ce«^ Literature 225 

Henshaw, H. W. Report of Chief of Bureau of Biological Survey. 
(Ann. Repts. U. S. Dept. of Agr., 1915, pp. 1-15.) 

Kellogg, Louise. Report upon Mammals and Birds found in Portions 
of Trinity, Siskiyou and Shasta Counties, California. An Analj'sis of the 
Vertebrate Fauna of the Trinity Region of Northern California. By 
Joseph Grinnell. (Univ. of Cal. Publ. in Zool., Vol. 12, Nos. 13 and 14, 
pp. 335-410, January 27, 1916.) 

Lincoln, F. C. The Birds of Yuma County, Colorado. (Proc. Colo. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. [No Vol. or No.!] pp. 1-14, December 6, 1915.) 

McGregor, R. C. (1) Birds in their Economic Relation to Man. (Bull, 
of Bureau of Science, Govt, of Philipp., No. 32, revised, pp. 1-14, Decem- 
ber 29, 1915.) (2) Description of a New Species of Prionochilus from the 
Highlands of Luzon. (Philipp. Jour, of Sci., IX, No. 6, Sect. D., p. 531, 
pi. I, November, 1914.) 

Murphy, R. C. Notes on American Subantarctic Cormorants. (Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXV, Art. IV, pp. 31-48, February 21, 1916.) 

Oberholser, H. C. A Synopsis of the Races of the Crested Tern, 
Thalasseus bergii (Lichtenstein). (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 49, pp. 515-526, 
December 23, 1915.) 

Riley, J. H. Description of a New Hazel Grouse from Manchuria. 
(Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXIX, pp. 17-18, January 25, 1916.) 

Roberts, Thomas S. The Winter Bird-Life of Minnesota. Being an 
Annotated List of Birds that have been found within the State of Minne- 
sota during the winter Months. (Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Minn., 
Zool. Div., Occasional Papers, No. 1, pp. 1-20, February, 1916.) 

Shufeldt, R. W. (1) The Gardens of the Zoological Society of Phila- 
delphia. (Sci. Amer. Suppl., January 1, 1916, pp. 8-9.) (2) Nature- 
Study and the Common Forms of Animal Life. (Nature-Study Review, 
12, No. 2, February, 1916, pp. 57-63.) (3) The Photographic Portraiture 
of Pets. (Popular Photogi-aphy, February, 1916, pp. 217-223.) (4) Owls, 
as Regarded by the Scientist, Agriculturist, and the Sportsman. (Wilson 
Bull., No. 92, September, 1915, pp. 393-403.) (5) On a Restoration of the 
Base of the Cranium of Hesperornis regalis. (Bull of Amer. Paleontology, 
No. 25, pp. 75-82, December 15, 1915.) (6) Incidents in Animal Intelli- 
gence. (Our Dumb Animals, January, 1916, pp. 123-124.) (7) Shall we 
Save the Quail from Extermination? {do. March, 1916, pp. 147-148.) 

Stanwood, Cordelia J. (1) The Red-breasted Nuthatch. (Home 
Progress. January, 1916, pp. 213-215.) (2) The Chronicle of a Tame 
OUve-backed Thrush. (Wilson Bull., No. 93, December, 1915, unpaged.) 
(3) A Skillful Architect. (The House Beautiful, February, 1916, pp. 

Strong, J. F. A. Report of the Governor of Alaska on the Ala.ska Game 
Law, 1915. Washington, D. C, 1916, pp. 1-18. 

Taylor, W. P. The Museum of Natural History and the Conservation 
of Game. (Proc. Amer. Assoc, of Museums, Vol. IX, 1915, pp. 96-103.) 

Van Oort, E. D. (1) Een voor de Nederlandsche fauna nieuwe storm- 


226 Recent Ldterature. [April 

vogelsoort Puffinus gravis O'Reilly. (Ardea, 1915, p. 130.) (2) Resulta- 
ten van het ringonderzoek van het Rijks Museum te Leiden, (do. pp. 
119-126.) (3) On a New Bird of Paradise from Central New Guinea, 
FalcineUus meyeri albicans. (Zoolog. Menedeelingen, Diel I, Afl. 3 en 4, 
p. 228.) • 

Washburn, F. L. Further Observations on Minnesota Birds: Their 
Economic Relations to the Agriculturist. (Circular 35, Office of State 
Entomologist, January 15, 1916, pp. 1-24.) 

Wetmore, Alex. An Anatomical Note on the Genus Chordeiles 
Swainson. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVIII, pp. 175-176, November 
29, 1915.) 

Witherby, H. F. The " British Birds " Marking Scheme. (Brit. 
Birds, IX, No. 9, February 1, 1916, pp. 222-229.) 

Abstract Proc. Linnaean Soc. N. Y., Nos. 26-27, 1913-1915, November 
23, 1915. 

Abstract Proc. Zool. Soc. London, No. 150, November 23, 1915. 

American Museum Journal, The, XV, No. 8, XVI, No. 1, December, 
1915 and January, 1916. 

Austral Avian Record, The, III, No. 2, November 19, 1915. 

Avicultural Magazine, (3) VII, Nos. 2, 3 and 4, December, 1915 to 
February, 1916. 

Bird-Lore, XVIII, No. 1, January-February, 1916. 

Blue-Bird, VIII, Nos. 1 and 2, December, 1915 and January, 1916. 

British Birds, IX, Nos. 8 and 9, January and February, 1916. 

Bulletin British Ornith. Club, Nos. CCX, CCXI, and CCXII, December 
3 and 29, 1915, and February 3, 1916. 

Bulletin of the Charleston Museum, XI, No. 8, December, 1915, and 
XII, Nos. 1 and 2, January and February, 1916. 

Condor, The, XVIII, No. 1, January-February, 1916. 

Emu, The, XV, Part 3, January, 1916. 

Fins, Feathers and Fur, Bull. Minn. Game and Fish Com., No. 4, 
December, 1915. 

Forest and Stream, LXXXVI, Nos. 1 to 3, January to March, 1916. 

Ibis, The (10) IV, No. 1, January, 1916; and Jubilee Supplement, No. 2, 
December, 1915, Report on the Birds collected by the British Ornitholo- 
gists' Union Expedition and the WoUaston Expedition in Dutch New 
Guinea. By W. R. Ogilvie Grant, pp i-xx + 1-329, pi. 1-8, maps, A-B. 

Messager Ornithologique, VI, No. 4. 

New Jersey Audubon Bulletin, No. 12, March 1, 1916, and Fifth Annual 
Report N. J. Audubon Society, October 5, 1915. 

Oologist, The, XXXII, No. 12, December, 1915, XXXIII, Nos. 1 and 2, 
January and February, 1916. 

Ornithologische Monatschrift, 39, Nos. 8 to 11, 40, No. 1, August to 
November, 1915, and January, 1916. 

Ottawa Naturalist, The, XXIX, Nos. 8 to 10, November, 1915 to 
January, 1916. 

^"'i^ie^"^] C<yrresv<mdence. 227 

Philippine Journal of Science, X, No. 4, July, 1915. 

Proceedings and Transactions Nova Scotia Inst, of Sci., XIII, Parts 
3 and 4, XIV, Part 1. 

Proceedings Academy of Natural Science of PhUa. 

Records of the Australian Museum, X, No. 11, November 5, 1915. 
Annual Report for 1915. 

Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie, VII, Nos. 79, 80, 81, 82, November, 
1915 to February, 1916. 

Science, N. S., XLII, Nos. 1095-1096, XLIII, 1097-1107. 

Scottish Naturalist, The, Nos. 48, 49 and 50, December, 1915 to Febru- 
ary, 1916. 

South Australian Ornithologist, The, II, Part 5, January, 1916. 

Wilson Bulletin, The, XXVII, No. 4, December, 1915. 

Zoologist, The, XIX, No. 228, December, 1915, XX, Nos. 229 and 230, 
January and February, 1916. 


Membership in the A. O. U. 

Editor of 'The Auk,' 
Dear Sir: — 
As I fail to find in the corrected copy of the A. O. U. by-laws, sent me by 
Mr. Sage, any changes whereby the working ornithologists in the Associate 
Class are benefited, I have this day sent in my resignation as an ' Associate ' 
in the A. O. U. This step also was necessary, by the refusal by 'The Auk,' 
of further articles dealing with "proposed changes," previous to the last 
A. O. U. meeting in San Francisco. In my open letter on the subject, 
I asked for a free discussion in 'The Auk.' This^was denied me, as well 
as others who cared to take part in it. It is evident, that the Fellows, who 
like I, desired a changed by-laws, to meet changed conditions, were absent, 
or were over ruled at the last meeting. By leaving the A. O. U. I am not 
giving up any work so dear to me, and my friends will still find my collec- 
tion of birds, mammals and eggs, as well as my home, open at all time to 

Very truly yours, 

Harold H. Bailey. 

Newport News, Va. Sunday, the 19th of December, 1915. 

[As Mr. Bailey's statement regarding his discussion in 'The Auk' may 
be misleading, the editor desires to state that the only commvmication 

228 Correspondence. LAprii 

whicli was refused publication was one from Mr. Bailey discussing the 
fitness of certain gentlemen for the various classes of membership. As 
Mr. Bailey declined to omit this personal matter his letter was retvirned.l 

Graphic Representation of Bird Song. 

[At Mr. Moore's special request 'The Auk' publishes his letter, below. 
With his permission a copy was sent to Mr. Saunders whose rejoinder 
follows. These contributions will close this discussion.^ — Ed.] 

Editor of 'The Auk,' 
Dear Sir: — 

In the January issue of 'The Auk' Mr. Saunders complains that "many 
of the faults" I found with his system "are the result of misunderstanding." 
If I misunderstood him, I regret it. My purpose was' to point out kindly 
to one who is just beginning to record bird-songs scientifically, the limita- 
tions of his methods, so plain to those w ho have devoted years to the same 
study. I assumed that when he elected to employ technical terms, he 
would wish to use them with the "scientific" precision musicians employ. 
Now that he admits attaching to them the various and often contradictory 
meanings found in large family dictionaries, the reason for our misunder- 
standing is apparent. I am no longer astounded by his careless use of 
such technical terms as, "duration," "time" and "rhythm," and his most 
serious confusion of the "trill" with the "repeated note." When he has 
"recorded enough songs" even of the few species he has worked on, he 
will have to revise his wild assumption that the "shake must be rare in 
bird music." The shake or trill is not rare! Indeed, it is employed by the 
very birds whose songs he records! It is not uncommon in songs of Field 
Sparrow, Song Sparrow and Purple Finch, and in a form of wide range is 
characteristic of the Vesper Sparrow.^ If Mr. Saunders really cares to be 
as "scientific" as musicians, he will find this factor decidedly "worth 
bothering" his "head about!" 

Mr. Saunders casts many aspersions at the methods of musicians. 
Among others, he charges them with artificially changing bird songs "in 
both pitch and time to fit the method." It is possible he did this when he 
used the musical method, but I know of none who have. Our field methods 
are just as scientifically accurate as his, for some of us discovered the stop- 
watch long ago and use both it and the more valuable metronome. Person- 
ally I do not "decide on some key the bird is supposed to sing!" I do not 
record the key in the field at all and if none exists, leave the song as it is. 
As to pitgh, I record every note that is off the pitch with its approximate 
variation, which is all that Mr. Saunders does. As to tirne I use for a unit 

I See Schuyler Matthews' " Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music, pp. 106-122- 

Voi.xxxiiij Correspondence. 22& 

the 1/64 note, which is often a smaller unit than Mr. Saunder's 1/10, 
It is just exactly as accurate to measure a song by 1/64 notes as by 1/lOs, 
even if the song is not rhythmical. If it is rhythmical (which is true of 
95 songs out of 100) the use of the musical unit permits a clear indication 
of the rhythm, which is vitally important! Mr. Saunder's records do not 
indicate the rhythm clearly, for in six of his songs, whose authors invariably 
sing rhythmically, the rhythm is absolutely obscured by his failure to mark 
the accented notes. In his Robin's record it is possible to show it existed, 
only because the pauses happen to be all of the same length and come at 
regular intervals. 

I agree with Mr. Saunders it is "absolutely ludicrous" to play bird-songs 
on the piano and expect them to sound like the bird. I regret that the old 
system is so "intricate" and "unintelligible" to him, but hundreds of 
thousands of people do understand it and thousands of children from six to 
fourteen years of age readily grasp it. The vital difference between the 
two systems is this: The new method is most efficient for exploitation of 
such obvious things as the "duration of the songs"; the old system is most 
efficient for recording the really important factors, — the harmonical rela- 
tions of the song and its rhythmical beat, which latter for most songs is 
the "specific character." 

Robert Thomas Moore. 
Haddonfield, N. J. 

Editor of 'The Auk,' 
Dear Sir: — 

Replying to Mr. Moore's latest remarks concerning methods of recording 
bird songs, it might not be irrelevant to the subject to say that musicians 
are as a rule artists and not scientists. The science necessary for the 
student of bird songs consists almost entirely of the physics of sound, not 
the use of technical musical terms. The student of bird songs is working 
primarily for the ornithologist, not the musician. So why use an obscure, 
musical definition of a trill or cast slurs at the "large family dictionary" 
when the small pocket dictionary is, as far as my examination of it goes, 
equally to blame? 

It would throw much light on the subject, and remove some serious 
objections to the old method, if Mr. Moore would explain how he is able to 
record certain bird songs on the musical scale without artificially changing 
them to fit the method. How, for instance would he write a note pitched 
half way between A and A flat? How can he record in 1/64 notes and 
multiples of it, notes whose relative durations are incommensurable? 

The old system is not unintelligible to me. I began its study myself 
when somewhere between six and fourteen years of age, and have consider- 
able use for it at the present time. But I still believe that it is too intricate 
and mechanical to be of the highest utihty in recording bird songs. That 
my original records did not show accent, which is simply a variation in 

230 Azotes and News. [j^^fi 

intensity of notes, does not weaken the graphic system in any way, for I 
have mentioned more than once how variations in intensity may be repre- 
sented by this method, and have recorded this factor in the field in many of 
my more recent records. 

"The proof of the pudding is in the eating." If either method proves to 
be unworthy in the Hght of the other, it will sooner or later be discarded, 
regardless of either Mr. Moore's or my opinions on the subject at the 
present time. I only ask that the future student of bird songs give both 
methods a fair and unprejudiced trial in the field, and then use that method 
which ho truly finds to be most accurate, comprehensive, scientific and 

Aretas a. Saunders. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Mar. 9, 191fi. 


The American Ornithologists' Union has sustained one of the greatest 
losses in its history in the death of Daniel Giraud Elliot on December 22, 
1915. Dr. ElUot was one of the founders of the Union and its second presi- 
dent while his deep interest in the society and its welfare was maintained 
until the time of his death. His name and his scientific publications are 
familiar wherever ornithology and mammalogy are studied, but those who 
were privileged to know him personally will appreciate far more the loss 
that we have sustained. Possessed of a striking personaUty, dignity and 
kindliness of manner Dr. Elliot left a lasting impression upon all with whom 
he came in contact, and inspired with love and respect those with whom he 
was familiarly associated. 

In accordance with custom the president of the Union has appointed 
one of the Fellows to prepare a biographical notice to be read at the Meeting 
in November and published in the January number of 'The Auk.' Dr. 
J'rank M. Chapman has been his choice and has accepted the appointment. 
It will therefore be only necessary in this connection to mention brieflj' 
some of the principal events in Dr. Elliot's life. 

Daniel Giraud Elliot was born in New York City, March 7, 1835. In 
early life he travelled for some years in southern Europe, the West Indies 
and Brazil. Returning to New York he pursued the study of ornithology 
which seems to have always been his chief interest. Much of his time was 
spent at the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, which was then. 

^°''l™"'] Notes and News. 231 

through the influence of John Cassin, Dr. T. B. Wilson and others the 
center of ornithological activity in America. 

In 1864 4ie began the publication of his 'Monograph of the Teti'aonida;,' 
the first of a series of sumptuous folio works with hand colored plates. 
There followed monographs of the Pittida^ and Phasianidaj and a volume 
on new or unfigured North American Birds. 

In 1869 Dr. Elliot went to England and remained abroad almost continu- 
ously until 1883. In these years he became closely associated with the 
British ornithologists and this period of his life is pictured in his biography 
of Dr. Sclater (Auk, 1914, pp. 1-12). His publications during this period 
comprise monographs of the Paradiseids, Bucerotidse, and the Felidaj, the 
last marking the beginning of his study of the mammals. Numerous other 
papers were published in 'The Ibis' and the 'Proceedings' of the Zoological 
Society of London,' etc., and on his return to America, he contributed a 
number of chapters to the 'Standard Natural History.' 

Dr. Elliot was the scientific advisor of the trustees during the early days 
of the American Museum of Natural History and was instrumental in 
securing for them many of the first collections obtained by this institution, 
while his own collections and library passed into its possession through 
gift and purchase. 

In 1894, Dr. Elliot accepted the curatorship of zoology in the Field 
Museum, at Chicago, and at once began the accumulation of a vast collec- 
tion of mammals while a series of comprehensive volumes from his pen 
on the mammals of North and Middle America were published in rapid 
succession. While at the Field Museum Dr. Elliot made a notable expe- 
dition to Somaliland, Africa, and later to the Olympic Mountains of 
Washington, securing valuable collections. 

Returning to New York in 1906 he established himself at the American 
Museum and began his 'Review of the Primates' an undertaking upon 
which he was engaged for six years and which necessitated his visiting 
all of the principal museums of America, Europe and Asia. 

Dr. Elliot was an artist of ability and the plates of his earlier monographs 
were from his own paintings. In addition to his numerous scientific 
publications he prepared, in 1895-1898, three volumes of a more popular 
type on the game birds of North America which were well received by 
sportsmen and others interested in these groups. 

Dr. Elliot was a member of a number of scientific Societies, both at home 
and abroad. In 1906 Columbia University conferred upon him the degree 
of Sc. D. and 1915 he was made a trustee of the American Museum in which 
institution much of his interest had been centered. During his long life 
he was the recipient of many other honors in recognition of his splendid 
publications and his distinguished contributions to the advancement of 
systematic zoology. 

232 Notes and News. LApril 

Henry Eeles Dresser ' an Honorary Fellow of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, died at Cannes, France, on Noveniber 28, 1915, where he 
had gone in the hope of recovering his health. Mr. Dresser's* name has 
been closely associated with bird study in England for over half a century 
and he was one of the last of a generation of systematic ornithologists to 
whom the science is largely indebted for its present advanced position. 

Mr. Dresser was for years a member of the Linniean Society and the 
Zoological Society of London and joined the British Ornithologists' Union 
in 1865, serving as secretary from 1882 to 1888. His most notable work 
was the monumental ' Birds of Europe ' in nine quarto volumes with colored 
plates, with which his name will ever be associated. This appeared from 
1871 to 1881 with a supplementary volume in 1895-6. He later published 
an octavo 'Manual of Pahearctic Birds,' which was an invaluable reference 
volume to many who were unable to obtain the larger and far more expen- 
sive work. Mr. Dresser *was also the author of an illustrated work on 
the eggs of European birds and monographs of the Rollers and Bee-eaters, 
besides many shorter articles. 

He accumulated a large collection of birds and eggs and an extensive 
library, all of which have come into the possession of the Manchester 

In spite of the extent of Mr. Dresser's ornithological activities and the 
magnitude of his achievements, his time was not devoted exclusively to 
his favorite study. For many years ornithological investigations were 
incidental to a busy business career, though for many years before its pub- 
lication was begun he had definitely planned his 'Birds of Europe' so that 
his observations were made with that object in view. 

He was born in London, May 9, 1838, and was educated in England, 
Germany and Sweden. In 1856 he entered the office of a lumber firm in 
Finland, this being his father's business, and for eight years was engaged 
in lumber industry in various parts of Europe and in New Brunswick. 
In 1863 he took a cargo to Texas consigned to the Confederate government 
and during some months' residence near San Antonio was intimately associ- 
ated in ornithological investigation with Dr. A. L. Heermann then residing 
there. From 1864 to 1871 he was engaged in the iron trade in London 
travelling extensively meanwhile in many parts of northern Europe, 
Turkey and the Balkan States. His wide experiences and his familiarity 
with a number of languages gave him a fund of knowledge which was always 
placed cheerfully at the service of his friends and correspondents and several 
of his translations have made available to English speaking ornithologists 
important papers in Russian, Swedish, etc. 

Mr. Dresser was noted for his cheerfulness and sweetness of temper, 
qualities which even those who knew him as did the writer, only as a corre- 
spondent, can readily appreciate. — W. S. 

1 For most of the facts contaiued in this notice, acknowledgment is made to an obituary 
by Mr. J. E. Harting in 'The Field' for Dec. 11, 1915. 

^"^■ms^"*] ^otes and News. 233 

William Charlesworth Le\tey, son of William Marshall and Aune 
Maud Charlesworth Levey, an Associate of the American Ornithologists' 
Union, was born in Indianapohs, Indiana, November 13, 1887, and died 
July 5, 1914, at his summer home on the east shore of Alton Bay, Lake 
Winnepesaukee, New Hampshire. He was deeply interested in bird pro- 
tection and conservation, and was a skilled photographer, some of his 
pictures appearing in Forbush's 'Game Birds, W^ild Fowl and Shore Birds.' 
His annotated lists of the birds of South Carolina, and of Alton Bay, New 
Hampshire, were published in Maynard's 'Records of Walks and Talks 
with Nature.' — J. H. S. 

Leslie Waldo Lake, an Associate of the American Ornithologists' 
Union, died February 7, 1916. He was born April 25, 1849, in Hamburg 
township, Erie Co., N. Y. He was principal of several schools, and from 
1888 to 1891 was district School Commissioner. In the latter year he en- 
gaged in business in Hamburg, where he always took a prominent part in 
public affairs. Mr. Lake was one of the oldest and best known amateur 
ornithologists in this section and was also much interested in botany and 
archaeology. — T. L. B 

Since systematic ornithology is not much over a century and a half old we 
have only recently begun to consider what was going on one hundred years 
ago. This sort of retrospect is well worth while as it brings more clearly 
to our attention the relative position of various important works whiich we 
are accustomed to quote independently, without much regard to their 
relationship to other pubhcations. A series of notes gathered by Dr. 
Charles W. Richmond in his researches amongst the ornithological litera- 
ture of the past, and kindly placed at the disposal of 'The Auk, ' throw some 
interesting light on the progress of ornithology in 1816 — a really notable 
year in the history of our science. 

The work which stands out as the great work of the year is of course 
Vieillot's ' Analyse,' an unpretentious brochure of 128 pages in which a 
classification of birds is set forth including some 138 new genera. It is 
announced as among the new books for the week of April 20, 1816 (Bibl. 
de la France of that date) though curiously enough Vieillot maintained 
that it was published in December (Ferussac's Bull, xv, Sept. 1828, p. 143). 

Several authors tried to discredit Vieillot's important work by claiming 
that he had had access to the Paris Museum's galleries and had adopted 
various manuscript names which Cuvier had placed on the specimens 
and which were about to be published in his 'Regne Animal,' which ap- 
peared in December, 1916. (cf. Mathews Nov. Zool. XVIII, p. 18). A 
'critique' on the ' Analyse ' was published by Temminck in Amsterdam in 
1817. As a matter of fact Vieillot had the 'Analyse' in mind and at least 
partly prepared long before 1816 {cf. his Ois. Chant, p. 74). In 1813 he 
submitted the manuscript to the Turin Academy and in 1814 to the Lin- 
QSBan Society of London neither of which accepted it. (Analyse, p. 20, 

234 Notes and News. [a^"^ 

notej. In London Stephens had access to it and adopted several of Vieil- 
lot's names pubHshing them in his continuation of Shaw's 'General Zool- 
ogy' (Vol. IX, pts. 1 & 2) which probably appeared in the first half of 1816, 
as it is noticed in the ' British Review ' for August, 1816, as one of the new 
books from the period April 10 to July 10, of that year. This presents a 
nice question of priority but it would appear as if VieiUot deserved the 
benefit of the doubt ! 

Vieillot's ability as a systematic ornithologist seems not to have been 
appreciated by his contemporaries and he was apparently treated very 
unfairly. Correspondence between ornithologists of his time would no 
doubt reveal some very interesting side lights upon this matter! 

Vieillot's Analyse was the expression of a more or less widespread desire 
for more generic groups than were provided in the systems of Linnseus and 
Brisson. Additional genera had of course been proposed since their time 
but they were scattered here and there and most of them were for new 
species rather than for segregates of the old genera. 

Bonnaterre in his volume of the 'Encyclopedic Methodique' (1790); 
Lac6pede in his 'Tableau' (1799) and Daudin in his 'Traite E16mentaire' 
(1800) made attempts in this direction, but the first and last of these works 
were never completed while the second was never followed by a fuller treat- 
ment such as -the author evidently intended; so that the field lay open for 
VieiUot and he took advantage of it, though the conservatives evidently 
did what they could to discourage him, and not until years after his death 
was his work appreciated at its full value. Curiously enough the eccentric 
Rafinesque came near depriving him of his glory as he likewise produced 
an 'Analyse' in 1815 in which a number of substitute names are suggested 
for existing genera and 138 new names are proposed! These latter however, 
are unaccompanied by diagnoses or specific examples so that they fall as 
nomina nuda and it is impossible to tell for what birds they were intended. 

Another publication of 1816 is a curious 'Systematic Catalogue of In- 
digenous Mammals and Birds in the British Museum' by W. E. Leach 
printed on one side of the leaves in the form of labels. The several new 
names that occur here have been pretty generally rejected today as nomina 
nuda but the book is in any case an interesting curiosity and a great rarity. 
Both it and Vieillot's ' Analyse ' were reprinted by the Willoughby Society. 
The introduction to the Leach reprint, by the way, fails to mention among 
the known copies of the original one in the library of the Philadelphia 

On January 22, Mr. C. William Beebe of the New York Zoological Society 
sailed for Demarara to establish a tropical zoological station for the study 
of the evolution of birds and the life histories of important South American 
species. Incidentally large numbers of living vertebrates will be secured 
and shipped to New York for exhibition in the Zoological Park. Mr. 
Beebe is accompanied by Messrs. G. Inness Hartley, Paul G. Howes and 
Donald Carter. 

1916 J Notes and News. 235 

At the Annual Meeting of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club held 
at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, January 6, 1916, 
Henry W. Fowler was elected president for the ensuing year; George H. 
Stuart 3rd, Vice President; J. Fletcher Street, Secretary and Dr. Samuel C. 
Palmer, Treasurer. Communications were made during the past year by 
Dr. Wm. E. Hughes, on 'Bird-life in Italy'; Samuel N. Rhoads, 'A Trip 
to Guatemala'; David E. Harrower, 'Birds Observed in Costa Rica'; Dr. 
Witmer Stone, ' Our Western Birds and their Haunts ' and J. Fletcher Street, 
'Rare Birds of the Pocono Mt.' 

Mr. W. Leon Dawson of Santa Barbara, Cal., has made over his valuable 
collection of birds' eggs and nest's to a board of trustees who are incorporat- 
ing an institution to be known as the Museum of Comparative Oology, in 
which it is hoped to accumulate a representative collection of the nests and 
eggs ot the birds of the world. Mr. Dawson is to have responsible control 
of the collection during his life in order to insure its proper care during the 
early years of the enterprise. At the expiration of three years during 
which he will be engaged in field work in connection with the forthcoming 
'Birds of California,' a campaign will be inaugurated for an endowment and 
a group of buildings suitable for housing the collection. A number of 
prominent oologists and ornithologists have been invited to form a Board 
of Visitors to cooperate with the museum management. 

' Blue-Bikd,' formerly edited by Dr. Eugene Swope, has now passed into 
the hands of Elizabeth C. T. Miller of Cleveland, Ohio, who as owner and 
editor is conducting it as a monthly. Volume VIII began with the Decem- 
ber number and presents a very creditable appearance. 

The next stated meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union will be 
held at the Academy of Natural Sciences, at Philadelphia, November 14-16, 
with a business session on the 13th. It has been the general consensus 
of opinion that a return to the former time of meeting, the second Tuesday 
of November is desirable as it is convenient to the largest number of 
members. In accordance with the recent amendments to the By-Laws, 
proposed for the purpose of broadening the organization of the Union, the 
class of Members will this year, for the first time, take part in the business 
sessions and participate in the election of Members, Associates and Officers. 
This innovation will doubtless bring together a much larger number of 
Members and Fellows than usual. Furthermore owing to the fact that 
last year's meeting was held in San Francisco, where most of the eastern 
member?; were unable to attend, there will be an unusually full attendance 
of all classes from the east at the Philadelphia meeting, while not a few 
from 'the coast' stimulated by last year's meeting have signified their 
intention of being present. All in all this meeting promises to be one of 
the largest that the Union has held and it is none too soon for members to 


236 Notes and News. [April 

make their plans for attending. We earnestly urge those who have not 
before attended to do so this year as the social intercourse made possible 
by these gatherings is of inestimable benefit both to the individual and the 
society, in promoting ornithological interest. 




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The Auk 

B Cauarterl^ Sournal of ©rnttboloo^ 


JULY, 1916 

No. 3 


The American Ornithologists' Union 


Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 



Field Notes on Some Long Island Shore Birds. By John Treadwell Nichols 

and Francis Harper. (Plates VII-XIII.) 237 

Bird-watching and Biological Science. By Julian S. Huxley, B.A. . . 256 

Anatid.e op South Georgia. By Robert Cushman Murphy. (Plate XIV.) . 270 

The Classification of the Scoters. By W. DeW. Miller .... 278 

The Breeding of the Prairie Horned Lark at Hatley, Stanstead County, 

Quebec. By H. Mousley . . . . . . ' . . . . 281 

Notes on the Eider. By Johan Beetz. Translated from the French and Anno- 
tated by Charles W. Townsend, M.D. (Plate XV.) 286 

Notes on the Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Gunnison County, Colo- 
rado. By Edward R. Warren. (Plates XVI-XVIII.) . . ... 292 

General Notes. — Recent Occurrence of Iceland Gulls near New York, 318; The 
Arctic Tern in Central New York, 319; American Merganser wintering at Boston, 
Mass., 319; Tlie European Widgeon in Central New York, 320; Liinicolis at Porto 
Rico in July, 320; Krider's Hawk (Buteo horealis krideri) in Alaska. 321; The Type 
Locality of Colaptes cafer. 322; The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher in New Mexico. 324; 
Evening Grosbeak at Williamsport, Pa., 325; Evening Grosbeak at Rochester, N. Y., 
325; Evening Grosbeak at Lowville, N. Y., 325; The Calaveras Warbler in Colorado, 
325; The Catbird in Winter in Massachusetts, 325; Breeding of tlie Golden-crowned 
Kinglet in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, 326; A Record of Towusend's Solitaire 
(Myadestes townsendi), 327; Regular Breeding of Alice's Thrush in Arctic East 
Siberia, 327; Some Unusual Records for Massachusetts, 328; Bird Notes from the 
Chicago Area, 328; Notes from Leon Co., Florida, 329. 

Recent Literature. — Ridgway's ' The Birds of North and Middle America,' Part VII, 
331; Todd's 'Birds of the Isle of Pines,' 332; Wetmore's 'Birds of Porto Rico,' 333; 
Hersey's 'List of Birds Observed in Alaska and Siberia,' 335; Brooks' Notes on 
Birds from East Siberia and Arctic Alaska,' 335; 'The Birds of Austraha,' 336; 
Cassinia, 1915, 336; Bangs on New American Birds, 336; Swarth on the Pacific 
Coast Races of Bewick's Wren, 337; Murphy and Harper on New Diving Petrels, 
337; Chapin on the Pennant- winged Niglitjar, 337; Bangs pn Birds from the Cay- 
man Islands, 338; Cherrie on New South Anierican Birds, 338; Todd on New 
Neotropical Birds, 339; Forbush on The Domestic Cat, 339; The Official List of 
Generic Names, 339; Aves of the Zoological Record 1914, 340; Recent Papers by 
Hartert, 340; White on the Birds of Interior South Austraha, 341; Life of Teget- 
meier, 340; Recent Publications on Bird and Game Protection, 341; The Dis- 
semination of Virginia Creeper Seeds by English Sparrows, 342; The Ornithological 
• Journals, 342; Ornithological Articles in Other Journals, 347; Publications Received, 

Correspondence. — The Significance of the Osteological Characters of the Chionides, 

Notes and News. — Obituary: Wells W. Cooke, 354; Sven Magnus Gronberger, 355; 
J. Parker Norris, 355; American Museum Expedition to South America, 356; 
Personal Notes: Harry S. Swarth, 356; Francis Harper, 356. 

'THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Orni- 
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Tii[£ Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Platk VII. 


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1. Blind and Decoys on Outer Beach. 2. Sanderling Tracks. 
3, 4. Sanderlings Feeding. 



Vol. XXXIII. July, 1916. No. 3. 



Plates VII-XIII. 

Long Island, with its abundant and varied avifauna, has long 
been one of the most thoroughly canvassed fields for ornithological 
work in America. Naturally the water birds hold first place among 
its attractions. Of the Limicolse alone, nearly fifty species have 
been recorded, including a considerable number of European forms 
and others of rare or accidental occurrence. Unfortunately, bird 
students in general are rather neglectful of the shore birds, and 
allow most of the records to be made by gunners or collectors, who — 
at least as far as Long Island is concerned — have seldom done 
more than publish migration data or the occurrence of unusual 
forms. As a consequence, Giraud's work ^ of seventy-two years 
ago, though far from exhaustive, still furnishes the fullest, and in 
some respects the best, account that has been published of the habits 
of most of our shore birds. ^ 

Since Giraud's time important changes have taken place in the 
limicoline life of Long Island. The Dowitcher is no longer present 
in the abundance of former days. The Robin Snipe, well known to 

1 J. p. Giraud, Jr. The Birds of Long Island. New York, 1844. 

2 Mr. George H. Mackay's excellent studies of a few species on the Massachusetts coast , 
published in 'The Auk' over twenty years ago, must not be overlooked. See Vol. VIII, 1891, 
17-24 (Golden Plover); IX, 16-21 (Eskimo Curlew); IX, 143-152 (Black-bellied Plover); 
IX, 294-296 (Red Phalarope); IX, 345-352 (Hudsonian Curlew); X, 25-35 (Knot). 


238 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [j^ 

the old-time gunners, has been so decimated that now each occur- 
rence is worthy of note. The Eskimo Curlew is a bird of the island's 
past, and the Golden Plover bids fair to share its fate. The merest 
remnant of Bartramian Sandpipers yet keeps a foothold at the 
extreme eastern end of the island. Certain other species, however, 
have fared much better, and probably a few have not shown any 
considerable decrease in the past quarter of a century. Large 
flocks of Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers are still common 
sights, and even so persistently sought a species as the Greater 
Yellowlegs has survived in goodly numbers. Apparently the 
recent agitation for wild-life conservation has already begun to 
have an effect toward restoring the numbers of our shore birds. 

For a number of seasons past we have been able to give consider- 
able attention to the Limicolfc occurring on the marshes and beaches 
along the south side of Long Island. Most of these are migrants, 
which generally hurry past, sometimes flying so high in the air as 
to escape notice. When they do alight to feed on some favorable 
spot, they are often extremely wary and difficult of approach ; yet 
if one adopts the regular gunner's method, building a blind of 
bushes for himself, and luring the birds with a flock of decoys 
planted on sticks, he may find that not only do a surprising num- 
ber of visitors come, but that some of them are very tame. 

The type of blind varies with the nature of the ground and the 
materials available. On the beach one may scoop out a pit in the 
sand and build up its ramparts with stranded boxes, logs, or sticks 
(Plate VII). At a pool on the salt marshes the high-tide bushes 
(Iva or aria), whose green leaves match the color of the surrounding 
marsh-grass (Spartina), make the best sort of blind (Plate IX). 
They are stuck upright into the soft ground in the form of a more 
or less complete circle, within which the hunter sits. Bayberry 
bushes (Myrica carolinensis) furnish a closer cover, but are more 
conspicuous, and therefore less suitable, than the high-tide bushes. 
Drifted eel-grass and dead stems of marsh-grass are useful for 
filling gaps in a scanty blind. Occasionally a gunner may sit 
behind a mere screen of cloth, but a photographer requires a less 
conspicuous affair and better concealment for work at closer range. 
The decoys, which are made of tin, wood, or even cardboard, are 
known on Long Island as ' stool.' The arrangement of the stool 

1916 ] Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 239 

and the blind for the most successful results, especially when 
photography is the object, calls for considerable experience and 
skill on the part of the hunter. 

The snipe fly up the wind toward the stool, often setting their 
wings and sailing in first from one angle, then from another. As 
they approach, their characteristic whistles add to the thrill of the 
moment. A skillful imitation of these will often bring them in 
more surely, or turn a passing bird which otherwise might have 
merely whistled to the stool. The critical moment comes just 
before they are ready to alight; when actually among the artificial 
birds, some individuals (especially of the smaller species) seem to 
take their security for granted. We have very frequently planted 
our stool in a foot or more of water, where incoming birds could not 
judge the depth on account of muddiness or surface reflections. 
In such a case, they often flutter about from one deceiver to another, 
dipping their feet into the water, and becoming bewildered by their 
inability to find bottom (Plate XI, fig. 4). If a little mound of 
mud or seaweed has been prepared to project above the surface 
near the decoys, a bird will sometimes alight upon it, giving the 
camera-hunter a shot that may amply repay him for long days of 
devotion to the difficult but fascinating sport of snipe photography. 

May and August are the months in which these birds occur in 
greatest numbers. As many species are found through September, 
but after the first week a majority of them fall off in abundance of 
individuals. The influence of the weather on their southward 
migratory flight is frequently noticeable. Clear weather and 
strong northwest winds bring few birds, and those that appear do 
not come well to stool. At such times doubtless many birds pass 
by well out at sea. Protracted southerly winds, moderate south- 
west breezes, and cloudy or showery weather seem to furnish 
proper conditions for the best flights over the shores and bays. 
On favorable feeding grounds the birds may be found at practically 
any time, and their flights from one spot to another on the marshes 
or mud-flats may, of course, take any direction. In certain other 
places, however, the flight is seen to be of a truly migratory nature. 
For example, along the comparatively narrow channel connecting 
Moriches and Great South Bays, where feeding grounds are so 
limited as to scarcely induce the birds to alight, a large majority 

240 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [j„1y 

•of them in the fall come to stool from the eastward and leave to 
the westward, though usually there is also a small minority travel- 
ing in the opposite or other directions. Here the birds generally 
appear at about sunrise, and are most abundant early in the day. 

The present paper aims to furnish an account of the migrations, 
haunts, social and feeding habits, call-notes, field characters, and 
general activities of eleven species of shore birds, as we have ob- 
served them on Long Island. The migration data have been 
gathered from every available source, including not only the pub- 
lished writings of Dutcher,^ Cooke,^ Braislin,* and Eaton,^ but also 
the manuscript records of a number of other ornithologists, chiefly 
fellow-members of the Linnsean Society of New York. For co- 
operation in this and other respects we are glad to express our 
appreciation and indebtedness to Messrs. William Floyd, Ludlow 
Griscom, Arthur H. Helme, William Helmuth, Stanley V. LaDow, 
Roy Latham, Robert Cushman Murphy, Chas. H. Rogers, H. F. 
Stone, Henry Thurston, and J. A. W^eber. We also have to 
thank Dr. Frank Overton for generously permitting the use of 
his photographs of the Northern Phalarope. All the other pho- 
tographs were taken by the writers. 

In the case of each species we have endeavored to give the 
•earliest and latest migration dates, together with the locality and 
the observer's or the recorder's name wherever possible. In addi- 
tion to the scientific names and the accepted English names, as 
given in the A. O. U. Check-List, we include a number of local 
names that are in more or less common use on Long Island. 

Lobipes lobatus. Northern Phalarope. — Uncommon transient 
visitant. In following its usual migi-ation route, this phalarope seems to 
pass at some distance off the Long Island coast, but occasionally (and 
especially during stormy weather) it reaches our shores. The spring 
dates range from April 2, 1911 (Long Cove, Overton and Harper), to 
June 3, 1894 (Montauk Point, Scott); the fall dates, from August 5, 1893, 
to October 22, 1888 (Montauk Point, Scott). 

1 Numerous records furnished for Chapman's Handbook of Birds of Eastern North 
America (1894) and for Eaton's Birds of New York (1910). 

2 Distribution and Migration of North American Shore Birds. Washington, 1910. 

3 A List of the Birds of Long Island, N. Y: Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Y., Nos. 17-19, 

« The Birds of New York, Part L Aliiany, 1910. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate VIII. 

1, 2. NoRTHEKN Phalaroi'E. 3. "Oxeye" and Dowitcher. 


^°' 1916 ] Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 241 

The presence of the species at Long Cove, on the inner side of Fire 
Island Beach, at so early a date in the spring, was probably accounted for 
by a gale that had been blowing for a day or so previously. The wind was 
strong out of the northwest at dawn, when we looked out from the window 
of a bayman's shanty and spied two small snipelike birds swimming among 
the ripples in an indentation of the shore several yards away. A few 
moments later, having hastened forth with cameras and field-glasses, we 
found one of the birds feeding along the outskirts of a large floating bed 
of eel-grass in the cove. It swam easily back and forth, sometimes clamber- 
ing over a bunch of eel-grass in its way; and though we advanced in the 
open nearer and nearer, it appeared much more interested in securing its 
breakfast than in watching our motions. When pressed too closely, 
however, it gave a jerky, half-petulant little note, pip. Several times, too, 
it took wing for a short distance, but was readily approached again. Once, 
while being photographed, the bird was directly between the two observers, 
barely out of arm's reach (Plate VIII). 

During the southward movement of shore birds in August, one occasion- 
ally finds a Northern Phalarope among the meadows along the south shore. 
Floating water-weed is a favorite place for the birds to alight. They walk 
about over it or swim across bits of open water indifferently. Most of 
these birds are in the dark immature plumage, and very confiding, appar- 
ently knowing nothing of man. On taking wing, they utter a chipping 
note suggesting somewhat th^t of the Sanderling. An adult bird observed 
on August 21 had the plumage already very gray. 

On August 16, 1913, a single Northern Phalarope was observed to flutter 
down to the surface of a small pond-hole in the marsh back of the beach 
near Mastic. It sat on the water like a little duck, and presently crouched 
on a lump of bog, where two Oxeyes crowded beside it, there being scarcely 
room for all three birds. It seemed to have considerable attraction for 
several Oxeyes that were flying about, for they stooled to it nicely, even 
when it was swimming where they could not alight. Though flushed more 
than once, it returned always to the same vicinity. In flight its blackish 
upper surface, with the white stripe near the posterior edge of the wing, 
was striking. 

On the 28th and again on the 30th of August, 1915, two birds were 
observed on the water-weed which carpeted a considerable portion of the 
surface of a shallow cove in the marsh back of the beach at Mastic. On 
each date it was doubtless the same two individuals, which had found a 
congenial spot and were lingering there. As they moved about, their 
manner of snapping up food reminded one of the Spotted Sandpiper. 

Macrorhamphus griseus griseus. Dowitcher; Do witch. — Though 
formerly abundant, and still usually referred to as a common transient 
visitant, this is one of the shore birds whose numbers on Long Island have 
shown a very marked decrease in the last fifty years. At present it is a 
regular but scarcely common migrant along the south shore. The bulk of 
the spring migration takes place in May, extreme dates being April 19 

242 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [j^[y 

(Seaford, R. L. Peavey) and June 12 (Eaton). The southward flight 
reaches Long Island as early as July 4 (Eaton), and continues as late as 
September 29 (Freeport, Braislin). 

The Dowitcher fi-equents the bare tidal shoals and the muddy borders 
of the marshes, seeking its food usually in the shallow water or close to its 
edge. At present the birds are not, as a general rule, sufficiently numerous 
to form flocks of more than a few individuals; and frequently only a single 
Dowitcher is observed, either by itself or in company with other species, 
such as Yellowlegs, Stilt Sandpipers, Oxeyes, or Ringnecks. 

In the August migration of 1913 (which was light for most species), the 
Dowitchers appeared in somewhat larger force than usual; four or five 
small, unmixed flocks were seen, which flew low and steadily, and on most 
occasions failed to act in accordance with their well-deserved reputation 
for unwary response to decoys. At about sunrise on August 17, however, 
a, flock of seven, accompanied by a Lesser Yellowlegs, stooled beautifully 
at the edge of a meadow island near Mastic, alighting on a muddy point 
not far from the blind. The Yellowlegs, which was nearest, soon took alarm 
and continued its migration to the westward, whistling as it went, but the 
Dowitchers showed remarkable tameness, and allowed several photographs 
to be taken before they, too, departed. 

The common note of this species is a soft, rather abrupt whistle, which 
usually sovmds like wheu-whup, or icheu-ichup-ivhup, but is subject to 
further variation. Its tone, though a little less shrill, is not very different 
from that of the Lesser Yellowlegs' whistle. Now and then a rapid series 
of rolling, guttural notes surprises the hearer. 

Though the bodies of the Dowitcher and the Lesser Yellowlegs do not 
differ greatly in size, the former's bill is noticeably longer, and its legs 
noticeably shorter. Its stocky build, the darkness of its summer plumage, 
and the narrow white patch on the back, which forms a very striking 
mark when the bird is on the wing, are other good field characters. So also 
is the grayish-white posterior margin of the wing in immature birds. In 
its steady and well-sustained flight the Dowitcher has a peculiar appearance, 
for the body is inclined downward from the head toward the tail, while 
the long bill points earthward at a corresponding angle. 

Pisobia maculata. Pectoral Sandpiper; Krieker; Grass Snipe. — 
An early but rare spring migi-ant; March 22 (Eaton) to May 30, 1913 
(Freeport, Thurston). Fairly common from late July through October; 
the earliest fall record is July 6, 1911 (East Hampton, W. Helmuth), and 
the latest, November 10 (Eaton). 

Though the common haunt of this species is suggested in one of its 
vernacular names (Grass Snipe), it is not infrequently found also on mud- 
flats and along the margins of marshy pools and streams. It usually travels 
and feeds in small bands of its own, but sometimes one or two birds are 
observed in a scattered flock composed chiefly of the smaller species of 
snipe. The Kriekers join ranks on the wing, but become more loosely 
organized after alighting to feed. Each bird moves slowly along, and 

The Auk, Vol. XXXlll. 

Plate IX. 



tga .I'liwv-* 

•"'i ■•;.'■-.,,«* 

jti ftrtff il^'^ 

;-;.■- -^.^ 

1. Blind and Decoys on Salt Marshes. 

2. White-rumped Sandpiper. 3. Pectoral Sandpiper. 

4. Least Sandpipers. 


° 1916 J Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 243 

probes into the mud with a rapid drilUng motion of its bill, which appar- 
ently remains closed, though the tip, at least, must be opened beneath the 
surface when a morsel is located. We have seen one squat in a skulking 
attitude on the mud behind a short cat-tail stub, when it had been annoyed 
by persistent stalking; and we have also seen birds wade into a little stream 
and swim a foot or two to the other side. 

Though the Krieker is an unusually trustful snipe, it is well known, on 
the other hand, for its lack of response to decoys. We were especially 
pleased, therefore, with an experience we had at East Pond, Hicks Beach, 
on September 30, 1911. It was near dusk when a band of eight or ten 
small snipe appeared, flying low over the eastern end of the pool and head- 
ing our way. The birds swung gracefully from side to side as they came on, 
and having caught sight of our decoys, wheeled in over them. They had 
scarcely passed by before they turned and dropped in, closely bunched, at 
the edge of the mud-flat, 18 feet in front of us. There they stood daintily, 
eyeing the occupants of the scanty blind with curiosity or wonder, as it 
seemed, rather than with suspicion or alarm; but after some moments 
they took wing and departed. 

The Krieker has two distinct notes — a short knk or chup, and a hoarse, 
rolling whistle, k-r-r-r-u, k-r-r-r-u. 

The heavy streaks on its breast end in a rather abrupt line across the 
body, and serve as a good field identification mark. These dark markings, 
however, are of protective value when the Krieker's head is erect, for the 
breast is then practically a part of the upper surface of the body, where 
dark coloring is required to render the bird inconspicuous among its sur- 

Pisobia fuscicollis. White-rumped Sandpiper; Bonaparte's Oxeye; 
Big Oxeye. — Rare in spring. We find only the following records, all ex- 
cept one within very recent years: June 10, 1882 (six, Mt. Sinai Harbor, 
Helme); May 21, 1910 (two, Long Beach, LaDow); May 22, 1910 (six, 
Freeport, Weber and Harper); May 21, 1911 (two, Oak Island, Harper); 
May 28, 1911 (one. Long Beach, Griscom); May 30, 1911 (five collected 
by J. A. Weber out of a flock of about 25 on Jamaica Bay); May 23-24, 
1915 (fairly common at Gilgo Flats, Johnson, Rogers, Weber, and Har- 
per). Fairly common fall migrant; usually present from the middle of 
August to the middle of October, and noted as early as July 4 (Eaton) 
and as late as November 4, 1912 (East Hampton, W. Helmuth). 

If one looks carefully through the large mixed flocks of snipe that resort 
during the migrations to such favored feeding grounds as the Gilgo Flats 
or the Oak Island pool, he will seldom fail to discover one or more White- 
rumps among the others. Separate flocks of this species, consisting usually 
of only a few individuals, are also observed. 

It feeds on the bare tidal flats, at the pools in the marshes, and on the 
sands of the outer beach. In common with the smaller Oxeyes, it is unsus- 
picious in disposition. It sometimes crouches on its tarsi when startled, 
and is then extremely inconspicuous on the mud. We have seen it come 
over stool, though ordinarily it does not respond to them. 

244 Nichols and Harper, Lo7ig Island Shore Birds. [jjjy 

Its flight is much hke that of the Least Sandpiper; at times flocks pass 
by in a direct and unhurried manner, but we have noticed single birds 
whose flight was swift and darting. 

The baymen and gunners do not usually distinguish it from the other 
Oxeyes, but we have occasionally heard it spoken of as Big Oxeye. It can 
be readily identified in the field by its slightly larger size and by its white 
upper tail-coverts, which show conspicuously in flight. On the ground 
the bird stands low, and is very concealingly colored, like the Krieker, 
which it resembles also in build. Perhaps as diagnostic as any other 
characteristic is its note; this is an exceedingly sharp and squeaky, mouse- 
like jeet, which the bird utters on the wing, and which, when once learned, 
is unmistakable. 

Pisobia minutilla. Least Sandpiper; Oxeye; Little Oxeye. — 
Abundant spring and fall migrant. It is present usually throughout May 
and from abawt July 8 to September 20, preceding the Semipalmated 
Sandpiper by about a week, on the average, both in arriving and in de- 
parting on its migrations. It has been recorded from April 20 (Eaton) to 
June 12 (Orient, Latham), and from June 27 (Orient, Latham) to October 
14, 1912 (East Hampton, W. Helmuth). 

The Least Sandpiper sometimes occurs on the ocean beach, but is much 
more characteristic of the marshes and mud-flats; it is also seen commonly 
on floating beds of eel-grass in quiet coves and bays. It is very gregarious, 
and travels usually in small bands of tkree or four to twenty individuals, 
but may be seen in much gi'eater numbers. Practically every large mixed 
flock of shore birds on Long Island contains Least Sandpipers; these, how- 
ever, keep more or less to themselves, though feeding over the same gi-ound 
with Semipalmated and White-rumped Sandpipers, Ringnecks, and others. 
The Oxeyes are also very apt to follow the movements of Yellowlegs with- 
out associating very closely with them. 

Both the Least and the Semipalmated Sandpipers are very easily at- 
tracted to stool, but in walking about are apt to become nervous when 
they see a tall tin Yellowlegs towering above them. The stool are usually 
set out in the water, but the Oxeyes, with their short legs, prefer to alight 
on the bare ground, and when there is no convenient mud-bar, will often 
pass by without a pause. 

In securing its food of minute animal life, the Least Sandpiper either 
picks it up from the surface of the ground, or probes for it with a drilling 
motion into the mud and sand, sometimes through shallow water, in which 
it may thrust its bill entirely out of sight. It walks about in a rather lei- 
surely manner, though meanwhile it gleans carefully and industriously. 

No more trustful snipe visits the Long Island shores; and it is not a very 
uncommon experience for the photographer to see some of these little fellows 
moving about fearlessly within a dozen feet of the place where he stands 
in full view. At such times, as the members of a small band feed and 
bathe, rippling the water with their wings, preening their feathers, and 
even scratching their bills with their toes, they present a charming scene. 

The Auk, Vol, XXXIIl. 

Plate X. 

1. Semii'almatiod Sandpipers. 2. Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers. 

3. Semipalmated (and other?) Sandpipers. 

^''''me'^"^] Nichols axd Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 245 

The notes of the Least, though confused with those of the Semipahnated 
Sandpiper, are generally distinguishable. The loudest and most character- 
istic is a gi-ating k-r-r-e-e-p, often heard from single birds just taking wing 
or already in swift and erratic flight, as well as from small bands maneuver- 
ing high in the air. At times it doubtless denotes alarm, and it seems also 
to signify ' Where are you? ' and to be used with the purpose of locating 
others of the species. There is also a much abbreviated note, which may 
be represented as cher, but is subject to marked variation; this may be 
used by the members of a flock as a conversational call, or it may represent 
slight uneasiness when either a single bird or a flock takes a short flight to 
avoid a person. Still another note is a soft, rolling k-r-r-r-r-r, not very 
different from the whinny of the Semipalmated, but less pronounced and 
much less frequently heard. 

In common with two other members of its genus, the Krieker and the 
Whiterump, which wear an inconspicuous plumage much like its own, 
the Least Sandpiper has the curious habit of squatting or crouching when 
danger is near. We had stalked four of these birds at a pond-hole in a 
brackish meadow bordering Moriches Bay, and they had become so accus- 
tomed to our presence that they were feeding, finally, at a distance of only 
eight or ten feet. One of us happened to move in a way that alarmed the 
little sandpipers, so that one of them immediately squatted down on the 
wet mud, while another crouched with its head lowered. The camera was 
opportunely focused upon them, and caught them in the act (Plate IX). 
At such times the birds apparently like to get some little obstruction like a 
mud-lump, if possible, between themselves and the source of danger. 

Ereunetes pusillus. Semipalmated Sandpiper; Oxeye; Big Oxeye. 
— Abundant transient visitant, outnumbering even the Least Sandpiper 
by probably two to one. Though the Semipalmated is generally a tardier 
migrant than the other, both species reach the height of their abundance 
during the latter part of May and through the month of August. Extreme 
dates for the spring migi-ation of the present species are April 28 and 
June 13 (Eaton); for the fall migration, July 4 and October 15 (Eaton). 

This sandpiper is at home on the marshes, the mud-flats, and the outer 
beaches. It is observed in almost any numbers, from single birds to one 
or two hundred together, and occasionally many more. About the third 
week in May, from the marshes south of Freeport, we have noticed thou- 
sands of migrating snipe following the coast eastward in immense and 
fairly compact flocks; and it is probable that these flocks consisted chiefly 
of the Semipalmated and Least Sandpipers. 

The feeding habits of both species are in general similar, but Ereunetes 
moves about more rapidly in search of food, is stronger on the wing, and 
shows a greater tendency toward bunching and wheeling. It seems not 
unlikely that the greater activity of the Semipalmated is associated with 
its habit of frequenting the surf-beaten shore, while the more leisurely 
ways of the Least, on the other hand, correspond with its preferred habitat 
on the quiet mud-flats and marshes. There are few more pleasing sights 

246 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. ViuXy 

along our shores than a band of Oxeyes trotting down the slope of the 
beach in the wake of each retreating wave, turning just in time to avoid the 
wash from a new breaker, and keeping barely in advance of its foamy front 
as they run back over the sands. Sometimes they linger a little too long 
for some morsel, and the water surges about their legs, forcing them into 
flight. The members of a flock do not separate widely when feeding, and 
upon taking wing, they close ranks and move in a compact body. If not 
disturbed, they fly steadily, but if they become alarmed from some cause, 
such as a gunshot, they dart from side to side in an erratic course. 

The Gilgo Flats, on the inner side of the beach opposite Amityville, 
are an especially favorable place for observing Semipalmated Sandpipers 
in large numbers. The flocks start at dawn in search of food, and continue 
to move about actively for two or three hours. But by eight o'clock on a 
midsummer morning the birds have temporarily satisfied their hunger, and 
begin to collect in dense bunches on the inner and drier parts of the flats. 
Here they rest quietly and doze away with heads tucked in the feathers of 
their backs. In the space of a few rods as many as three hundred birds 
may congregate in numerous small and compact groups. At a distance 
these groups remind one of exposed beds of mussels; or if, at one's approach, 
some of the bii'ds keep raising and lowering their wings, undecided whether 
to fly or not, they even suggest a cluster of butterflies on the sand. 

Most Semipalmated Sandpipers are very confiding, though some indi- 
viduals, which doubtless have been much persecuted, exhibit surprising 
wildness. The members of this species come to stool in greater numbers, 
probably, than any of the other Long Island shore birds, and many of 
them pay dearly for their gentleness and sociability, since gunners very 
frequently turn their weapons upon the little Oxeyes for want of bigger 
game. Birds with a crippled wing or a dangling leg, or with only one leg, 
are no uncommon sight, and at times the proportion of cripples to able- 
bodied bii'ds is sadly large. 

One of us in the Northwest has observed a Semipalmated Sandpiper 
crouching on its tarsi when alarmed, exactly in the manner of the Pectoral, 
White-rumped, and Least Sandpipers, but we have never noticed this 
habit in the present species on Long Island. 

The ordinaiy note of this bird is a quick, monosyllabic ch-r-r-uk, some- 
times shortened to a mere kuk or kip. A most pleasant little whinnying 
call, eh-heh-heh-heh-heh-heh-heh, is uttered in a contented, sociable tone by 
a bird either on the ground or on the wing, and is a common sound in mi- 
gi-ation time on the marshes and tidal flats. Variable as the notes of this 
species are, they are always distinguished by the absence of the ee sound 
which is characteristic of the Least Sandpiper's common note. 

Each species so resembles the other, both in habits and in appearance, 
that it is by no means easy to distinguish them in the field except under 
favorable conditions. The points of difference are really numerous, but 
all of them are slight. The Semipalmated is a little larger, its general 
coloration is lighter, its breast less heavily streaked, its back less rusty in 

1916 J Nichols and Haeper, Long Island Shore Birds. 247 

the summer plumage, its bill stouter, and its legs darker. There is also less 
contrast between the dark middle and the light outer tail-feathers in this 
species than in the Least Sandpiper, as one may observe when the birds 
take wing directly away from him. Moreover, one who is famihar with 
their notes has an excellent means for separating the two species. 

The females have decidedly longer bills than the males, and may be 
readily picked out of a ' bag ' of birds by this character. 

Calidris leucophaea. Sanderling; Surf Snipe. — A very common 
migrant on Long Island. It is one of the hardiest of our shore birds, being 
among the first to arrive in the spring as well as among th« last to depart 
in the fall. It is even noted occasionallj' during the winter. It has been 
recorded on the migrations from March 15 to June 14, and from July 4 
to December 8 (Eaton). On the southward flight it is usually present from 
late July to late October. 

Though the Sm-f Snipe, true to its name, loves to run up and down the 
outer beach along the surf-line, it is also found very commonly on a sandy 
inner beach, such as that bordering Fire Island Inlet, and sometimes on a 
wide tidal flat along one of the numerous channels at the western end of 
Great South Bay. It occurs also on the open gravelly points projecting 
into Long Island Sound. We have seen but one bird — • a cripple — actu- 
ally on the marsh. Even passing birds have been noted but once during 
several years' observation at the junction of marsh and bay l^ehind the 
beach at Mastic. 

It generally travels in bands of five to twenty individuals of its own 
species, but larger numbers are occasionally observed together, and many 
single birds are met with. 

The Surf Snipe is less shy than suspicious. In feeding along the beach, 
it will allow a pedestrian to follow it at fairly close range, and it will almost 
invariably come close enough to a blind to be at a gunner's mercy; yet it 
seldom musters the courage to pass directly in front of the blind within 
good photographic distance. Sometimes its apprehensions seem directed 
toward the large tin decoys, and it will pass them on the wing instead of 
walking or trotting among them in its progress along the shore. 

The birds feed in a close flock, as they hurry along just where the wash 
from the sea rolls upon the beach. They obtain their food by rapid probing 
in the wet sand, whether its surface is bare or covered with a thin film of 
water; and they undoubtedly fare well upon the small but abundant animal 
life of the ocean's edge. What seems to be photographic evidence of the 
flexibility of the upper mandible of this species, was secured at Short Beach 
on August 14, 1910. In the photograph the bird's bill is apparently open 
at the tip where it touches the sand, though closed for the basal half of its 
length (Plate VH). 

The Surf Snipe is strong on the wing. Flocks are often observed as they 
maintain their line of flight either over or just beyond the surf, keeping 
rather close to the water, and now and again wheeling with perfectly con- 
certed action. When on the ground, the birds are able to move their legs 

248 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [j^y 

with machinelike rapidity, and sometimes travel along the beach at a trot 
faster than a man's walk. 

The note of this species is a not very loud ket, ket, ket, uttered singly 
or in a series, and in a slightly complaining tone. We have heard it on a 
moonlight night from birds flying about over the beach. 

The bold white stripe running lengthwise through the middle of the 
blackish wing is conspicuous in a steadily flying bird, and serves to distin- 
guish the species in any of the varying seasonal plumages. 

Totanus melanoleucus. Greater Yellowlegs; Big Yellowleg; 
Winter Yellowleg; Yelper. — With the exception of a few weeks in 
June and early July, the Greater Yellowlegs is present on these shores from 
April to November, or approximately half of each year. It is common on 
both the spring and the fall migrations, reaching its maximum numbers in 
the middle of May and in early September. Some exceptionally early 
spring records are March 9 (Eaton) and March 23, 1903 (Montauk, 
Braislin), the average date of arrival being about the middle of April. 
The birds frequently linger into June; several were noted as late as June 
17 and 18, 1911, at Gardiner's Island (Harper), while Latham mentions 
June 19 as the latest date at Orient, and Eaton gives a record for June 
22. The earliest date of arrival on the southward flight is July 3 (Orient, 
Latham), the average being about two weeks later. The latest fall records 
are November 24 (Eaton) and November 28, 1904 (Mt. Sinai, Murphy); 
usually the last birds are seen early in the month. 

This species is one that has fairly held its own on Long Island in recent 
years, in spite of relentless persecution. As far as one can judge from 
shooting records, it was scarcely more numerous in the eighties than to-day. 
And the birds are still commonly observed in flocks of nearly the same size 
as in the time of Giraud, who wrote, ' They do not usually associate in 
large flocks, generally roving about in parties of from five to twelve. '^ 
It is largely by reason of their great watchfulness and wariness that they 
have survived in their present numbers. Doubtless another factor in their 
preservation is a habit exhibited by the members of a flock while coming 
in to decoys; they generally keep well separated, and thus do not expose 
themselves so fully to wholesale slaughter as do birds that bunch closely. 

The favorite feeding ground of the Greater Yellowlegs is a large pool in 
the salt marshes (such as shown in Plate IX), where it generally alights and 
feeds in one or more inches of water. It is found less commonly along the 
mud-flats bordering the tidal channels, and only rarely upon the outer 

As a flock courses easily but swiftly above the marsh in orderly array^ 
seeking some new haunt, its members frequently give voice to their loud, 
ringing whistles: wheu-wheu-wheu, or wheu-wheu-wheu, whexi-wheu, in 
series of three or more notes. ' The hunter in his blind gives a whistled 
imitation of the far-reaching sound, and eagerly scans the air for a glimpse 
of the oncoming birds. They fly up the wind, responding now and then 
to his call, and presently catch sight of the stool. If the collection of tin 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate XI. 


2, 3, 4. Greater Yellowlegs. 

1916 J Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 249 

or wooden birds is well placed, and the hunter resists the temptation to 
make any movement behind his screen of bushes, the gregarious instinct of 
the Yellowlegs may overcome their well-founded suspicions and induce 
them to join their supposed comrades. Upon such an occasion, to fill one's 
gaze with the large, graceful snipe, as they come low over the marsh, set 
their long, curving wings, and drop with dangling legs into the pool near 
the farthest decoys, keeping their wings lifted high over their backs for a 
moment after alighting, is one of the most fascinating and thrilling experi- 
ences to be had on the Long Island marshes. And if the instrument that 
the hunter then trains upon his game is capable of no louder noise than the 
click of a shutter, so much the richer is his reward. 

When in flocks, the Greater Yellowlegs do not associate closely with 
other species, and keep to themselves even when feeding in the same pool 
with a variety of shore birds. We have, however, noticed single birds in 
the company of other large snipe, such as the Lesser Yellowlegs and the 

Though, as we have already suggested, this species occurs usually in 
bands of less than ten individuals, we had a flock of about 30 birds under 
observation for a number of hours on May 20 and 21, 1911, at the well- 
known Oak Island pool. When we approached the place, numerous 
Oxeyes merely moved to the farther side of the pool; half a dozen Black- 
bellied Plovers departed at once, and perhaps for good; the Yellowlegs, 
too, took flight, but after our blinds were built, they returned again and 
again, no matter how often disturbed. The pool contained, at that time, 
only an inch or two of water, and the Yellowlegs continually ran back and 
forth over the middle of it in an odd fashion. In spite of the extreme length 
and thinness of their legs, their movements were by no means ungainly. 
It can only be conjectm^ed that these maneuvers were undertaken for the 
purpose of securing food, for now and then a bird' would dart its bill into 
the water, as if to snatch up some small inhabitant of the pool, such as a 
fleeing killLfish. 

The Greater Yellowlegs is possessed of a varied vocabulary, which seems 
to have been slighted by most ornithological writers. Its principal notes 
consist of three very different kinds, all of which may be heard from a single 
bird in the space of only a few minutes. 

A second note is less often heard than the usually described whistle; 
it seems to be used as a ' summons ' call, as when bu'ds on the ground call 
down a passing flock. It is a very pleasant and musical note, and oft- 
repeated — too-ivhee, too-ivhee, too-whee, to6-whee, to6-whee. Hunters may 
use it to good effect in calling the birds to decoys. Some of them refer to 
this note as the ' roll ' . 

A third call is nothing short of astonishing tp one who hears it for the 
first time. It is a curious, discordant cackle, or yelp, which probably gives 
rise to the vernacular name of ' Yelper.' A solitary Yellowlegs, alighting 
in a pool beyond the decoys, and entertaining strong suspicions of the blind, 
though not sufficiently alarmed to depart at once, is very apt to indulge in 

250 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [jvly 

this emphatic, henhke cackle: kaouw, kaouiv, kaouw, kaouw. With each 
yelp it bobs its head vigorously. 

Indeed, there are few of oui' shore birds that give such striking exhibi- 
tions of head-bobbing. The Yellowlegs may express its first mild suspi- 
cions by silent bobbing, but presently utters either its piercing whistle or 
its cackling yelp with the forward thrust of the head, lending so much 
energy to the movement that its whole body tilts with each bob. One can 
not help smiling at the bird's comical appearance. As its alarm grows, it 
bobs with increasing frequenc}', and finally springs into the air, redoubling 
its cries as it goes. 

The dark upper parts, whitish tail-coverts and tail, and yellow legs are 
conspicuous marks which this species shares equally with the Lesser Yellow- 
legs. The bill of the Greater Yellowlegs is noticeably larger, but either 
species may be distinguished in the field more readily by its notes than by 

Totanus flavipes. Yellowlegs; Little Yellowleg; Summer 
Yellowleg; Lesser Yellowlegs. — Rare in spring, but a very common 
fall migrant, generally outnumbering the Greater Yellowlegs from the 
middle of July to the middle of September. Recorded from April 23 
(Orient, Latham) to June 1 (Rockaway, Braislin), and from July 7 (Eaton) 
to October 28, 1912 (East Hampton, W. Helmuth). 

The Lesser Yellowlegs frequents the shallow pools in the salt marshes, 
and is seen now and then on the mud-flats or on stranded layers of eel-grass 
along the shores of coves and bays. It is also very partial to brackish 
meadows with standing water; at such a favorable spot, on the inner beach 
opposite Mastic, 50 to 100 birds kept congregating for days near the end 
of August, 1913, despite persecution by gunners. 

It is a very gregarious bird, and pairs or small flocks are more frequently 
observed than solitary individuals. It often associates with other species, 
such as the Dowitcher, Robin Snipe, and Greater Yellowlegs. In compari- 
son with the last-named species, it generally travels in larger bodies, and 
is much less suspicious, stooling more readily and alighting closer to the 
blind. Its flight is similar, though perhaps not quite so strong as that of 
the larger bird, which at times covers distance with surprising speed. In 
all its movements and attitudes — whether wading among the decoys 
in water up to its thighs, bathing, running about over a mud-bar, standing 
at rest with neck drawn in, scratching its bill with a foot, or curving its 
slender wings in easy flight — the Lesser Yellowlegs is an exceedingly 
graceful bird. 

In coming to the decoys, it may fly low and easil}', or shoot down from 
a height; sometimes it whistles, and again it drops in without a sound. 
When the stool are planted on extra long sticks in deep water, the Yellow- 
legs will often flutter from one to the other, dipping its feet into the water 
without being able to alight. The bird shown in Plate XII, fig. 4, acted 
in such a manner until it happened to spy a little mud-lump, upon which 
it settled, about 16 feet from our blind. From this vantage-point it looked 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate XII. 

^^**-*— ' V 









-^.^ •- 




Lesser Yellowlegs. 

^"'i9l6 ] Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 251 

out over the stool, disregarding the blind and its occupants. Presently a 
Greater Yellowlegs passed by, and our bird followed it to a neighboring 
mud-flat. But after an interval of some twenty minutes, apparently the 
same Yellowlegs returned, and again perched on its favorite mud-lump. 
When we had secured a number of photographs, we tried to induce the bird 
to take wing, but the noises and movements we made were unavailing until 
it slipped off the lump by accident, and then departed. 

The ordinary whistle of this species resembles that of the Greater Yellow- 
legs, but is not quite so loud and clear. It is given in a series of two or 
singly, wheu-ivheu or ivheit — seldom in a series of three or more, as is the 
larger bird's call. Flocking birds utter a short wip, which is frequently 
repeated, and sometimes runs into a series. There is also a musical 
' summons ' call, too-whee, too-whee, too-whee, almost identical with that of 
the Greater Yellowlegs, but apparently not so loud. Once a flock of about 
a dozen birds, just after passing high over our blind, let loose a succession 
of these notes, as if to entice their inanimate counterparts on the marsh to 
join them. 

In their feeding habits and choice of haunts, the two species of Yellow- 
legs are very much alike. So far as we have observed, they do not drill 
in the mud or sand in the manner of a Krieker, Oxeye, or Sanderling, but 
deftly snatch up their food with thrusts of their long bills, or occa.sionally 
search out small morsels by swinging their bills from side to side through 
shallow water. 

Squatarola squatarola. Black-bellied Plover; Blackbreast; 
Bullhead (juv.). — Though no longer occurring in the abundance of former 
days, this strikingly handsome plover is still a rather common transient on 
Long Island. The migi-ation records extend from April 30, 1902 (Mon- 
tauk, Scott), to June 17 (Rockaway, Braislin), and from July 1, 1903 
(Quogue, Kobbe), to November 12, 1911 (Jones Beach, Griscom). It is 
usually present on the southward migration from the first week of August 
to the middle of October, the bulk of the flight taking place in late August 
and September. Most of the spring bii-ds are seen from the middle to 
the latter part of May. 

The Blackbreast seeks its food at low tide on the mud-flats and the 
sandy beaches, where it may be distinguished from afar among the Turn- 
stones, Ringnecks, and Sanderlings, that share with it these habitats. 
With each turn of the tide the plovers fly about more actively, passing to 
and fro between their feeding grounds and the higher and drier portions 
of the marshes and shoals, where they remain rather quietly during the 
period of high water. At times they also alight on the wet marsh. 

Nowadays on Long Island they travel generally in small bands of three 
or four to a dozen individuals; we have, however, observed a flock of as 
many as 150 near Freeport on the spring migration, and Mr. Henry Thurs- 
ton reports a flock of about 800 in the same locality on May 30, 1913. 

As a rule, other species of shore birds, as well as decoys, have no great 
attraction for these wary and self-sufficient plovers. A common sight, 

252 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [j^^ 

however, is a number of Tui-nstones keeping some Blackbreasts company, 
and following them when the larger birds fly off. We have observed Robin 
Snipe, too, associating with them. When one approaches a feeding ground 
where several different species of the commoner shore birds are present, 
the Blackbreasts can generally be depended upon to take flight first and 
farthest from the intruder. 

They do not wade in the water so habitually as they run leisurely over 
the bare flats. On August 24, 1912, however, a pair took us unawares 
by alighting in a couple of inches of water among our decoys at East Pond, 
Hicks Beach. One of the birds was changing to winter plumage, but the 
other was still in nearly full summer dress. They displayed only a little 
uneasiness while so close to the blind, and though taking their departure 
after a few moments, they settled again on a mud-bar 50 yards away, where 
they permitted several long-range photographs from an unconcealed posi- 
tion. The black axillars, which will distinguish this species in any plumage 
from the Golden Plover, were caught by the camera as one of the birds 
raised its wings to the fullest extent (Plate XIII). 

During this same month, while standing on the open mansh near Free- 
port, we answered the call of an adult Blackbelly that came flying in our 
direction. As if recognizing at that instant the dangerous objects ahead, 
it shot suddenly downward, swerving sharply from its line of flight, some- 
what in the manner of a frightened Oxeye. Nevertheless it circled round 
and round us for the better part of a minute, continually responding to 
whistled imitations of its melodious notes. It often exhibits this habit 
of circling when the sportsman in a blind endeavors to lure it within range. 
Like the Ringneck, it is apt to hover for a moment over the stool in passing 
by. It is strong and swift on the wing, and its flight is steadier than that 
of most of our shore birds. 

The Blackbelly's trisyllabic whistle, pee-oooo-eee, is uttered when the 
bird is either on the wing or on the ground, and may be heard from afar. 
It seems perfectly expressive of the bird's wildness and freedom, and is 
altogether one of the finest sounds of the Long Island coast. The first 
note, when heard close at hand, has a peculiarly shrill and buzzing quality, 
but this quality is greatly mellowed by distance. There can be little 
doubt that the chief accent falls upon this note, though some writers place 
it upon the second, which is the most prolonged of the three notes. The 
second and third syllables are nearly alike in tone, and the transition from 
the one to the other is not at all marked, so that the final syllable now and 
then appears to be omitted. Another whistle, not quite so frequently 
heard, is a mellow kloo-ooo, or koo-wee, with perhaps a slight accent on the 
second syllable. It seems to be a call of contentment or sociability, and 
is commonly uttered on a flight of short duration. On several occasions 
we have heard a small party of these plovers, before or while taking wing, 
utter a few low, guttural notes, quite unlike their usual whistles; they 
seemed to be given as calls of attention or warning. 

iEgialitis semipalmata. Semipalmated Plover; Ringneck. — 

^^^16 J Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 253 

The Ringneck, one of the most daintily di-essed and most charming of the 
Long Island shore birds, is also one of our most familiar species, being 
exceeded in numbers only by the Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers. 
A regular and very common migrant, it is present usually throughout most 
of the month of May, and from late July to the first week in October. 
Extreme dates for the spring migration are April 19 and June 5 (Eaton); 
for the fall migi-ation, July 6 (Orient, Latham) and October 22, 1912 
(Eaet Hampton, W. Helmuth). On the southward flight it does not 
become common before the first week in August, when flocks of consider- 
able size may be seen. 

This is essentially a bird of the mud-flats, just as the Piping Plover is a 
bii'd of the sandy outer beaches. And here is an interesting correlation 
between plumage and habitat in two closely allied species, the Ringneck's 
brown back harmonizing with the dark color of the mud, while the Piping 
Plover's pale plumage renders it inconspicuous on the bright sands. The 
Ringneck is not given to wading, but feeds along the borders of quiet tidal 
channels, on the bars and margins of pools in the salt marshes, as well as 
on the drier, stubbly portions of the marshes, and even occasionally on the 
outer beach. 

It associates freely with the two common species of Oxriyes one or more 
of the plovers often being seen in a flock of these small snipe; it is also 
found commonly in the company of the larger shore birds. t\.t other times, 
it travels in separate bands of three or four to twenty-five or thirty individ- 
uals. The members of a flock scatter somewhat in feeding, but on taking 
wing, they gather into close ranks, their bright under parts showing con- 
spicuously as the flock wheels over the marsh. 

The Ringneck is not very wild, nor yet as trustful as an Oxeye, l)ut, on 
the whole, it much prefers to keep a fair distance between itself and a 
human being. At nightfall, however, it sometimes permits a close ap- 
proach, as it runs restlessly about the shore and gives its piping notes. 
Generally, at the appearance of an intruder, or on other occasions when its 
suspicions are aroused, it bobs its head in a mildly inquiring way. Decoys 
do not have the same attraction for this bird as for a Yellowlegs or an 
Oxeye. When it does come to stool, it may hover for a moment, or even 
alight, but usually passes by without stopping. Perhaps this is accounted 
for, in part, by the fact that the decoys in most cases are set out in several 
inches of water, and the Ringneck therefore finds no suitable place for 
alighting near them. 

Its flight is strong and direct — much less erratic or meandering than 
that of an Oxeye. Its movements on the ground are not very rapid, and 
suggest somewhat those of a Robin; it stands quietly on a mud-bar, facing 
the wind, its head bent slightly forward with an intent air, then it trots 
forward a few steps, and stops to look about again for a morsel of food. 
Its legs do not seem to move with the twinkling rapidity of a Piping 
Plover's, for the mud-flats are less suitable for fast traveling than are the 
smooth sands over which the latter habitually runs. 

254 Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. [jyiy 

The Ringneck's ordinary flight-note or call-note is a sweet and mellow 
whistle, tyoo-eep'. It is given repeatedly by birds on the wing, but those 
on the ground are generally silent when not disturbed. From hearing this 
whistle while spending the night on the marshes, we siu-mise that the 
l)irds are more or less active during the hours of darkness. Another and 
rougher note seems to signify excitement or suspicion; it is usually uttered 
singly, but sometimes a bird standing on the ground will give a rapid 
descendo series of these questioning notes, kewp-kewp-kewp-kewp, etc., the 
last few almost running together. 

Explanation or Plates. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Blind and decoys at a pool on the outer beach — the Sander- 
ling's haunt. Long Beach, L. I. September 19, 1909. (F. H.) 

Fig. 2. Sanderling tracks. Fire Island Inlet, L. I. May 29, 1911. 
(F. H.) 

Fig. 3. Sanderlings on the outer beach. Mastic, L. I. September 15, 
1913. (J. T. N.) 

Fig. 4. Sanderling on the inner beach. (Note the bill open only at the 
tip.) Short Beach, L. I. August 14, 1910. (F. H.) 

Plate VIII. 

Figs. 1, 2. Northern Phalarope. Long Cove, Great South Bay, L. I. 
April 2, 1911. (Photographed by Frank Overton, M. D.) 

Fig. 3. Dowitcher and Oxeye. Mastic, L. I. August 17, 1913. (J. 


Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Snipe blind and decoys at a pool on the salt marshes. Freeport, 
L. I. May 15, 1910. (F. H.) 

Fig. 2. White-rumped Sandpiper. East Pond, Hicks Beach, L. I. 
October 22, 1911. (J. T. N.) 

Fig. 3. Pectoral Sandpiper. Mastic, L. I. August 24, 1912. (J. T. 

Fig. 4. Least Sandpipers in concealing postures; one bird squatting. 
Mastic, L. I. September 1, 1912. (F. H.) 

Plate X. 

Fig. 1. Semipalmated Sandpipers. Jones Beach, L. I. May 25, 1913. 
(J. T. N.) 

The Auk, Vol. XXXlII. 

Plate XIII. 

1, 3. Black-bellied Plovers. 2, 4. Semipalmated Plovers. 

1916 J Nichols and Harper, Long Island Shore Birds. 200 

Fig. 2. Least Sandpipers (on left) and Semipalmated Sandpipers (on 
right). East Pond, Hicks Beach, L. I. September 8, 1912. (F. H.) 

Fig. 3. Semipahnated Sandpipers (and probably other species) rising 
from a mud-flat. Gilgo Flats, Jones Beach, L. I. July 28, 1912. (F. H.) 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. Oxeyes passing over decoys. Gilgo Flats, Jones Beach, L. I. 
September 4, 1911. (F. H.) 

Fig. 2. Greater Yellowlegs wheeling over decoys. Freeport, L. I. 
May 15, 1910. (F. H.) 

Fig. 3. Greater Yellowlegs coming in to decoys. Freeport, L. I. 
May 15, 1910. (F. H.) 

Fig. 4. Greater Yellowlegs hovering among decoys, with legs dangling, 
but unable to alight in deep water. Mastic, L. I. September 13, 1915. 
(F. H.) 

Plate XII. 

Lesser Yellowlegs. Mastic, L. I. 
Fig. 1. Flock alighted among decoys. Late July, 1913. (J. T. N.) 
Fig. 2. Flock passing over decoys. September 11, 1915. (F. H.) 
Fig. 3. Two birds dropping in. (In wheeling sharply, one has turned 

almost over.) September 11, 1915. (F. H.) 
Fig. 4. Single bird standing on mud-lump near decoys. September 1, 

1912. (F. H.) 

Plate XIII. 

Figs. 1, 3. Black-bellied Plovers. (Note the black axUlars showing in 
one of the flying birds.) East Pond, Hicks Beach, L. I. August 24, 1912. 
(F. H.) 

Figs. 2, 4. Semipalmated Plovers in front of blind at a pool on the 
salt marshes. Freeport, L. I. August 21 and 20, 1910. (F. H.) 

256 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [july 

Some Observations on the Study of Courtship in Birds. 

by julian s. huxley, b.a. 

{Concluded from p. 161.) 

Now let us consider a few practical suggestions. 

To begin with, the most valuable data are those secured through 
continuous watching. Choose a single species of bird breeding in a 
single locality, and resolve to get at the bottom of its life-history. 
This will mean visiting the place at least two or three times a week, 
(oftener if possible); make the visits as soon after sunrise as you 
can, for it is then that almost all diurnal birds show their greatest 
activity. If this is impracticable, then the middle of the morning 
is the next best time, and the late afternoon next. The heat of the 
day is usually poor. If you can be sure of the same pair time after 
time, so much the better. Anyhow, be resolved at each visit to 
follow out the behavior of individual pairs or birds for the longest 
possible period. x\fter you have obtained a general rough idea of 
the various actions performed by the species, you will find it in- 
finitely better, if you wish to get at their real meaning and connec- 
tion, to keep your attention on a single bird or pair (even if this 
involves long spells of apparently useless watching, during periods 
of rest or feeding), than to jump from one individual to another 
whenever something exciting happens. This I can personally 
testify to be of the greatest importance. 

Full notes should always be made, and should be made at the 
moment, or as soon after as possible, if they are not to lose half 
their value. Every week it is useful to go through your notes and 
make a little summary to see what new points have been gained, 
or on what you should especially concentrate during the week to 
come. A big scribbling pad is better than any bound notebook, 
as its use permits of the subsequent rearrangement of notes for 

Besides the one (or at most two) species you may choose for 



J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 257 

thorough investigation in any one year, other birds will constantly 
be bringing interesting points to your notice. These should, of 
course, all be put on record. I have tried various methods, and 
have at last come to regard the card-index and folder system as by 
far the most convenient. Have a card-index drawer of 3" X 5" 
or, preferably, 4" X 6" cards. Each species on which you have 
notes is to have its own place; the species should be arranged in 
some definite classificatory order, preferably that of the A. O. U. 
Check-List, with guide-cards for the families, and possibly others 
of another color for the genera. Or the genera and species can be 
arranged alphabetically within the limits of the family. On the 
cards belonging to each species your field notes should be sum- 
marized very briefly under various headings. I recommend the 
following sub-division as one affording easy reference: — 

(a) Autumn and Winter habits. 

(b) Actions connected with the beginning of the breeding season 
(?'. e. in monogamous birds, pairing-up habits). 

(c) Courtship and Display (including Song). 

(d) Fighting, and actions connected with Jealousy (including 
questions of Territory). 

(e) Nest-building, Egg-laying, and associated actions. 

(f) Incubation and care of the young. 

(g) General Miscellaneous notes, including localities, identifica- 
tion, call-notes, etc. 

A few remarks on the scope of these subdivisions will, I think, be 
useful; perhaps the best way is to put a set of questions which 
must be answered for any species before we can consider ourselves 
in possession of its full annual history. I will take the headings in 
their order. 

(a) Antumn and Winter habits: (1) Is the individual, pair, 
family, flock, or composite flock the unit? (Examples : In the Red- 
breast, Erithacus rubecula, the birds are solitary all through the 
winter; in early autumn the old birds and the full-grown young 
have fierce fights. This is due to the fact that the birds are non- 
migratory and in winter each requires a definite territory to support 
life. By composite flock I mean a flock composed of two or more 
species. For instance, in Europe Rooks and Jackdaws often feed 
together, and the small woodland non-migratory birds often band 

^58 Huxley, Bird-walching and Biological Science. [july 

together into flocks containing four or five species. I have seen 
three species of Paridse (P. major, P. coeruleus and P. ater) to- 
gether with Goldcrests (Regulus cristatus) and Creepers {Certhia 
familiaris) all travelling together through the tree-tops.) 

(2) If the flock is the unit, does the pair persist within the flock? 
(c/. the Dabchick, cited above, p. 149). In some birds this is 
definitely not the case, since the sexes separate and the flocks are 
almost all of one sex: e. g. Fringilla coelebs, the Chaffinch.) 

(3) In migratory birds, is the unit the same all through these 
months, or do the migrating flocks break up into pairs or individuals 
in their winter home? 

(4) Is there any recrudescence of courtship-action in early fall, 
or in warm days in winter? (After family duties are over and 
before there is any scarcity of food, many birds go through a modi- 
fied form of courtship. I have seen a pair of Kingfishers (Alcedo 
ispida) in October, in England, very obviously "courting." It 
would be of great interest to know in what ways the courtship of 
autumn differs from the typical courtship. A warm day in late 
winter often seems to arouse the dormant sexual actions, just as it 
induces a first attempt at song. This January I saw a Hermit 
Thrush, though c^uite alone, several times go through the motions 
of depressing the tail and drooping and spreading the wings, which 
on the one hand are the regular motions accompanying coition, 
and secondly have afforded the basis (by association of ideas) for a 
large number of the beautiful ceremonies of display.) 

(b) Actions connected with the heginning of the breeding season: 
(1) Is the species polygamous, polyandrous, promiscuous, or 
monogamous? If the last, does it pair for the season, or for life? 
(This question must be answered first, for naturally all the court- 
ship will stand in relation to the answer to it. One very important 
point is the numerical proportion of the sexes. In some of the 
Game-birds it appears that there may be a large excess of males, 
but in most species the numbers are pretty equal. It is obvious 
that this point will have an important bearing on courtship, and it 
figures prominently in discussions of the Sexual Selection theory.) 

(2) In those birds that are not monogamous, what actions 
initiate the breeding season? (very little is known on this point.) 

(3) In monogamous birds, what is the date of pairing-up? 


° 1916 J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 259 

And what relation does it ha\'e to migration in migratory species? 
(In the Killdeer it appears to take place before migration (see be- 
low), while in the migratory species of Old-world Warblers 
(Sylviidse) it begins, as is well-known, after migration. See Eliot 
Howard ('07) for details on this point.) 

(4) What is the mechanism, so to speak, of pairing-up? Is force 
used by the cock to the hen? (I do not think any cases of this are 
known.) Are there fights between cocks or between hens for the 
privilege of staying in the proximity of the bird of the opposite sex, 
who meanwhile is comparatively passive (the males of Mocking- 
birds and Thrushes seem to do this, and possibly the females too; 
Eliot Howard records many cases of such fighting among hens in the 
Sylviidse). Does the cock chase the desired hens until one consents 
to receive his advances? (This seems to be a very general method. 
It holds in many Ducks, probably in the Grebe, and in such species 
as the Killdeer, to speak only from my own experience.) Are there 
any special displays or other ceremonies associated with pairing-up, 
or does courtship in the sense of definite ceremonies only begin 
later? (It appears that the latter is frequently true. On this point 
compare what happens in Man ; before some agreement is reached, 
courtship is merely a series of approaches; it is only later that a 
purely objective observer, from Mars or elsewhere, would be able 
to record the existence of definite "ceremonies." On the other 
hand, the period of "approach" is characterized by a certain 
amount of " display -action " — attention to dress, showing-off of 
prowess, etc. — and in birds too there must exist something of the 
sort. The best-known example is the song of the migratory 
Sylviidse in Europe, where the males, who have migrated some days 
before the females, attract their mates by singing. It will be of 
great interest to see whether other birds show the same sort of 
display, only appealing to the eye instead of the ear.) 

(c) Courtship & Display: (1) Song: What are its dates of 
starting and stopping, and its relation to other activities? (In the 
Nightingale the song of the male ceases immediately the young 
are hatched, while the Song Thrush (Turdus musicus) sings nine 
or ten months of the year). Do both sexes sing? and if so, are the 
songs alike? (In the Cardinal the hens certainly sing, but not so 
well as the cocks.) 

260 HtrxLEY, Bird-watching and Biological Science. I July 

(2) Courtship-action: What are their details? Are they alike 
or not in the two sexes? (Great accuracy is needed, not merely in 
describing the different displays, but still more in following the 
sequence of events, and so analyzing the birds' mental states.) 

(3) Are there special structures brought into action by courtship? 
(Peacock, Crested Grebe.) If no special structures, are there spe- 
cial colors only brought into prominence at courtship? (The 
Redshank (Huxley, '12) by its actions during display brings into 
notice the red of its legs, and the white of its tail and of the under 
surface of its wings, which are usually hidden. The Fulmar and 
the Kittiwake ^ have the inside of the mouth colored " delicate 
mauvy-blue" in the one case, "lurid orange-red" in the other (I 
quote from Selous, '05, pp. 123, 126). This "interior decoration" 
is displayed in a form of Mutual Courtship. The Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet gives a very interesting intermediate stage between struc- 
ture-plus-color and color alone. The crown-feathers are ruby- 
red and slightly elongated; but the feathers on either side are so 
inserted as to cover over the bright patch in normal conditions. 
Only in moments of excitement is the red revealed; and the effect 
on the hen of such sudden flashing of the brilliant bit of color must 
be very great.) 

Are there neither special structures nor special colors, but only 
special actions of courtship? (This is apparently the case in most of 
the Sylviidse. All observations on similar birds will be of great 
interest, as in such cases courtship is at its most primitive.) 

(4) Is there a long period of " engagement" or does coition take 
place immediately after pairing-up? (The latter seems to be true 
e. g. in the Sylviidse; the former in many birds, such as the Crested 
Grebe, the Paridse, etc. Facts are sorely needed on this point.) 

(5) What is the relation of the courtship-actions to coition? 
(In e. g. the Blackcock and Redshank the one is an immediate 
preliminary and pre-requisite to the other, while in the Crested 
Grebe there is no direct connection at all, the courtship is "self- 
exhausting," and special ceremonies of an entirely different nature 
have been developed in relation to coition.) 

(d) Fighting and Jealousy: (1) Is the fighting between males 

' Fulmarus glacialus and Rissa iridaclyla. 

° 1916 ] Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 261 

fierce and genuine? (Tits, Thrushes, Mocking-birds) or is it degener- 
ate, one might almost say merely symbolic? (Blackcock, Red- 
shank, etc. Selous ('09) has some interesting remarks on this 

(2) Is there fighting between females? (Sylviidse; and I have 
seen a chase between two female Nighthawks lasting for over 
thirty minutes.) 

(3) How much of the fighting is due to mere sex-passion, and 
how much to jealousy proper? In other words, is it directed 
blindly against all others of the same sex, or definitely against a 
single intruder who is tampering with the mate's affections? (In 
the Grebe, jealousy is very strongly developed. We should expect 
to find jealousy where there is monogamy and mutual courtship. 
A special form of jealousy is seen in the Blackcock (Selous, '09) 
where the sight of a hen crouching to a cock rouses the anger of all 
the other cocks, who immediately rush at the successful suitor. 
Fighting due to mere sex-passion is seen in many Mammals, in such 
birds as fight previous to pairing-up, and in the ceremonial fights 
of such polygamists as the Blackcock.) 

(4) Does jealousy modify the courtship-actions? (In the Crested 
Grebe, "Shaking" between the members of a pafr after a flirtation 
by one of them, is of a special type.) * 

(e) Nest-building, Egg-laying, etc.: (1) Do both sexes share in 
nest-building, or not? If so, do they share equally? 

(2) How long does it take to build the nest? 

(3) How many nests are built? (The Grebe builds two or 
three, the European Wren ( Troglodytes parvidus) and the American 
Magpie {Pica p. hudsonia) often four or five.) 

(4) Is there more than one kind of nest? (The Bower of the 
Bower-bird of Australia is probably a modified nest, while the 
pairing-platform of the Crested Grebe is undoubtedly so.) 

(5) Is there any form of courtship specially connected with 
nest-building? (Many birds during courtship carry leaves, twigs 
and other nest-materials in their beaks — e. g. Sylviidse, Crested 
Grebe. Others that nest on the ground have displays in which 
kicking and scraping the earth, pressing or rolling the breast on the 
earth play a part {e. g. the Ostrich, and the Peewit {Vanellus 
cristatus); see Selous, '01.) 

262 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [july 

(6) Does either courtship or coition go on after the laying of the 
first egg, or all the eggs? (We would expect both to go on till all 
are laid, but not many facts have been collected on this head.) 

(f) Incuhation and Care of the Young: (1) Do both sexes share 
in incubation? and if they share, do they share equally? (It is in- 
teresting to find the cocks of some species with marked sexual di- 
morphism sharing the duties of incubation; e. g. Ostrich, Blackcap 
(Sylvia atricapilla). This latter, in addition to possessing a black 
head distinguishing him from the brown-capped hen, is one of the 
four or five best European songsters, and is reported by many 
authorities to sing while actually brooding the eggs! In some cases 
where the sexes share, the cock takes less of the duty, e. g. a friend 
has told me that in case of danger near the nest, the cock Crested 
Grebe will not go and sit himself, but yet will attempt to drive the 
hen back.) 

(2) Do both sexes share in feeding the young? and if so, do they 
share equally? (Here too we get indications that the male's 
assistance is a comparatively recent development of evolution. 
He is often not quite so bold or assiduous as the female. Old 
Colonel Montagu brought a Goldcrest's nest from its natural situa- 
tion, first on to his window-ledge, and then into his room; the male 
had continued to help feed the young while the nest was on the 
outside of the window, but refused ever to enter the room; but 
the hen remained as assiduous as ever, and succeeded in rearing 
the brood.) 

(g) General Miscellaneous Notes: Nothing much need be said 
on this head. It is always well to remember that some actions of 
birds seem to be gone through simply for the sake of releasing energy 
in a pleasurable way, simply because the bird enjoys doing them. 
Gulls, for instance, in early Spring fly round in aerial evolutions, 
now solitary, now social; I have seen Wagtails (Motacilla lugubris) 
in bright days in Autumn dart and run over the lawn and sing as if 
possessed. In neither case was there the least connection with 
courtship. In addition, some actions which have been developed 
in evolution as part of courtship may be used to liberate energy 
thus pleasurably (cf. from a similar point of view, children singing 
and dancing when they are happy. They may do it spontaneously, 
and then the sound or motion will be haphazard; but if they have 

° 1916 J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 263 

been taught particular songs or dances, they will almost certainly 
reproduce some phrases or motions of these. What they have 
learned thus serves as a channel through which the emotion can be 
liberated.) As examples of this in birds, we may take the song of 
those species, like the common European Thrush {Turdus mvsicns) 
or the Redbreast {Erithacus rubecula), which continue singing 
almost or quite through the winter. The aerial tumblings of 
Ravens, Curlews, Herons and other birds should also probably be 
included here. 

If desired, other headings can of course be added, on such topics 
as food-habits, migration, etc. One interesting point that has not 
received much attention is the variation of habits in varieties of a 
single species; e. g. the different songs of the Eastern and Western 
Meadowlark {Sturnella magna and S. negleda). In Europe I have 
noticed that the Marsh Tit {Parus palustris) has a long and quite 
musical song on the Continent, while in England it restricts itself 
to call-notes. 

The best method for keeping the actual field notes is to file them 
in folders. Each folder has a number corresponding to the number 
of the species in the card-index. The numbers used in the A. O. U. 
Check-list may be used with advantage. In the folder the notes 
had best be dated and arranged chronologically, and reference from 
the cards to the notes will then be by date. 

Let me take a concrete case. In February of this year I have 
been seeing a little of the earliest pairing-up habits of the Killdeer. 
While the birds are still in flocks, and the majority of them still 
far south of their breeding-places, this process is already beginning. 
Most of the flocks are simply feeding and resting unconcernedly as 
they have been doing all winter; but here and there one bird will 
be seen flying up close to another, who in turn will usually take 
wing and fly off, often to be pursued two or three times. A still 
smaller proportion of the flock seems to be already paired, and may 
be seen going through a ceremony together; I have not yet quite 
got the details of this, but both birds seem to participate, walking 
round and round each other in a strange formal way with heads 
pointing in opposite directions and necks straightened stiffly out, 
at the same time uttering a curious soft note. In passing, I may 
say that the Killdeer should be a good species in which to study 

264 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [july 

pairing-up. Personally I believe that the above facts should be 
interpreted thus — that the cocks fly up to the hens, either indis- 
criminately, or more probably, I believe, to those they uncon- 
sciously prefer; the hens in their turn either do not feel drawn to 
the suitors, in which case they reject them by repeatedly flying 
away, or else they are in their turn attracted by one of the cocks. 
This attraction depends on three factors; — (i.) the physiological 
state of the hen; (ii.) the instinctive mental (psychic) preference 
felt by the female for particular males, which must exist in birds 
as well as it obviously does in Man, though perhaps in different 
degree; (iii.) the persistence of the cock, which will tend to win 
the hen if she is doubtful but not unfavorably inclined, although it 
will make her more obstinate if she is repugnant from the first. 

Once a hen consents to let a cock come right up, the next step is 
not coition, of which there is no question for many weeks, but this 
mutual courtship-action which to me appears as the link binding 
the pair together before the time of fertilization and nest-building. 
Be this interpretation as it may (and I confess that there are many 
little gaps yet to be bridged over), I yet have some definite facts, 
and they are filed as follows. 

In the card-index the Killdeer (Oxycchus vociferus) comes under 
the family Charadriidce, with the A. O. U. number 273. In my 
vertical file is a folder labelled 273 Killdeer. In this are my notes, 
under dates Feb. 7, 15 and Feb. 21, 15. In the card-index after 
the card of the species follows a card labelled (a) with the remark 
"common in small flocks throughout winter, Houston." Then 
one labelled (b), on which is written; 

Approach flights of d^ Feb. 

Chase of 9 by cf Feb. 

Chase repeated twice Feb. 

Some birds paired Feb. 

Paired birds going through a 

ceremony Feb. 7, 15 

When I have some more data, I shall go through all my facts and 
write a short summary of the pairing-up on another card which will 
also bear the heading (b). 

The general system is now clear; it can be easily modified to 
suit anybody's ideas. Its chief advantages are ease of reference, 

7, 15. 

Feb. 21, 15 

7, 15. 

Feb. 21, 15 

1, 15 

7, 15 

1916 J Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 265 

and the way in which facts under various headings can be sum- 
marized as they accumulate. 

I intend to go on collecting data on courtship of birds for a num- 
ber of years, and will be very grateful if other watchers will send me 
facts. Of course fragmentary details are not of much value, and 
in the case of diary notes made on the spot, a short summary under 
various headings will enormously reduce the labor involved in 
digesting the notes. 

Before I close I would like to mention a few problems that have 
occurred to me during the short time I have been in America — 
problems that would be far better attacked by a number of watchers. 

In the first place the whole conception of mutual courtship is 
new, and has to be worked out in detail. As definite problems here, 
I would suggest the following. 

(1) What is the course of events in the Meadowlark, a bird 
with marked protective coloration above, and with its tail showing 
recognition marks, but with brilliant and probably sexual colora- 
tion on the breast, which is equally developed in both sexes? 

(2) What is the meaning of the duets which only a few weeks 
ago I heard performed by the Barred Owl {Strix varia)? One per- 
former gave a variation of the regular hooting, while the other 
rendered the same musical phrase, but in tones of demoniacal 
laughter, and alternating its notes with those of its mate. Bendire 
has a note on this remarkable habit. 

In what was probably the Short-eared Owl I have seen remark- 
able " bowing duets," the birds curtseying to each other in exagger- 
ated fashion. In the Dabchick, the vocal duet is the most promi- 
nent feature of courtship, taking the place of the head-shaking 
of the Great Crested Grebe. 

(3) In a single group, like the Sparrows, we find very different 
gradations of sexual coloration. What is the difference between 
the courtship of such species as the Chipping Sparrow, the Lark 
Sparrow, the English Sparrow, and the White-throated Sparrow? 
In the first two, both sexes are alike, but the first species is sober- 
colored, the second distinctly gay; the last two show sexual 
dimorphism in varying degree. Still other species could equally 
well be chosen for the study. 

(4) In the Woodpeckers, both sexes are usually fairly brilliant, 

266 HxjxLEY, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [j^Jjy 

but the male is often distinguished by a very small patch of red 
on the head. To correlate this with courtship-habits would in 
itself be interesting; and still more so would be to compare the 
courtship of the average Woodpecker with that of the Red-Headed 
Woodpecker, where both sexes are in the first place similar, and in 
the second place brilliantly colored. 

(5) Various similar interesting comparisons within groups can 
be made. E. g. between the Robin and the various Thrushes; or 
between the sexually dimorphic Ducks and the sexually similar 
Geese and Swans. 

(6) The whole family of Grebes (Podicipidse) is one in which 
very interesting results will be forthcoming. There is every variety 
in the degree of ornament while the sexes are on the whole very simi- 
lar. For instance, in the Dabchick and the Pied-billed Grebe there 
is very little ornament, and in the Dabchick at least the mutual 
displays are largely vocal. In the Great Crested Grebe and the 
Horned Grebe there is a great deal of ornament accompanied, in 
the former species at least, by elaborate mutual ceremonies. 

(7) In most sea-birds mutual courtship seems to be the rule. 
From my own unpublished observations it seems to be at its most 
primitive and unspecialized among the Gulls. 

Selous ('05) has some interesting notes on Guillemots, Fulmars 
and Kittiwakes. 

The Puffin (Fratercula ardica) in which during the breeding- 
season the bill in both sexes enlarges enormously and becomes 
brilliantly colored, will undoubtedly furnish interesting data; I 
recommend it to all those who love the grotesque. 

(8) Finally, the Heron family is extremely interesting. In it the 
sexes always resemble each other; but while the Bitterns are on the 
whole sober and unornamented, we get crests and breast-plumes in 
such forms as the Louisiana and the Great Blue Heron, and most 
elaborate and often exquisite ornaments in species like the Reddish 
Egret, the Snowy Heron, and the ill-starred American Egret. I 
have absolutely no doubt in prophesying that these latter birds will 
show most elaborate and beautiful mutual dances and displays.^ 

1 Since the above was written, I have had the opportunity to study the courtship of the 
Snowy Egret and Louisiana Heron on Mr. Mcllhenny's remarkable Heron-pond in Louisi- 
ana. The results, though shortly to be published in extenso, are worth brief mention here. 

1916 ] Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 267 

Besides Mutual Courtship, another interesting subject is that of 
social gatherings at pairing-time. I had a little opportunity of 
seeing the gatherings of the Blue Jaj' last spring in Georgia, and it 
seemed to me that the gatherings resembled our dances in one 
respect — in that they " gave opportunities for the young men and 
women to meet each other." I should welcome all notes on this 
subject. The Flicker also has gatherings in early spring. As 
early as February 20th of this year I saw a gathering of ten or 
twelve in a large tree, but was unable to see anything of what was 
going on. 

The Swifts and Swallows might prove interesting, especially the 
former, with their aerial chases of an evening. They are said, 
apparently on good authority, even to perform the act of pairing 
in mid-air. 

Next comes another set of interesting problems — those of the 
reversal of the usual habits and duties of the sexes. The Phala- 
ropes are the classic instance of this, and would well bear re-investi- 
gation. On the other hand, all the Hawks and Falcons show it 
to some extent, and in some ways would more repay watching, 
since in them the process is still in its early stages. Here, from what 
few facts are known, it seems that there may be a regular Darwin- 
ian courtship by the cock; this, in these aerial lords, takes the 
form of a series of wonderful display-flights. In the Kestrel 
{Falco tinnunculu^) I myself have witnessed a cock time after time 

As I prophesied in this paper, there is a marked "mutual courtship," though not of quite 
such an elaborate nature as I had expected from my experience with the Crested Grebe. 
The most interesting thing about it, perhaps, is the fact that there is a regular honeymoon 
of two or three days, during which the pair sit together on the nest-site they have just 
chosen, and, without attempting to start building, are content with running their bUls 
through each other's aigrettes, huddUng close up to each other, and now and again giving 
a burst of quite elaborate mutual display — neck raised, wings drooped, and feathers 
bristled. After this honeymoon, the mutual displays go on, not merely throughout the 
period of nest-building, taking place whenever a stick is brought to the nest by one bird, 
to be laid by the other; but right through the time of incubation and care of the young, 
occurring whenever one bird reheves the other on the nest. 

But at the very beginning, before pairing-up occurs, there appears to be a pure Darwinian 
courtship, the males showing off their plumage in a special display to the females, who on 
their peu't do not use their plumes in display at all until after they are paired up. Thus 
we get Darwinian display before pairing, and Mutual display after pairing — a state of 
affairs to me at least entirely unexpected, but showing once more how important aie the 
very earliest manifestations of courtship — the pairing-up habits — and how essential 
it is to follow the course of events in any one species of bird throughout the whole of the 

268 Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. [juiy 

come swooping down the wind straight at the hen (who was 
perched on a bough), swerving high into the air when barely a 
yard from her; sometimes he would swing up so close to her 
that she would start back fluttering so as not to fall off her perch. 
A friend who knows the Peregrine Falcon in the Welsh mountains 
tells me that similar but even more startling evolutions are per- 
formed by the cock in this species. On the other hand, when it 
comes to incubation and the feeding of the j^oung, it is the large 
and strong female who apparently usurps most of the ordinary 
duties of the male, for she does most of the catching of prey, 
while he sits longer on the eggs and young (see Heatherly, '13). 
It is obvious that observations here will be of interest. 

In the Belted Kingfisher, the hen has a chestnut breast-band, 
which is absent in the cock. Here the female would appear to be 
the brighter, and investigation of the courtship, with this in mind, 
might be of value. 

Finally I would suggest that the nuptial habits of the Turkey 
Buzzard and Black Vulture would be interesting from a quite 
special point of view. It is either an obvious, or else a startling 
fact, according to your point of view, to find that the lower animals 
have on the whole the same basis of aesthetic standards as ourselves. 
This is shown, for instance, by the preponderance of colors and 
forms that are agreeable to us in the courtship-structures of birds 
and other animals, or by the fact that flowers attract bees and 
butterflies by means of colors and scents that we too find beautiful 
or pleasant. On the other hand, some flowers rely for their fertiliza- 
tion upon carrion-feeding flies, and the colors they have developed 
are lurid yellows or fleshy pinks, with odors that are strong and 
often disagreeable (to us). (See Weismann, the Evolution Theory.) 

The American Vultures too are carrion-feeders; such "orna- 
ments" as they possess — the naked colored skin of the head, 
and the frill of feathers round the neck, are, although striking 
enough, yet hideous to our eyes. It would be a further notable 
piece of evidence in favor of Professor Washburn's idea of the 
animal mind, a further corroboration of the idea that there are 
spiritual as well as material natural laws underlying biological facts, 
if it were found that the courtship-action of these scavengers lacked 
all the normal grace of birds' love-making, and were to our eyes as 

^"'loie^^ ] Huxley, Bird-watching and Biological Science. 269 

repulsive as their food is to our noses and their feeding-habits to 
our ideas. 

In conclusion, I would like to thank 'The Auk' for so courteously 
extending its pages to me; I hope that these notes and suggestions 
may do something of what I intended they should do — I hope 
that they will show that bird-watching is the foundation of a real 
science, the science of the behavior of birds in their natural en- 
vironment. Bird-watching, too, is in itself a sport, as all who have 
tried it well know; but those who attempt to understand the 
motives of the birds, the connection of their doings and the origin 
of their various habits, will find themselves not only experiencing 
the sportsman's thrill, but also the intellectual interest of the de- 
tective piecing together the broken chain of evidence, and the 
human feelings of a spectator at the play. 

Department of Biology, The Rice Institute, 
Houston, Texas. 
October, 1915. 

Erratum p. 146, line 1, for Toucans read Hornbills. 


Works marked with an * are not referred to in the text, but are recom- 
mended as general works on the subject. 

Bexdire. — Life-histories of American Birds. 

* Brehm, a. E.— Thierleben, Vols. Ill and IV. (Birds.) 
Darwin, C — The descent of Man and Selection in relation to Sex. 
Heatherley, F.— The Home-life of the Peregrine Falcon. London, 1913. 

(I quote the title from memory.) 
Howard, H. E.— The British Warblers. London, 1907-1914. 
Huxley, J. S. 

('12.) A first account of the Courtship of the Redshank. Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1912. 
('14.) The Courtship of the Great Crested Grebe, etc. Ibid., 1914. 
Hudson, W. H. — The naturalist in La Plata. London, Chapman & Hall, 

* Journal of Animal Behaviour, The. 

Morgan, T. H.— Heredity and Sex. New York, 1914. 
Xewton, a. 

('93.) Dictionary of Birds. London, 1893. 

270 Murphy, Anatidos of South Georgia. [j^iy 

Pycraft, W. p. — The Courtship of Animals. London, Hutchinson & Co., 

Selous, E. 

('01.) An observational Diary of the Habits of the Great Crested 
Grebe (includes observations on the Peewit). Zoologist, 
1901 and 1902. 
('051) The Bird Watcher in the Shetlands. N. Y., Button, 1905. 
('052) *Bird Life Glimpses. London, Allen, 1905. 
('09.) An Observational Diary on the Nuptial Habits of the Black- 
cock, etc. Zoologist, 1909 and 1910. 
('13.) A Diary of Ornithological observation in Iceland. Zoologist, 
Washburn, M. F.— The Animal Mind. Macmillan, New York, 1909. 
Weismann, a. — The Evolution Theory. 

* Zoologist, The. — - West, Newman & Co., London, monthly. (Many 
papers on Natural History). 



Plate XIV. 

This paper is the twelfth ^ deahng with the ornithological results 
of the South Georgia Expedition of the Brooklyn Museum and the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Nettion georgicum (Gmel.) 

Anas georgica, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 2, 1788, 516. 

Querquedula eatoni, von den Steinen, Intern. Polarforsch., 1882-83, Deutsch. 
Exp. II, 1890, 219 and 273. 

1 A list of the preceding papers, not including several brief notes, follows: (1) Preliminary 
Description of a New Petrel, 'The Auk,' 1914, 12, 13; (2) A Flock of Tubinares, 'The Ibis,' 

1914, 317-319; (3) Observations on Birds of the South Atlantic, 'The Auk,' 1914, 439^57; 
(4) A Review of the Genus Phcebelria, 'The Auk,' 1914, 526-534; (5) Anatomical Notes on 
the Young of Phalacrocorax alriceps georgianus, Sci. Bull. Brooklyn Mus., II, 4, 1914, 95- 
102; (6) Birds of Fernando Noronha, 'The Auk,' 1915, 41-50; (7) The Atlantic Range of 
Leach's Petrel, 'The Auk," 1915, 170-173; (8) The Bird Life of Trinidad Islet, 'The Auk,' 

1915, 332-348; (9) The Penguins of South Georgia, Sci. Bull. Brooklyn Mus. II, 5, 1915, 
103-133; (10) Notes on American Subantarctic Cormorants, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV 

1916, 31-48; (11) Two New Diving Petrels, Bull. A. M. N. H., XXXV, 1916, 6.5-67. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate XIV. 

1. South GEORtaA Teal. 

2. Magellanic Goose. 

1916 ] Murphy, Anatidoe of South Georgia. 271 

Querquedula antarctica, Cabanis, Journ. f. Ornith., 1888, 118, pi. 1. 
Nettion georgicum, Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XXVII, 1895, 264; 
Lonnberg, Kungl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl. XL, 5, 1906, 66. 

Endemic Anatinte inhabit several of the subantarctic islands, 
the species peculiar to South Georgia being the southernmost of 
the whole group. This little teal was among the birds noted by 
Captain James Cook in January, 1775, on the occasion of the first 
recorded landing at South Georgia. 

Eleven adults and one duckling were collected by the writer 
between November, 1912, and March, 1913. A single additional 
skin was received subseciuently from Mr. Jose G. Correia, of New 
Bedford, Mass. 

Under the new name Querquedula antarctica, Cabanis in 1888 
published a colored plate of this teal. The figure is poor as regards 
both contour and coloration, and the bill is shown entirely black. 
Lonnberg {loc. cit. Taf. 2) illustrates the head of a male, showing 
correctly the distribution of color on the bill, but here again the 
yellow of the lithograph is very unlike the hue of the living bird's 
bill. I had Lonnberg's plate with me at South Georgia, and com- 
pared it with freshly killed teals. 

Lonnberg's description of the species leaves little to be desired. 
It should be amended to this slight extent, viz., mature females, 
as well as males, have the central velvety black stripe along the 
tertials, although on the average it is slightly more pronaunced in 
male specimens. In general, the female is distinguishable only by 
the dull speculum and slightly smaller size. The entire speculum 
in each of my eight adult males has a green gloss when viewed 
obliquely. Birds in fresh plumage have conspicuously whitish 
breasts, due to wide colorless margins on the feathers which subse- 
quently wear away, leaving only the brown central portions. 

Flesh colors. Iris dark brown. Culmen, nail, and distal border 
of maxilla, black; remainder of tip of bill, slaty blue; sides of 
maxilla Naples-yellow, becoming greenish where it blends with the 
blue tip. Legs and feet olive-green, mottled with sooty-brown. 

Measurements in millimeters. 

Eight males, collected between November 30 and December 30. 
Length (skins), 418^45; wing, 211-222; tail, 93-104; culmen. 


Murphy, Anatidm of South Georgia, 


from frontal feathers, 32-36; width of bill at base, 12.5-16; tarsus, 
35.5-39; middle toe and claw, 45-51. 

Four females, collected between December 1 and March 3. 
Length (skins), 390-412; wing, 195-207; tail, 85-93; culmen, 
from frontal feathers, 31-34; width of bill at base, 12-15; tarsus, 
35-36; middle toe and claw, 46-49. 










of 8 males 









" 4 females 








The testes of a male shot on December 1, 1912 measured 38 X 19 

The crop of a female collected January 2, 1913, contained marine 

Salvador! (/. c, p. 264), without having seen a specimen of 
Nettion georgicum, concludes that its affinities are with the group of 
teals containing the South American species A'^. flamrostrc, N. 
oxypteruvi, and N . aridium. A comparison of my specimens with 
all of these, however, shows that the South Georgia bird is quite 
distinct. Its real relationship, hitherto unsuspected, is with the 
duck known as Dafila spmicauda (Vieill.), a widely distributed 
species, occurring, apparently in the form of several undescribed 
geographic races, from Brazil to the Straits of Magellan and the 
Falkland Islands. The South Georgian teal is, indeed, almost a 
facsimile of Dafila spinicauda, smaller, considerably darker (espe- 
cially on the under surface), but with similar proportions, the same 
pattern and distribution of color over the whole body including the 
bill (fide R. H. Beck, label), the same wholly black speculum with a 
green sheen, the same black-striped tertials and pointed tail. Dr. 
Frank M. Chapman, who first called my attention to the striking 
resemblance between the South Georgia birds and skins of Dafila 
spinicauda in the magnificent Brewster-Sanford collection, remarked 
at the same time that the case furnished an excellent example of 
taxonomic relationship obscured by inaccurate nomenclature. 

^°'- i^'^6^^"] Murphy, Anatidce of South Georgia. 273 

Considering the similarity of these two ducks, it is rather sur- 
prising to discover that Dafila spinicauda has only fourteen rec- 
trices, whereas Ncttion gcorgicum has sixteen. Usually, among 
the Anatidse as well as other groups, the larger species have the 
greater number of tail feathers, but here the rule is reversed. 
Dafila acuta has sixteen rectrices, so that in this character it is no 
closer to D. spinicauda than the latter is to Nettion georgicum, 
while in all its other characters it is vastly further removed. In 
short, after comparing the color pattern, the proportionate dimen- 
sions of bill, wing, foot and tail, the shape of the central and outer- 
most rectrices, and the graduation of the primaries, in these three 
species of ducks, I am forced to the conclusion that Dafila spini- 
cauda, the closest known relative of Nettion georgicum, should 
likewise be relegated to the genus Ncttion, or else a new genus, 
intermediate between Dafila and Nettion, should be erected to 
contain it. 

Since the establishment of numerous whaling stations at South 
Georgia, the native teal has fared badly, the whalemen losing no 
opportunity of bringing the toothsome birds to table. In the 
neighborhood of Cumberland Bay its numbers have been greatly 
reduced, although I saw six, all extremely wild, on November 28, 
1912. Fortunately, the configuration of the land at South Georgia 
is of a character to prevent the extermination of the species, for 
the half dozen northern fiords to which the whaling stations are 
confined are for the most part separated from adjacent fiords by 
impassable glaciers and ice-capped ranges. Therefore the teals 
may be wiped out in one valley, and yet be abundant just beyond 
the next mountain. Judging from several accounts of South 
Georgia, particularly that of Klutschak (1881), these birds are not 
found at all on the southerly or Antarctic slope of the island. 

At the isolated Bay of Isles, I found the teals common about 
the middle of December, which corresponds to our June. They 
were more numerous on the islets in the bay than on the mainland, 
and were remarkably unsophisticated, allowing bands of men to 
walk right up to them as they fished for amphipods from the rocks 
in the kelp fields at low tide, or dabbled in the fresh water ponds 
that filled every hollow of the grassy islands. As they fed, they 
quacked softly from time to time. 

274 Murphy, Anatidce of South Georgia. iJuly 

On December 29, Mr. Correia and I came across a pair of these 
birds, whose photograph is here reproduced, while they were 
feeding in a tiny glacial streamlet on the mainland south of the 
Bay of Isles. They were well hidden by tall tussock {Poa flahel- 
lata), and we did not see them until we had almost stumbled 
over them. They seemed unconcerned, however, and continued 
prodding about in the mud. When I stepped within six feet, they 
raised their heads and waddled farther off among the hummocks, 
from where they peered out through a screen of drooping grass. 
All but their bright eyes and yellow bills blended completely with 
the surroundings. Much against our sentiment, Mr. Correia shot 
the female, as up to that time I had been able to collect only two 
of this sex. The drake flew off whistling, with a teal's characteristic 
speed. Two or three of the duck-hunting Norwegian whalemen 
informed me that if, on the other hand, we had shot the drake, his 
mate would have refused to leave the spot. If this be true, does 
it indicate peculiar fidelity, or merely dependence and lack of 

Certainly the female teals as well as the males show plenty of 
courage and resourcefulness when it comes to the protection of 
their young. The ever-present enemy at South Georgia is the skua 
(Catharada), and when a teal and its brood of ducklings are sur- 
prised the parent feigns lameness in a manner which needs no 
description, while the downy young disappear like magic in the 
tussock grass. I have hunted on hands and knees for half an hour, 
but, like my predecessors, I failed to locate even one of the silent, 
practically invisible youngsters. Oiu- ship's fox terrier, however, 
was more successful. On February 6, 1913, after the dog had been 
called back from a "wild goose chase," that is from following a 
mother teal which had been duping him, he sniffed about the spot 
where the family had been flushed, and at length caught one tiny 
duckling. It had evidently been recently hatched, and was a 
pretty, brown, long-tailed, confident little bird. It sat on my hand 
in the ship's cabin and preened itself, stroking its back with its 
bill, and scratching its head with its foot. It could also jump 
lightly from considerable heights to the floor without being injured 
in the least. 

During the last few days of February, we found the teals abun- 

^°'"l9i^"'] MvRVUY, Anatidce of South Georgia. 275 

dant and exceedingly tame on the east shore of Possession Bay, 
several miles back from the ocean front. Here they fed in the 
ponds and in the bare, wet runways between tussock hummocks. 
Many times pairs came whizzing toward me down the wind, 
wheeling to face it just before they settled on the ground or water, 
generally within a few yards of me. I often startled parents with 
their broods, and heard the sharp note of alarm as the ducklings 
scampered to cover. Once a misguided skua pounced down upon 
a female as she was fluttering lamely around me, but the duck flew 
away with a bound and easily distanced her enemy. On other 
occasions skuas carried off in their bills teals which the mate of 
our vessel had just shot. Many previous collectors have likewise 
been exasperated by this bold trick of the skua. 

On February 28, I discovered a teal's nest on top of a hummock, 
close beside a pond and two hundred yards from the shore of 
Possession Bay. It was covered by dead, standing blades of grass 
which completely arched it over. The sitting duck peeped out 
when I approached, but did not leave until I touched the hum- 
mock. The nest was lined with dead grass and a very few feathers, 
and held five eggs which lay with their small ends together in the 
deep bowl. The eggs were rounded-ovate, and cream colored, 
with a highly polished surface. Believing them to be heavily 
incubated, I did not disturb them. 

Members of the German expedition of 1882-83 observed the 
first pairing of the teals on November 19, the first eggs on December 
8, and the first young on December 18. The majority of the young, 
according to von den Steinen, were nearly full-grown by the end of 
January; but newly hatched ducklings were seen again in the 
middle of February, and one still in the down was noted as late as 
March 15. Possibly the birds normally rear two broods, or it may 
be that a second laying is often forced through the destruction of 
the first eggs by skuas. 

Five eggs and young is the number reported by Lonnberg, and 
the number that I noted invariably. The comparative smallness 
of the brood conforms to a general state of affairs among birds of 
the far south, where the struggle for existence may be considered 
as peculiarly severe. Thus the Antarctic terns, both Sterna 
vittata of South Georgia, and Sterna hirundinacea of the Powell 

276 Murphy, Anatidce of South Georgia. [jujy 

Islands (South Orkneys), lay but a single egg as against the larger 
sets of their northern congeners. It would seem, as a rule, that 
birds whose downy young are particularly liable to fall a prey to 
such enemies as predatory carnivores, fish, or turtles, e. g. many 
northern waterfowl, lay a large number of eggs; but that southern 
species, among which the chief source of danger lies in the destruc- 
tion of the eggs before hatching, either by exposure to the perpet- 
ually chilly weather, or discovery by the skua, have uniformly 
small sets. Many northern water birds are known to cover their 
eggs with down or vegetation and to abandon them temporarily. 
At South Georgia, where the equalized, mean annual temperature 
is close to the freezing point, even brief exposure means certain 
death to the eggs, as I observed in the penguin colonies. Under 
these conditions, it is obvious that a small number of eggs can be 
more successfully incubated than a large number. It must be 
admitted, however, that the application of this rule to the one-egg 
sets of certain tropical birds, such as Gijgis and An'ous, is rather 

I seldom if ever saw more than two dozen South Georgia teals 
during one day, and I should say that although the species is com- 
mon, and well distributed along the temperate coast of the island, 
it has never attained the abundance and relative dominance of its 
counterpart, Dafila eatoni, at the somewhat less polar region of 
Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. At Kerguelen, 
British officers of the Transit of Venus Expedition are said to have 
shot more than two thousand teals within a radius of eight miles. 
Such a slaughter could not be duplicated at South Georgia, al- 
though both von den Steinen and Lonnberg report that in winter 
the teals gather in flocks of a hundred or more along the shores of 
the fiords. The latter writer says also that the males are more 
numerous than the females, a statement which my observations 
tend to confirm. 

Chloephaga magellanica (Gmel.). 

The upland goose is an introdviced species at South Georgia, a 
few pairs having been imported from the Falkland Islands in 1910 
or 1911 by Mr. J. Innes Wilson, British Magistrate at Cumberland 

1916 J Murphy, Anatidoe of South Georgia. ^11 

Bay. The immediate reason for the experiment, as Mr. Wilson 
informed me, was that the fine bird had become persofia non grata 
to sheep ranchers in the Falklands, because it was designed by 
nature to feed upon grass, and hence was considered an impediment 
to the fattening of mutton. So the Falklanders had outlawed the 
goose, and placed a bounty upon its head. 

Mr. Wilson freed the transported birds in the admirably adapted, 
grassy country about W^estfiord, Cumberland Bay, where they 
increased and spread encouragingly, apparently assured of a future 
in a land in which they would be forever untroubled by the rivalry 
of sheep. I saw about a dozen adults in this region on December 
9, 1912. 

Unfortunately, some of the whalemen from a neighboring sta- 
tion have persisted in hunting the geese in defiance of the law. A 
letter received from South Georgia during 1915 stated that the 
number had been reduced to six or seven birds which had a very 
slight chance of repleting the population. 

During our stay in Cumberland Bay, the cabin boy of the Daisy 
came aboard one evening in high glee, bringing in his pockets five 
very young upland geese which he had captured in one of the W^est- 
fiord lakes. Ordinarily I should have been glad to receive speci- 
mens, but in the case of this species I felt constrained to carry the 
lively goslings back to their home, and, if the parents did not appear 
after a time, to attempt to rear the young in captivity. But the 
former experiment was a complete success. Arriving next morning 
at the lake, we saw several pairs of adults lurking on the far side. 
One of the goslings peeped, and immediately a guttural clucking 
came in answer from across the water and a barred goose began to 
swim straight toward us, followed at a discreet distance by the 
snow-white gander. I put the young brood in the lake, but each 
gosling attempted to scramble out, until it heard the call of the 
approaching mother, when all five turned their tails and swam 
bravely away. The parents joyfully received their family again, 
and the flotilla disappeared around a point of land with the young- 
sters well guarded, side by side between the goose and her pompous 


2/8 Miller, Classification of the Scoters. [ 




The Scoters form a group of sea-ducks allied to the Eiders, 
marked by their prevaiHng black plumage and their particolored 
and variously swollen bills. The unbarred plumage of the females, 
the unmodified syrinx, and the buffy instead of greenish eggs are 
other diagnostic features. 

The six species are usually combined in one genus, Oidemia, with 
three subgenera. These have at times been recognized as full 
genera, as by Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway in 1884. Reichenow 
(1913) considers Pelionetta (the Surf Scoter) sufficiently distinct 
from the two other subgenera combined to stand by itself. The 
unnaturalness of the latter arrangement is obvious in view of the 
facts cited below, and on the other hand I believe the recognition 
of three genera is unnecessary. 

The form and feathering of the bill is quite unlike in the tliree 
subgenera ■ — indeed no two species agree in these respects and for . 
this reason the value of these differences as generic characters is 
very doubtful. However, three well-marked structural characters 
that have been more or less lost sight of, though all three are 
described by MacGillivray in Audubon's Birds of America, to- 
gether with a number of other peculiarities, render it necessary, in 
my opinion, to restrict Oidemia to 0. nigra and 0. americana. 
Melanitta will then be used generically for the three White-winged 
Scoters, M. fusca, M. deglandi and M. carho, and also for the Surf 
Scoter, M. perspicillata (subgenus Pelionetta). 

Dr. Dwight, in his article in 'The Auk' (July, 1914, p. 293) has 
called attention to the emarginate outer primary in true Oidemia, a 
character strangely forgotten for many years. Correlated with 
this is another structural peculiarity that has been largely over- 
looked though mentioned by Coues in his 'Key.' In Oidemia 
there are sixteen tail-feathers, in Melanitta and Pelionetta only 
fourteen. Further, in the first-named the tail is longer and much 
more graduated, the feathei's narrower and more pointed. 

The third difference is in the form of the trachea. In the males 

1916 ] Miller, Classification of the Scoters. 279 

of Melanitta and Pelionetta the trachea is abruptly enlarged at its 
upper end and again at a point some distance above its bifurcation 
into the two bronchi. At least the lower of these two bulbous 
enlargements is possessed by many other genera of Ducks. Both 
however, are wholly wanting in true Oidemia, which also differs in 
having the bronchi somewhat enlarged. After describing the 
lar}Tix of Oidemia americana, MacGilli\Tay (Birds of America, 
1843, p. 346) remarks: "It is indeed very remarkable that this 
species, so nearly allied to the Velvet (White-winged) and Surf 
Ducks, should present no dilatations, either at the upper larynx, 
or in the course of the trachea, as are seen in them * * * The 
trachea of the male of this species merely resembles that of the 
female of the other species." MacGillivTay states that the trachea 
of the Surf Scoter " presents the same structure as that of the Velvet 
Duck," but several differences of specific or subgeneric value are 
pointed out by William Thompson in the ' Annals of Natural His- 
tory,' XVIII, 1846, p. 370, and by Herbert Langton in 'The Zoolo- 
gist' for 1881, Third Series, Vol. V, p. 59. In the first-cited article 
the trachea of the Surf Scoter is figured, drawn to the same scale 
as that of the Velvet Scoter (ill. fusca) in Yarrel's British Birds, 
Vol. IV, p. 480. The trachea of the Black Scoter {0. nigra) is 
figured on p. 475 of the' latter work. 

All the Scoters agree in having the s\Tinx itself normal, while 
according to Beddard, in all other ducks, so far as known, with the 
exception of the xery different Biziura (and probably Erismatura 
also) this organ is modified into a remarkable, usually as^,^nmetrical, 
bony or partly membranous box. In Somateria (S. moUissima) 
the presence of a very slight symmetrical enlargement of the syrinx 
indicates the relationship of the Somaterise with the Oidemije 
(Beddard, The Structure and Classification of Birds, pp. 463-4). 

The diagnostic characters of the two genera of Scoters as above 
limited may be summed up as follows: 

Oidemia. — Bill smaller, commissure shorter than inner toe with 
elaw; basal portion of maxilla bulbous-enlarged above but scarcely 
laterally, the swelling bare; outline of facial feathering nearly 
straight, not angled. 

Tenth (outer) primary, in adult male, greatly attenuated, shorter 
than the eighth. Tail relatively long, decidedly more than twice 

280 Miller, Classification of the Scoters. [jjjy 

the length of tarsus; graduated for decidedly more than one-half 
its length, and for considerably more than length of tarsus; con- 
sisting of sixteen feathers, which are narrow and conspicuously 
pointed. Plumage in the adult male wholly black (but much 
paler on inner webs of primaries) ; in immature birds of both sexes 
the upper half of the head is dark brown, the lower half whitish. 
Feet and nail of both mandibles black. Iris dark brown. 

Melanitta. — Bill larger, commissure longer than inner toe with 
claw; basal half of maxilla much enlarged both above and laterally, 
the swelling more or less extensively feathered either on top or 
sides; outline of facial feathering strongly angled. 

Tenth (outer) primary normal, longer than the eighth. Tail 
relatively shorter, decidedly less than twice length of tarsus; 
graduated for less than one-half its length, and for less than length 
of tarsus; consisting of fourteen feathers, which are rather broad 
and moderately short-pointed. 

Plumage in the adult male black variegated with white; in 
immature birds of both sexes the head is dark brown with two white 
blotches on each side. Feet red, nail of both mandibles yellow. 
Iris white. 

In comparison of bill with inner toe, the claw is included in 
measurement of latter contrary to the diagnoses in the British 
Museum Catalogue and Ridgway's Manual, as it is found that in 
true Oidemia the length of the commissure instead of being much 
less than inner toe, without claw, as stated in these works, is scarcely 
if at all less. 

Pclionctfa differs conspicuously from Melanitta in the form of the 
bill, the lateral swelling being more developed and wholly bare, 
and the sides of the maxilla tapering instead of widening to the tip. 
The outer primary is decidedly narrower than the very broad outer 
remex of Melanitta and the tail is distinctly longer and more gradu- 
ated, there being in both of these characters an obvious approach 
to Oidemia. 

The differences between Oidemia and Melanitta (including 
Pelionetta) enumerated above are certainly of as great taxonomic- 
value as those on which Lophodytes, Arctonetta, Nomonyx and 
C haritonetta are based; and if these are maintained the old genus 
Oidemia must be dismembered. Whether Pelionetta should be 

° 1916 J MousLEY, Breeding of the Prairie Horned Lark. 281 

generically separated is a difficult question to decide. Agreeing, 
as it does, in most essential characters with Mclanitta, I believe 
that it is best considered congeneric with the latter so long as 
Erionetta is included in Somaferia and Marila is used in a broad 

Of the genera of Sea Ducks recognized in the A. O. U. 'Check- 
List,' perhaps the most doubt has been attached to Charitonetta 
which is not separated from Clangula by British authors. Mac- 
Gillivray, however, states (t. c.) that in the Bufflehead the trachea 
has " scarcely any appearance of dilatation at the part which is so 
excessively enlarged in the Golden-eyed Duck, which in form and 
habits is yet very closely allied." 



The Prairie Horned Lark belongs to one of those progressive 
families of birds, which by their pushing character have so adapted 
themselves to their natural surroundings as to have increased their 
breeding range of late years from the central part of the continent 
even to eastern Massachusetts in 1903, at least this is the generally 
recognized opinion, I believe, amongst most authorities, although 
there are others again who contend that the bird has always 
occurred in small numbers throughout the northeastern states, 
but that it has passed unnoticed until recent years, when the in- 
crease of field collectors has drawn attention to its presence. How- 
ever this may be, there are other traits in its life history which maik 
it out as a bird of distinction, the finding of whose nest and eggs is 
always looked upon by the field student as a pleasurable event. 
It was only during the spring of the past year, 1915, that I suc- 
ceeded in finding it breeding at Hatley, although I had been on the 

282 MousLEY, Breeding of the Prairie Horned Lark. [j^y 

lookout for it for some few years previously. It is the earliest of 
the small song birds to nest, eggs having been found in some parts 
of western New York in late February and early March, but here 
judging from the four nests I was fortunate enough to find, the date 
for fresh sets appears to be from the second to the third week in 
April, at which time the ground is generally more or less covered 
with snow. Such was the case when I found the first nest on April 
14 only 240 yards from my house, in a dry undulating field. It 
was a most interesting one in every way, composed outwardly of 
soft dry grasses, and heavily lined inside with the plant down and 
flower heads of the Pearly Everlasting {Anaphalis margaritacea). 
The hole in which it rested had partly been scooped out in a bed of 
Hair-cap moss {Polytrichum commune) which formed the back and 
sides, the front or south side being clear and the ground sloping 
gently away. Some little portion of this sloping ground right up 
to the edge of the nest had been banked up and paved with small 
pieces of cow-chips varjdng in size from f X | inch to If X 1 inch. 
From a careful count made of these I found there were 49 in all, 
besides 8 small pieces of lichen. I am not aware that anything 
has been written on this subject of paving with regard to the present 
species, but Prof. Silloway in his ' Birds of Fergus County, Mon- 
tana, ' 1903, I believe first made the fact known to science in the 
case of the Desert Horned species; and the Rev. P. B. Peabody in 
a most interesting article in 'The Warbler' (Vol. 2, 1906, pages 20- 
27) substantiates the fact, and gives a photo of a nest of the Desert 
Horned Lark showing this paving. In this same article he goes 
on to say " It was impossible however to conjecture wdiether or no 
such clods had been added at varying times after the first com- 
pleting of the nest." This point as we shall see later on I am glad 
to be able to clear up, at least so far as regards the one case that 
came under my notice of the Prairie Horned Lark. I ought 
perhaps to mention here that it was during the winter of 1914 that 
I read the above article, and when I found the nest already men- 
tioned above, the thought occurred to me that now was my chance 
perhaps of finding out at what time during building operations 
these chips were added. With this object in view I decided to take 
the set of four eggs and keep a very careful watch on the birds 
afterwards, in the hope of catching them at their second venture. 

^°*'^16 ] MousLEY, Breeding of the Prairie Horned Lark. 283 

How lucky I was will be gathered from a perusal of the following 
little time table as it were. 

April 14 First set of eggs taken at 2 p.m. 

15 Larks started second nest, and at 4.30 p.m. the hole was 
excavated, the female being at work upon it when flushed. 
It was on the top of a little mound with no cattle 
droppings near, which had been the case with the first 
nest, from which it was distant 60 yards. 

16 12 A.M. Five pieces of cow-chips laid in place on south 
side of hole, also one piece of lichen. 

4.30 P.M. Eleven more chips added. 

17 12.30 A.M. Nine more chips added, also foundation and 
rim of nest just started. 

5 P.M. Foundation and rim of nest well advanced, but 
no more chips added. 

18 12 A.M. Nest full of plant down and flower heads of 
pearly everlasting not yet padded into place. 

5.30 P.M. Plant down now all padded into place form- 
ing a most beautiful nest. 

19 11.30 A.M. One egg in nest, both birds noted in field 
but at some distance away. 

20 11.30 a.m. Two eggs in nest, female left on my ap- 
proach and flew away. 

21 11.30 A.M. Three eggs in nest, got quite close before 
female flushed off. 

22 11.30 A.M. Four eggs in nest, the female again only 
flushing off at my near approach. 

The four eggs were practically counterparts of the first set, being 
minutely and evenly speckled all over, and somewhat zoned about 
the larger end. In the above instance it will be seen that not a 
vestige of building material was brought to the nest until the whole 
of the 25 pieces of cow-chips, and one of lichen had been laid in 
place, but pending further data it would hardly be wise to assume 
that this is invariably the case. 

The next nest to come under my observation was found on April 
21 by flushing the female from a set of four slightly incubated eggs. 
This nest was situated on a high sloping hillside about 1| miles 

284 MousLEY, Breeding of the Prairie Horned Lark. [j^iy 

from my house, and close to the Hatley cemetery, and was of similar 
construction to the other two, except that the paving consisted of 
only five pieces of cow-chip and two of lichen, and the lining in 
addition to the down and flower heads of the pearly everlasting 
consisted of four little pieces of paper, two small thistle heads, and 
some thistle down. It was in a hole alongside a stone, the latter 
forming the back or north side of the nest, the paving being on 
the south side as in the case of the other two. The fourth and last 
nest was found on April 30 and contained three young birds partly 
fledged. It differed in many ways from the other three, being 
situated in a low damp meadow, instead of a high and dry one 
(as in the case of the others), the bird in this matter apparently 
using very little judgment, and yet again as regards the paving it 
seemed to have displayed that marvelous instinct which birds 
seem at times to be endowed with, for instead of using cow-chips 
as a paving, which in such a wet spongy place would have been of 
little good, it resorted to the use of very thin and flat stones ranging 
in size from | X f inches to 1 X f inches, of which there were thirty. 
The nest was nine inches from a good sized stone and forty yards 
from the main road to Stanstead; and I shall always remember 
the circumstances under which I came to find it, in as much as it 
disproves the fact so positively asserted in all the best text books 
that this species never perches in trees. It was while returning 
from Hatley somewhat late in the afternoon of April 29 on the above 
mentioned road, that a bird got up some distance ahead of me, and 
flew into a good sized ash tree which stood at the side of the road. 
As it arose I felt sure it was a Prairie Horned Lark, but when it 
perched in the tree, I almost dismissed the thought from my mind, 
for had I not read that these birds never made use of trees to perch 
on? However, as the bird allowed me to get opposite the tree and 
having a pair of field glasses, I took a careful look at it, and sure 
enough it turned out to be a male Prairie Horned Lark with food 
in its beak, which pointed to the fact that a nest of young was 
probably not far ofP, so I concealed myself, but it was rather a long 
time l)efore the bird left the tree and alighted on a large boulder in 
the field, from which it entered the grass. After allowing a short 
interval to elapse I advanced, when the bird flew up, but I failed to 
.discover any traces of a nest or young birds. As it was now getting 

1916 J MousLEY, Breeding of the Prairie Horned Lark. 285 

late I decided to leave the place and return again early the next 
morning. As I did so the bird again got up from the road side and 
flew into the tree, and as there was a small copse about 150 yards 
away, I secreted myself in it and awaited developments. It was 
not long before the bird again flew down on to the large boulder, 
(as on the previous evening) and disappeared in the grass, but 
owing to the ground taking a sudden dip, I found it would be im- 
possible to follow the bird to the exact site of the nest from where I 
was concealed, and that it would be necessary for me to either get 
on to the other side of the road (where there was unfortunately no 
cover) or hide at the foot of the ash tree, around which there was 
some thick underbrush. However, as I wanted to further investi- 
gate the habits of this pair of birds at the nest, I remained where I 
was for about an hour, during which time I watched both parents 
come and go with food many times. Their method of proceedure 
was exactly the same on every occasion, and never once did they 
approach the nest direct, always first alighting in the top of the 
ash tree, and from there flying down on to the large boulder, and 
then walking in the grass to the nest, which I found out later on 
was only some few yards away. Having now thoroughly satisfied 
myself that under certain conditions Prairie Horned Larks will 
perch in trees (although this pair of birds may be the exception 
which proves the rule), I decided to take up my position at the 
foot of the ash tree and discover the nest. I therefore waited my 
opportunity until both birds were away, and then concealed myself 
as well as I could in the scrub surrounding the base of the tree. 
Here I was able to get a full view of the hollow into which the birds 
had always disappeared, and I had not long to wait before the male 
alighted in the tree top, then flew down to the boulder as before, 
from which it walked direct to the nest, and I was able to mark the 
exact spot. No wonder on the previous evening I had failed to 
locate the nest, for of all the most perfect cases of a nest and its 
contents conforming to their natural surroundings this was the best 
I think I have ever come across, for on going to it again later on in 
the day it took me some few minutes to pick it out, although I 
knew almost the exact spot where to look. I visited the nest again 
on May 4, to find the young larks had left, but I discovered one in 
the grass not far off, and soon had the male (by the way the male 

286 Beetz, Notes on the Eider. [x^"y i I 

seemed to do the major part of the feeding) close round me in a 
most excited state, and as I continued to retain the young one, he 
eventually flew up into the ash tree, where he remained imtil I 
released it, and removed from the locality. The average dimen- 
sions of the four nests found are as follows, viz : Outside diameter 
3f inches, inside 2j, outside depth 2| inches, inside 1|, and it will 
be noticed all were lined with the plant down and flower heads of 
the Pearly Everlasting, a plant which grows very abundantly here, 
and is much used by many species of birds for nesting purposes, 
especially by robins who use it largely in the foundations of their 



By Jo HAN Beetz, Piashte Bay, Canadian Labrador.^ 

Translated from the French and Annotated 

Plate XV. 


The eastern coast of North America possesses four well defined 
species of Eiders, although naturalists recognize only three. These 
are the American Eider (Somateria dresseri dresseri) with large 
rovmded membranous processes extending backwards from the 
beak; the Unclassed or Intermediate Eider ^ with semi-rounded 
processes; the Northern Eider (S. mollissima borcalis) with pointed 
processes, and the King Eider (S. spectabilis). 

1 Read before the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Dec. 20, 1915. 

2 M. Johan Beetz, who has resided for twenty years at Piashte Bay mid-way between 
Esquimaux Point and Natashquan — now officially known as Bay Johan Beetz, — is a 
Belgian by birth and a college graduate. With Mr. A. C Bent I had the pleasure of 
visiting him in the spring of 1909, and I spent five days at his house in June, 1915. He is 
a keen observer and has made an interesting and valuable collection of birds of the coast. 
He has kindly given me permission to translate and annotate this paper on the Eider. 
C. W. T. 

3 See note at the end of the article. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXI II. 

Plate XV. 

Labrador Eiders. 

^°''m6^"^] Beetz, Notes on the Eider. 287 

The number of eggs in a set of the Eider varies from 6 to 10 
accidentally 12. If the eggs of the first laying are taken, the ducks 
lay a second set of four or five eggs, and sometimes a third of two 
or three eggs. The first set are well covered with down, which the 
female plucks from her breast in making the nest. The second 
laying, when the nest has been destroyed, has very little down in 
the nest, while the third has none at all, but the eggs are covered 
with moss, leaves and finely broken little branches. 

The three layings here on the north coast of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence are between the 10th of May and the 25th of June; very 
rarely the Eider lays after that date. The female lays an egg every 
24 hours until the set is completed. She does not begin to set until 
24 hours after the last egg is laid. The duration of the incubation 
of the Eider is 25 or 26 days. The female Eider does not nest until 
the age of two years, some not until a year later. The male Eider 
rarely mates before attaining full adult plumage at three years. 

If the female Eider is suddenly frightened from her nest during 
incubation and has not the time to cover the eggs with down, the 
bird lets fall on her eggs green and oily excrements totally different 
from the ordinary excrements ^ of the Eider, and of a frightful odor, 
so strong that an egg touched with it is refused and even discarded 
with disgust by the hungriest dog. Even foxes, who love these 
eggs, will not touch them until the liquid is completely dry on the 
shells. It then falls off as an unobjectional powder. Ten or 
fifteen minutes are needed for the complete drying process. If the 
bird can forsee the danger and has time to prepare — a minute or a 
minute and a half are necessary — she covers the eggs with down, 
and -then with her beak and feet she covers the whole with moss, 
leaves and surrounding herbage in so perfect a manner as to com- 
pletely conceal the nest and deceive the most trained eye. 

The first two species of Eiders — the American Eider and the 
Unclassed Eider — have been in the habit of nesting on the isles 

1 The ordinary excrements of the Eider are formed, as large around as the middle finger 
and an inch or an inch and a half long. They are composed chiefly of the comminuted 
shells of the blue or edible mussel, and are to be seen everywhere on the rocky islands and 
in the neighborhood of the nests.' The bird, frightened from the nest, ejects liquid excre- 
ments in the SEime reflex manner as herons and other birds. The excrements do not 
always touch the eggs but may be deposited on the ground some distance from the nest. 
C. W. T. 

288 Beetz, Notes on the Eider. [j^Jj^ 

of the Gulf, but since for some years the nesting females have been 
continually disturbed, and their eggs taken by fishermen and even * 
by strangers coming in egging schooners, these birds have begun 
to diminish rapidly in numbers. Happily for the last two or three 
years, this destruction has stopped of itself by the birds' natural 
instinct for conservation in the following manner: The fox, who 1 
has been in the habit of taking for the purpose of feeding its young, 
the eggs of birds nesting on the main land and on islands easily 
reached at low tide, has gradually diminished in numbers or at 
least has retreated to the interior on account of the intense winter 
hunting for skins, and the summer hunting for live animals for 
breeding purposes. A large part of the Eiders have profited by the 
retreat of the fox, and have adopted the habit more and more 
every year of nesting on the mainland on the borders of the little 
fresh water lakes so abundant along the coast, or on the islands in 
these lakes. If the lakes are near the seashore the female uses 
little paths she has made; if at a distance, she passes too and fro 
on the wing. On the main land she has more space, conceals her 
nest better and man is rarely able to rob it. On this account in 
place of a diminution in numbers of the Eider there is already an 
increase, and in a few years, when the greater part of the Eiders 
have adopted the habit of nesting on the mainland, the increase 
will be very rapid.^ 

Immediately the young are dry after hatching, the female con- 
ducts them to the salt water. At the approach of danger — a boat 

' I am afraid M. Beetz is too optimistic in this. As a result of my own observations I 
have come to the conclusion that the Eider not only is rapidly diminishing in numbers but 
that in many places it is almost exterminated, and that its numbers are not kept up by a 
transference of its breeding habitat to the mainland. Wherever fishermen or Indians are 
found, the islands are nearly cleared of Eiders, and the small number of birds about, show 
that they are not nesting concealed on the mainland. For example in the transit of 18 
miles through the Petite Rigolette I saw only one flock of thirty and those were near the 
entrance. In the great lake-like expanse at the mouth of the St. Augustine River, where 
Eiders up to a comparatively few years ago bred in large numbers on the rocky islands, 
hardly any were to be seen and none at all in the little lakes of the mainland. The only 
freshwater lakelet on the coast where I found a female Eider and her brood of ducklings 
was on the large island of Wapitagun — practically a part of the mainland. At Piashte 
Bay and Natashquan the Eskimo dogs are confined in the summer, but at the other settle- 
ments to the eastward the dogs roam unrestrained, and are as bad as foxes in finding and 
devouring eggs and young. But even in regions away from any settlement and its dogs I 
have never found any evidence of the Eider nesting on the mainland except in trifling num- 
bers. C. W. T. 

^°'- 1^^"^] Beetz, Notes on the Eider. 289 

or a bird of prey — the female Eider, who has her brood with her, 
goes on ahead and even tries to draw on herself the danger by 
simulating a wounded bird and leading the enemy from her young. 
All this time she emits croaking cries resembling Croou Croou Croou. 

In some years weasels pass the summer on the shore and make 
great destruction of the eggs of the Eider. 

But the greatest destroyer of the Eider is without doubt Larus 
marinus, the gull with the black mantle, called English Gull or 
Great Black-backed Gull, which during the years when there are 
not enough little fish to feed its young, kills with ease all the young 
Eiders that it finds. Flying at a great height this Gull sees its prey 
from afar, and as the young Eider (up to about ten days of age) 
dives but a very short distance, by sailing just above the water the 
Gull is able to watch it constantly, and follow it, until, when the 
young is so fatigued that it is unable to dive more, the Gull seizes it 
with its powerful beak. If during the journey to the nest, the young 
still struggles in the beak, the Gull carries the duckling to a height 
of 30 or 40 rods, and, calculating the strength of the wind, drops 
it on the rocks where it is killed. The Gull immediately follows 
and picks up the dead body. 

In the same manner the Great Black-backed Gull breaks the 
mollusks whose shell is too hard to crush with its beak. I have 
seen in a very strong wind this Gull rise to a height of fifty rods, let 
lose its prey at more than twenty rods to windward of the rocks and 
have seen the prey fall directly on the rocks ; often the rock is only 
three or four rods in circumference but never have I seen the bird 
make a miss. Happily for the conservation of the Eider this Gull 
is diminishing every year in numbers owing to the destruction of 
its eggs.^ 

Migration. The four species of Eiders mentioned above arrive 
in the spring time here on the north shore between the April 15 and 
June 15; in the last month. May 15 to June 15 — only the two 
northern species S. mollissima borealis and S. spedabilis pass. All 

• The people of the coast do not need any argument like the above to incite them to 
exterminate this splendid Gull. The eggs and the young birds are excellent eating and are 
eagerly sought everywhere. Man is of course the chief destroyer of the Eider as of all the 
water birds of the Labrador Peninsula. If proper methods of conservation of the Eider 
were adopted there would be no need to fear the effect of the toll taken by the Great Black- 
backed Gull. C. W. T. 


'290 Beetz, Notes on the Eider. [j^jy 

the species in the spring arrive from the south, pass by the west 
point of the island of Anticosti, strike the north shore at the Mingan 
islands, often as far west even as Godbout, and then descend the 
whole length of the shore, pass the Straits of Belle Isle and go north. 
In the autumn, in September, October and November only three 
of these species — S. dresseri, the intermediate species and S. 
mollissima borealis — return by the Gulf as far as Mingan and even 
Godbout and these strike the western point of the island of Anti- 
costi to continue their migration to the south. Many of these 
species — partly the young hatched late — winter around Anticosti 
and on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The greater 
part of these that winter are the intermediate and Northern Eiders, 
very few of the American Eiders and none of the King Eiders. 
The migration in the autumn of the King Eider is by Newfoundland 
as well as by the eastern point of Anticosti. In certain winters 
many King Eiders stay about Anticosti. 

It is a curious fact that between June 15 and July 15 on the 
highway of the north coast between Godbout and Chateau Bay all 
the male American Eiders leave their females and migrate between 
Chateau and Cape Chidley. Here the spring and the period of 
nesting are each a month later, and it would seem to be a possibility 
that by the mating of the male S. dresseri with the female S. 
mollissima borealis there would be created a mixed species, not 
classed, intermediate with membranous processes semi-rounded. 
This should be an easy and very interesting subject to investigate. 

Moults. All the species of Eiders male as well as female do not 
reach full adult plumage until the age of two years and two months, 
that is to say until August of the third year after their hatching out. 
All young Eiders have four moults of the body feathers and one 
moult of down before assuming the complete adult plumage. The 
first moult takes place in September when they are about four 
months old; the second moult occurs the following spring in May 
when they are about eleven months old; the third moult occurs 
in the September following at the age of about sixteen months; 
the fourth moult occurs in June when the subject is about two years 
old; the fifth moult into the complete adult plumage takes place 
after the end of August or the beginning of September when the 
bird is two years and two months old, and is complete at the age 
.of about two years and three and a half months. 

voi.xxxiiij gg^^2^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ 291 

The moult of the down occurs in September of the first year at 
the age of four months; the second moult of the down begins in 
June at two years of age and continues all the summer and is com- 
plete at the end of August. 

The adult Eider has two annual moults, the first in April and 
May and is partial as it does not include the large wing and tail 
feathers; the second moult occurs during the last of August and 
the first of September and is complete including the large feathers 
of the wings and tail. 

As a food the flesh of the Eider is good for the table fifty days 
after it is hatched and continues to be good until the age of one and 
a half years. During this period the young bird eats only prawns 
and much herbage. After a year and a half the flesh has an oily 
taste due to the fact that the bird takes at a great depth molluscs 
and little fish. The very old subjects do not resort to the deep 
water but return to the food of the young. Their flesh loses its 
oily taste but is firmer than 'that of the young. 

Note. A study of the adult male specimens sent me by M. 
Beetz, as well as those in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at 
Cambridge, shows all degrees of gradation in the size of the mem- 
branous processes from the long, broad rounded ones of dresseri to 
the shorter acute ones of borealis as is to be seen in the accompany- 
ing photograph. The amount of green also varies. In typical 
dresseri it is extensive on the sides and back of the neck and forms 
a border to the dark cap, extending forward beyond the eye. In 
typical borealis it is less extensive on the sides and back of the neck 
and does not border the dark cap. In M. Beetz's intermediate 
form the amount of green varies, and it does not border the dark 
cap. Baird, Brewer and Ridgway ^ were unable to find any other 
differences between dresseri and borealis except in the size of the 
membranous processes. They say " the extent of the green of the 
head is quite variable, according to the individual." Coues ^ 
speaking of the membranous processes in the two species says: 
"The difference is obvious in comparison of specimens, and may 

1 The Water Birds of North America. 1884, Vol. II, p. 77. 

'- Key to North American Birds. Fifth Edition, 1903, Vol. II, p. 904. 

292 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [ju"y 

now be held of specific value, as no intermediate specimens are • 
forthcoming." It remained for M. Johan Beetz to point out the 
fact that there is an intermediate form between drcsseri and borcalis. 
Instead of this form. being a new species, as M. Beetz suggests, it 
seems to me, however, that his important discovery shows that 
drcsseri intergrades with borcalis, and that like horcalis it should 
be classed as a subspecies of moUissima. If this view is accepted 
this Eider should be reduced from its specific station and be listed 
as Somateria molUssima drcsseri. A study of the breeding Eiders 
about Hamilton Inlet, the supposed dividing line between the 
ranges of borcalis on the north and dresserii on the south, would be 
of interest.— C. W. T. 



Plates XVI-XVIII. 

The region covered by the following notes is the northwestern 
portion of Gunnison County, which is in the western third of the 
State, about midway between the north and south boundaries. 
The county is of irregular shape, and the easterly boundary is the 
Continental Divide, with several summits attaining an elevation 
of more than 14,000 feet above sea level. The Elk Mountain 
Range branches from the Divide with a somewhat northwesterly 
trend, and forms the northerly boundary as far as Snow Mass Peak, 
whose elevation is 13,970 feet, and whence the line runs due west 
over an exceedingly rough country, as the writer can testify from 
personal acquaintance, to the Huntsman's Hills, a comparatively 
low divide; thence northwesterly along the Hills to intersect the 
summit of the Grand Mesa, which also forms a part of the bound- 
arv for a short distance. The west boundary of the Comity is the 

The Auk, Vol. XXXlll. 

Plate XVI. 

1. Galkna Park, 10,300 ft. Snow Mass Peak, right centku. 
2. Hillside Ranch and Lake. 

^"'•^^"^j Warrex, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 293 

meridian 107°-30' West. The region within this area comprises 
the greater portion of the Elk Mountain Group or Range, most 
of whose summits are over 12,000 feet in altitude, and from that 
to nearly 14,000; in fact Maroon Peak is 14,126 feet. 

When one is on a summit like that of Mt. Emmons, which, 
though comparatively low — but a little over 12,000 feet, gives an 
extended view in all directions, he is impressed Jby the panorama 
spread before him, of mountains ever\'where, from the south 
around to the southeast, only the southeasterly arc of the circle 
has but a few high peaks. The rest is a mass of mountains 
and all is a region of grand and wonderful scenery, if one has the 
time and facilities for seeing it, for much of it must be explored on 
horseback or afoot if the traveler wishes to get to some of the best 

The general elevation of the region will be understood if the 
reader is told that Crested Butte is 8,900 feet. Marble 7,950 feet, 
and the junction of the Muddy and Anthracite Creeks, which form 
the North Fork of the Gunnison, about 6,500 feet. Most of the 
country which the notes refer to is above 9,000 feet. The greater 
part of the region belongs to the Gunnison River watershed, 
though Rock Creek or Crystal River, in the northern part, drains 
into the Grand River. With the exception of the agricultural and 
coal lands most of the area is in the Gunnison and Sopris National 

Most of the region under discussion has rather long winters,^ 
with deep snows, and cool summers, sometimes with considerable 
rain. The mercury often goes well below zero in winter, though 
the dry atmosphere makes it more bearable than it might otherwise 
be, at least out of doors. With the deep winter snows, and high 
elevations, the snow often remains on the upper parts of the moun- 
tains well into the summer, some deep banks often persisting until 
the snows of the next autumn fall. 

The life zones of most of the region treated of in this paper are 
the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic-Alpine. There is a little 
Transition south of Crested Butte, and the country on lower Muddy 
and Anthracite Creeks and that about Marble, is also Transition. 
Timberline is at about 12,000 feet, and the Hudsonian covers about 
2,000 feet below this. The varietv of trees in the Canadian and 


294 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. \i\i\y 

Hudsonian zones is quite limited, comprising Lodge-pole Pine, 
Douglas's Fir, Engelmann's Spruce, Balsam, Aspen, and a few 
species of Willows. Wild flowers of many species grow in pro- 
fusion, making of the open parts of the mountainsides, even above 
timberline, veritable flower gardens. Engelmann's Spruce is the 
tree which reaches the highest limit, and the stunted trees at 
timberline are this species. My notes bearing on the breeding 
ranges of the various species of birds are rather meagre, but such 
as they are go to show that most of the land birds occupy parts at 
least of both the Hudsonian and Canadian when nesting. How- 
ever, I have never seen the Mourning Dove, Magpie, Long-crested 
Jay, Western Tanager and Yellow Warbler nesting above the 
Canadian and most of these are restricted to the lower part of that 
zone. The Rocky Mountain Jay, and presumably the Clarke's 
Nutcracker, breed only in the Hudsonian, while the Ptarmigan, 
Brown-capped Rosy Finch and Pipit breed in the Arctic-Alpine. 

While a great portion of the years from the spring of 1882 until 
the autumn of 1902 were spent in the region, sometimes the summer 
only, and sometimes the entire year, I did but little ornithological 
work during most of that period, and kept no notes until the last 
four years of that time, and then not as systematically as might 
have been desirable. But little bird collecting was done, mam- 
mals and photography occupying most of the time I could give 
from other pursuits to such work. Since 1902 I have made 
four visits to the region, the last in June, 1915, when I spent 
practically the whole of that month there, devoting most of my 
time to bird study, with the result of filling in many gaps in my 
data, and yet leaving much to be learned. The broken character 
of the country renders it difficult to make anything like a thorough, 
detailed study of its bird life, unless one is able to devote practically 
his whole time for several seasons to the work. These notes make 
no pretense of being complete; I have worked them up as best I 
could, knowing it to be somewhat unlikely that I would do much 
more there myself and thinking they would at least serve as a 
basis for future work on the part of others. 

The area covered may be roughly described as that portion of 
Gunnison County north of a line 8 miles south of Crested Butte, 
between East Brush and Cement Creeks on the east, and Muddy 

^''^' ig'l^e^"^] Wakren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 295 

Creek on the west. This does not imply that I have worked 
that whole region, but I have notes on something from almost 
every portion of it, and much of my data is applicable to the whole, 
as a matter of fact to the whole of the northern part of the County. 
I have been somewhat doubtful as to the advisability of including 
the region about Muddy Creek, or "the Muddy," as it is collo- 
quially termed, but I spent nearly the whole of one summer, and 
portions of the two succeeding summers there, surveying, and 
gained some interesting information in spite of working strenuously, 
which it seems unwise not to use. Perhaps if I had not worked so 
strenuously at surveying I might have made more bird notes, but 
when the surveying notes had been written up after supper in 
camp, I was usually ready for bed, and too tired to think about 
anything else. 

In the last thirty odd years there has been considerable change 
in the region. The years 1880-81 witnessed a big mining boom in 
Gunnison County, and the Elk Mountains had their share of the 
mushroom prosperity which accompanies such things. Irwin, 
Gothic, and Scofield were quite good-sized places, the former with 
several thousand people. In 1882, when I first went there, the 
boom began to fall off, in fact there was no boom. Fewer people . 
came in, and these dwindled away year by year, until now these 
towns are nearly deserted, and most of the buildings have been 
taken down for the lumber in them and carried away. Crested 
Butte was also settled in the boom days, but it had coal mines to 
support it, these were an inducement for the railroad to come, 
and for many years large shipments of coal and coke were made, 
and are still going on. In those early days practically everything 
was dependent on the mining industry, both coal and metal, and 
there were but few ranches. Now most of the desirable land in 
the East and Slate River Valleys is occupied, the principal, one 
may say only, crop, being hay. 

With the lapse of time there has also been a change in the charac- 
ter of the population. Once the miners were practically all English- 
speaking, if not American-born. When the coal mines were opened 
many coal miners of British birth came, some from eastern states, 
others directly from the "old country." It was not long, however, 
before southeastern Europeans, commonly called Austrians, as 

296 Wabren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [jjjy 

well as Italians, began to arrive, and now they are a noticeable 
element of the population of Crested Butte. As elsewhere in the 
United States, these foreigners are exceedingly destructive to bird 
life. I have made mention of specific cases under the species in- 
volved, but wish here to make mention of a condition which is 
perhaps new or unusual. 

As everyone knows, Colorado, in the latter part of 1913 and the 
earlier months of 1914 was afflicted with a very serious coal miner's 
strike. While the disturbances were all in the southern Colorado 
coal fields, the miners at Crested Butte struck to keep their brethren 
company. Some small mines accepted the union terms and kept 
on working, but not employing many men. The Colorado Fuel & 
Iron Company's mine, employing some 300 men, remained closed 
and the men were out of work. I should state here that the com- 
pany was getting ready to reopen the mine and resume operations 
in the summer of 1915, but that is something which takes time after 
such a long shutdown. These idle men, largely of the nationalities 
previously mentioned, being out of work and not earning any 
money, though it is safe to say there was not one who had not 
money laid by, took their guns and scoured the whole country 
killing for the pot anything which had a morsel of meat on it. 
They are tireless walkers and go everywhere so that nothing es- 
caped them. This last June I noticed an entire absence of wood- 
chucks in places where they used to be plentiful. No doubt 
exterminated by the miners. I think it likely, though I have no 
positive information to that effect, that this condition obtains all 
through the districts affected by the strike. It is certainly to be 
hoped that the Federal migratory bird law will be held constitu- 
tional by the United States Supreme Court, and that it will be 
vigorously enforced all through these coal mining districts where 
there is such a large population absolutely without any regard for 
bird life. The State deputy game wardens seem to take little 
interest in enforcing the law for the protection of insectivorous 
birds, though we have the excellent A. O. U. model law on our 
statute books. 

A few words descriptive of the Hillside Ranch, which is the 
property of friends of the writer, often referred to in the succeeding 
pages, may not be amiss. The place is located at the base of 

The Auk, Vol. XXXIII. 

Plate XVll. 

1. Northward from Mt. Emmons. 
2. Part of Crested Butte Mt. from JMt. Emmons. Hillside Lake at 
BASE of Mountain on the right. 

^°^- 1^^6^"^] Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 297 

Crested Butte Mountain, a little over two miles due east of the 
town of the same name, and has an elevation of about 9,200 feet. 
On the ranch is a lake of some thirty acres, partly natural and partly 
artificial, having been formed by enlarging by means of a dam a 
small pond which was fed by springs. This is the lake and ranch 
referred to as "Decker's" in Sclater's History of the Birds of 
Colorado, but as the place is now known as Hillside Ranch, I have 
used that name in these notes. Most of the land is somewhat 
rolling and hilly, and was covered with sage brush before clearing. 
On the mountainsides immediately above are Douglas's Spruces 
and Lodge-pole Pines. About the lake shores and along the outlet 
from the lake, are many willows, as also on the lower part of the 
ranch where are a number of streamlets coming from springs on the 
hillside just above. All these willows are good haunts for birds 
and many nest among them. In the Douglas's Firs above the lake 
I found an Audubon's Warbler breeding. Robins nested every- 
where about the place. In. the open ground Vesper Sparrows and 
Green-tailed Towhees nested in the grass and about the sage brush. 
Some water birds come to the lake, especially in migration, but 
most of my records of these are very unsatisfactory. 

My acknowledgments are due to the U. S. Biological Survey 
for the identification of certain birds, the insects collected on the 
snow on Mt. Emmons, and the contents of the stomachs of two 
Rosy Finches. 

It should perhaps be stated that, unless otherwise mentioned, 
all spring and autumn dates refer to Crested Butte or the region 
about there. 

Colymbus nigricollis calif ornicus. Eared Grebe. " Hell- 
diver." — A common migrant, especially in spring. As many as 21 have 
been seen in a flock on Hillside Lake. I examined the stomachs of several 
killed on this lake in the spring of 1899; I was desirous of ascertaining if 
they were eating trout fry, of which there were many in the lake, but I 
found no indications that they were destroying the fish. What was in the 
stomachs was so much digested as to be practically unrecognizable, but 
I think it was largely Crustacea and aquatic insects, of which there are 
many in the lake. 

Podilymbus podiceps. Pied-billed Grebe. — I have but one record 
of this species, a bird seen on Nichols's Lake in October, 1899. 

Mergus aniericanus. American Merganser.— Two were shot on 

298 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [j,J|y 

Hillside Lake, October 28, 1899. When on Muddy Creek, in July, 1901, 
Adams and Hooker spoke of seeing a " Wood Duck " with a brood of young 
swimming in the creek. From the description they gave of the bird it 
appeared to be this species. They called it Wood Duck because it nested 
in trees. 

Anas platyrhynchos. Mallard. — Fairly common in migi-ation about 
Crested Butte. Seen as late as October 14, 1905. In 1901 and 1902 the 
species seemed common on the numerous little ponds found in the high 
ground between Muddy Creek and Ragged Mountain, and were no doubt 
breeding there. November 2, 1901, three were seen on Muddy Creek, 
not far below the Botsford Ranch. 

Nettion carolinense. Green-winged Teal. — Not uncommon in 
migration about Crested Butte. Carl Bergman told me that a teal of 
some species raised a brood of young at the Hillside Lake in 1914, but he 
could not say if it was the present or the following species. 

Querquedula discors. Blue-winged Teal. — Probably not uncom- 
mon in migration. I have one record for Marble, a freshly killed bird 
which I found dead in Yule Creek, October 4, 1902. 

Spatula clypeata. Spoonbill. Shoveller.— Has been taken at 
Hillside Lake. 

Marila americana. Redhead. — I saw three which were killed on 
Hillside Lake, October 18, 1902. 

Erismatura jamaicensis. Ruddy Duck. — One was killed on Hillside 
Lake, May 31, 1899. 

Botaurus lentiginosus. Bittern. — I saw one which had been killed 
at Green Lake, above Crested Butte, October 22, 1900. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius. Black-crowned Night Heron. — 
One was killed near Crested Butte some time in May, 1915. I saw the 
mounted specimen. No one there had ever seen such a bird. 

Grus mexicana. Sandhill Crane. — • In 1901, '02 and '03 there were 
a few Cranes about the little ponds near Muddy Creek, already mentioned 
in speaking of the Mallard. June 5, 1903, C. F. Frey and myself found a 
nest with two eggs. A full description of this was published in the Condor, 
VI, No. 2, March, 1904, p. 39. The nest was on one of several tussocks of 
grass which lay more or less in a line on a mudbank or island, and made of 
swamp grass, irregular in shape, and about two feet across, a mere platform. 
On this lay the two large eggs, looking, as Frey said, Hke turkey eggs. 
While I was taking pictures of the nest on the seventh the parent birds, 
and the female (I suppose) especially, kept flying about, uttering their 
outlandish notes. 

Porzana Carolina. Sora. — One seen at Hillside Lake, September 23, 

Fulica americana. Coot. — Common migi-ant about Crested Butte. 
I saw a " Mudhen " on Hillside Lake, June 20, 1915, and the people at the 
ranch had noticed it a few daj'S previously. 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus. Western Willet. — 

^°'- i^l'e^"^] Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 299 

May 22, 1899, a flock of eight or ten birds came to Hillside Lake, of which 
four were secured. 

Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — A common summer resi- 
dent along the streams, both in the Crested Butte region and on Muddy 

Oxyechus vociferus. Killdeer. — A common summer resident in 
suitable places in the region about Crested Butte; my notes make no 
mention of it on Muddy Creek, though it should be there. June 21, 1900, 
young, apparently a day or two old, were seen with the parent on the 
East River road, near Brush Creek. 

Dendragapus obscurus obscurus. Dusky Grouse. — A common 
resident, though much reduced in numbers during the past twenty years 
by persistent hunting, especially by the Austrians and ItaUans, most of 
whom have no regard for close seasons or game laws, and no scruples about 
killing a bird on the nest or with a brood of newly hatched young. It is 
found everywhere from the upper limit of heavy green timber down. 
June 20, 1900, a nest with seven eggs was found near the Jarvis Ranch on 
East River. June 5, 1902, a nest and four eggs were found near Deep 
Creek, at the base of Ragged Mountain. It was under a big log, just a 
depression with grass above it and lined with a few feathers. There must 
be considerable irregularity about the nesting of this species for one often 
finds broods of young of quite different ages at the same time in the same 

Lagopus leucurus leucurus. White-tailed Ptarmigan. — The 
Ptarmigan is a fairly common resident Uving above timberline in the 
summer, descending to the valleys in winter when driven down by the deep 
snow. During the last four years of my residence at Crested Butte, from 
1899 to 1902, I paid much attention to these birds, looking for them, 
studying arid photographing them at every opportunity and at all seasons. 
In summer they are apt to be rather difficult to find as they are scattered 
about the mountain tops, often singly, or females with young, though one 
may run across a flock of male birds who are enjoying bachelor life while 
their wives attend to the family duties. The birds are often, one may say 
usually, remarkably tame. I have known a female to squat down on the 
ground and the young to get under her and to pay no attention whatever 
to me when I placed a camera on a rock close by, focussed, adjusted the 
shutter, and made several exposures. I have never been so fortunate as to 
find a nest, though I have spent considerable time in the search for one, but 
it is one of those things one finds by stumbling upon them rather than by 
search. In late summer the birds often go to some particular place for 
water once a day, usually the middle or latter part of the forenoon. This 
is when the last remnants of the preceding winter's snow have disap- 
peared, for they will eat snow readily enough, and at extreme high alti- 
tudes springs are not at all common. The change to the winter plumage 
begins after the middle of September, and is nearly complete the last of 
October, and fully so the first week in November. The reverse change 

300 Wabren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [j,^iy 

begins in May, toward the latter part of the month. I cannot say just 
when they descend to the valleys in fall; no doubt it depends much upon 
the weather. I have seen them at timberline November 9, and at the 
same altitude early in May. In winter the Ptarmigan seem to prefer to 
frequent the creek bottoms which are overgrown with willows on whose 
buds they largely feed. In such places their tracks can be seen going 
from one clump of bushes to another, looking much as if a flock of chickens 
had been wandering about. In summer they seem to eat anything, in- 
sects, plant buds and seeds are all acceptable. 

Centocerus urophasianus. Sage Grouse. — Rare in the region, 
coming but little farther north up East River than Jack's Cabin. 

Columba fasciata fasciata. Band-tailed Pigeon. — There used to 
be a few Band-tails on the North Fork of the Gunnison, and on Muddy and 
Anthracite Creeks, also on the lower west slope of Ragged Mountain. 
I saw two May 27, 1901, a short distance west of the base of that mountain, 
while surveying, and had an excellent opportunity to observe them with 
the ti-ansit telescope. 

Zenaidura macroura marginella. Western Mourning Dove. — 
A common summer resident in suitable country up to 9,500 feet. In June, 
1915, dm-ing four weeks of field work I saw this species but once, though I 
used to see it commonly in previous years in the very same localities where 
I was working this year. I ascribe this scarcity to the cause mentioned 
in the introduction, their sliiughter by foreigners. 

My earliest date is May 14, 1900, at Hillside Ranch, and latest October 
9, 1910, at the same place, when one was seen. A nest with two eggs was 
found on Ferris Creek, June 17, 1902, and one with two half-gi'own young 
at KiUian's ranch July 24, 1902, both of these nests being on the gi-ound. 

Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. — Common, especially in autumn, 
when it is often seen hunting over the meadows; I am not sure if it breeds. 
Seen as late as October 14, 1905; one seen at Hillside Ranch, June 26, 1903. 

Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. — One seen at Hillside 
Ranch, June 9, 1915. 

Buteo borealis calurus. Western Redtail. — Common summer 
resident. Earhest date of arrival April 1, 1901; latest autumn date 
October 19, 1905. This useful large hawk seems well distributed over 
the region, from the lower portions up to the highest mountains; it is 
especially abundant in autumn. In May, 1901, in the country between 
Muddy Creek and Ragged Mountain were several nests which I thought 
belonged to this species, though but one was actually occupied, and I saw 
a hawk perched on another nest, which, however, showed no signs of recent 
use. This was in a scrub oak about 12 feet from the ground, a mere plat- 
form of twigs. The occupied nest was in a dead Quaking Aspen, first noted 
May 24. Rifle shots fired at the nest failed to drive the sitting bird off, 
though some of the bullets tore through the twigs beneath her. The tree 
was cut down June 30. The nest contained a half-grown young bird, 
and there had been another which had died when very young, and whose 
•dried-up body was in the nest. 

^°'' 19113^"^] Warrex, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 301 

The Italian miners, and possibly also the Austrians, eat every hawk and 
owl they can kill, and this species suffers with the rest. In the autumn of 
1910, beside a cabin on the slope of Crested Mountain which had been 
occupied by some Italian timber cutters, I found a good sized heap of hawk 
and owl feathers, representing quite a number of birds which had found 
their way to the pot. 

Buteo swainsoni. Swainson's Hawk. — My only record for the 
region is one which I killed on Slate River, above Crested Butte, September 
1, 1900. 

Archibuteo ferrugineus. Ferruginous Roughleg. — Seen occasion- 
ally; my notes all refer to fall specimens. October 13, 1900, near Crested 
Butte, is my latest date. One seen at Scofield, 10,150 feet, October 12, 
1902, in a snowstorm. 

Aquila chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. — Not uncommon. I do not 
positively know of it breeding, but it was seen June 3, 1902, on Muddy 
Creek, and in Washington Gulch, July 22 of same year. It is also about 
in winter, at least to some extent, for one was caught in a coyote trap set 
near a dead horse December 13, 1901. It was liberated, and it or another 
was caught a few days later. 

Falco sparverius sparverius. Sparrow Hawk. — A common summer 
resident. April 16, 1901, is my earliest date, and October 13, 1901, my 
latest. Rather frequently seen chasing larger hawks, such as the Redtail. 
I have seen two tormenting one of these, and once saw one Sparrow Hawk 
after three Redtails. 

Asio wilsonianus. Long-eared Owl. — I have only two records of 
this species: one seen on the Gothic road, two miles from Crested Butte, 
September 7, 1900, and one found dead near Green Lake, September 20, 

Asio flamiueus. Short-eared Owl.— I have never seen this species 
about Crested Butte, but have seen it on Muddy Creek. In June, 1903, 
one was in a dense thicket while my assistant was setting a corner there, 
and kept hanging about very close. I have some recollection of having 
seen it at other times, but no notes. 

Bubo virginianus pallescens. Western Horned Owl.— ; Probably 
a common resident. I have seen it at Marble, Crested Butte, and on 
Muddy Creek. 

Glaucidium gnoma pinicola. Rocky Mountain Pygmy Owl. — 
One was seen on the high mesa west of Muddy Creek, July 22, 1901. I 
have never seen or heard of it in the Crested Butte region. 

Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Not uncommon along the 
streams in summer; probably breeds, in fact one was seen to enter a hole 
in a high bank above Muddy Creek, at Adams's ranch, July 15, 1901. 
September 6, 1902, is the latest date I have, at Hillside Lake. 

Dryobates villosus monticola. Rocky Mountain Hairy Wood- 
pecker. — A not uncommon resident; have seen it at all seasons of the 
year; found up to at least 11,000 feet. 

302 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [j^y 

Dryobates pubescens homorus. Batchelder's Woodpecker. — 
Probably rare; I have but one record, a bird seen at the Hillside Ranch, 
January 12, 1909. 

Sphyrapicus varius iluchalis. Red-naped Sapsucker. — A common 
summer resident, going to above 10,000 feet. Its favorite nesting sites 
appear to be dead aspens. June 20, 1902, a brood of young was seen 
flying about Hillside Ranch. A female collected June 6, 1915, at about 
9,500 feet, was evidently breeding, its breast and abdomen being bare of 
feathers. July 8, 1900, while watching a flycatcher's nest, I saw a Red- 
naped Sapsucker, and possibly two, though I was not sure as to that, flying 
back and forth, and noticed that it went into a particular bunch of willows 
farther along the side-hill from where I was. When I got through with the 
flycatchers I went there and the Sapsucker flew out. Looking about I 
saw quite a number of the willow branches which had the bark perforated 
in circles and the bird was evidently going there after sap. 

I have never seen Williamson's Sapsucker in the region, though it should 
occur there, and no doubt some other observer will find it. 

Asyndesmus lewisi. Lewis's Woodpecker. — Not uncommon in 
summer on Muddy Creek. 

Colaptes cafer collaris. Red-shafted Flicker. — Moderately com- 
mon summer resident all over the region; I have seen it as high as the 
timber extends, up to say 11,500 feet. My earliest date is April 13, 1901, 
at Crested Butte; latest September 28, 1910, on Brush Creek. 

Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. — A com- 
mon summer resident near Crested Butte, frequenting the open ground, 
especially in East and Slate River valleys. I do not think it breeds much 
above 9,000 feet in this region, for there is not much suitable country above 
that elevation, though it may wander much higher when hunting. July 9, 
1903, two eggs were found at Pogna's ranch. East River; a dog flushed the 
bird and stepped on one of the eggs, which did not appear to have been 
much incubated. July 26, 1903, a ranchman showed me at his place on 
East River two young hatched within the preceding week. These were 
covered with a light grayish h)uff down, somewhat speckled, and were almost 
invisible on the ground. Two days later the only bird found showed 
considerable growth, and the wing quills showed a little. On cloudy days 
the Nighthawks are often seen hawking over the streams, and will fly so 
close to fishermen that they might easily be touched with a rod. In June 
1915, they came about Hillside Lake in the evenings, evidently after the 
mosquitos and other insects which were abundant there. 

Selasphorus platycercus. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. — Common 
summer resident. I saw a nest at Adams's ranch on Muddy Creek, 
June 13, 1901, with two eggs. It was saddled on a dead limb on a small 
Cottonwood about five feet above ground, and was largely covered with 
lichens. The bird sat very closely, allowing me to come within a foot. 
June 23, there were two young in the nest, and July first they were nearly 
ready to fly. A Hummingl)ird came into the kitchen at Adams's; I caught 

^"''igi^e'^^"] Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 303 

it and induced it to take some syrup; then it flew from my hand and went 
up a hole in the ceiling where I could not get at it. Coming down again 
an horn- or two later I captured it again. It was either exhausted or 
frightened so that it seemed at the point of death, and I laid it outside 
on a block in the sun, where it soon revived and flew away. Perhaps it was 
playing possiun. 

August 3, 1902, I was about some clumps of willows at Hillside Ranch, 
when I saw a Hummingbird, and then more, four altogether, I think. A 
male was most in evidence; I was quite close to him, three feet, as he 
perched in the willow. His throat gave a fine display of color, in some lights 
almost black, again flashing lilac red, almost ruby. I thought at first they 
had taken shelter in those thick bushes from a shower which had just passed, 
but I saw a* least one hover beside a twig and apparently pick up some- 
thing from the bark ; bees and flies were crawling over the bark, seemingly 
after the same thing; the bark of many of the twigs was perforated and 
girdled by sapsuckers; indeed, I had seen at least one fly away from there. 
Though I looked closely I could see nothing in the way of sap. 

In June, 1915, Hummingbirds were seen several times at Hillside Ranch, 
about the catkins on the willows. The first half of the month these seemed 
to be theu' favorite feeding grounds; later I saw them about Larkspur and 
other flowers. I succeeded in taking several fairly good photographs of 
one bird at the willows. Sometimes this bird fed while poised on the wing, 
and again it would perch on a twig by the catkin and take what it wished. 

Selasphorus rufus. Rtjfous Hummingbird. — Mr. T. A. Boughton of 
Marble told me of a Hummingbird which visited the flowers in his garden 
in 1914, and which from his description could have been nothing but a 
Rufous Hummer. 

Tyraainus verticalis. Western Kingbird. — Seen on Muddy Creek, 
but does not reach as high an altitude as that of Crested Butte. June 12, 
1901, a pair were building a nest near my camp on the mesa west of Muddy 
Creek. It was on a partly burnt dead aspen, on a sort of shelf or niche 
on one side, about 25 feet above the ground. The nest was built and the 
eggs were laid during the time I was there, from the 12th to the 20th, at 
which latter date the bird was sitting. 

Sayornis saya. Say's Phcebe. — My only record is one seen about 
the corrals at Hillside Ranch, August 6, 1903. 

Nuttallornis borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. — Summer resi- 
dent, but I have little evidence on which to base a statement as to its 
abundance. I failed to see it in 1915 in many localities which I would 
consider well suited to it. One was seen at Pittsburgh, 9,500 feet, and one 
or two near the Hillside Ranch, possibly the same individual seen on differ- 
ent occasions. 

Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni. Western Wood Peewee. — 
I did not, for. some reason, note this species near Crested Butte until 1915, 
when on June 8 I took one on the south slope of Crested Butte Mountain, 
at about 9,500 feet ; this was a male and its breast was bare of feathers as 

304 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [july 

if incubating. A few days later I saw one or more at Hillside Ranch, and 
on June 15 a female was collected on the ridge north of Crested Butte 
Mountain among aspens. June 23 and 24 I saw the species at Marble. 
I should consider it a not uncommon summer resident and breeder, going 
at least as high as 9,500 feet. 

June 28, 1901, I found a nest near my camp north of Deep Creek in the 
Muddy country; it was in an aspen tree about seven feet above ground, 
saddled on a small branch, and was constructed from the fine fibrous bark 
from dead aspens; it contained 3 eggs at the time. July 13 the young were 
showing pin feathers. 

Empidonax wrighti. Wright's Flycatcher. — Summer resident; 
appears to be common to at least 9,500 feet. In 1900 I found three nests 
of this species, one at Hillside Ranch, one on the Irwin road west of Crested 
Butte, and one by the Gothic road not far from Gothic. Each of these 
nests contained three eggs. The first was found June 17, that near Gothic 
June 29, and the other July 2. That at Hillside was observed regularly, 
and the following data noted: June 24, eggs still unhatched; July 1, 3 
young; July 8, young pretty well feathered and very lively; they were 
decidedly yellow below. The parent came to nest to feed young while I 
was close by; July 15, nest deserted. 

At the nest on the Irwin road the young were just hatching July 9; 
on 19th were getting well feathered; July 23 I found the nest destroyed 
and the young gone, work of a cat, I suspect. 

In 1915 this species was noted several times; one was collected at about 
9,500 feet on the northwest slope of Crested Butte Mountain, June 15. 
June 10 I discovered an empty nest at Hillside Ranch, which at the time 
I supposed to be a MacGillivray's Warbler's, though the height from the 
ground, 7 feet, was quite unusual for that species, but a pair of the Warblers 
were about the willow thicket, evidently having a nest there, and I saw the 
female flush from so close to the nest that I thought she came from it. 
When I found the nest to be empty I at once left it without any further 
careful examination, not wishing to chance causing the bird to desert the 
nest. On the sixteenth I thought the set of eggs should be complete, so 
went to the nest again. The Warblers were about as before, but when 
I climbed to the nest and found two pure white eggs instead of the 
spotted ones I had expected I saw my error and after examining the nest 
decided it was a Flycatcher's. That was in the morning. In the after- 
noon as I passed by a bu-d was on the nest, but so much alcove me and 
in such a position that I could not see much more than the top of her head 
and a whitish eye ring; she might very well have been a female MacGilli- 
vray's with the view I then obtained. The morning of the 18th she was 
on the nest again, sitting very close, even staying on when I cut twigs close 
beside the nest which interfered with photographing. The nest then con- 
tained four fresh eggs. The nest, eggs, and female were collected, and are 
now in the Colorado CoUege collection. The nest is constructed almost 
entirely of bark fibre, lined with a little haii-, soft vegetable material, and a 

The Auk, Vol. XXXI 11 

Plate XVIII. 

1. Nest of Wright's Flycatcher. 2. Nest of ]\IcGillivray's Warbler. 


^"''1^16^"^] Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 305 

few feathers. I noted a few breast feathers from a Robin among the latter. 
The outside diameter of the nest was 85 inches; the inside 2 inches; the 
depth outside approximately 3 ins., being quite irregular; and inside If ins. 
It was in some rather large willows, built in a fork made by the trunk and a 
small branch. 

Otocoris alpestris leucolaema. Desert Horned Lark. — A common 
summer resident, living in the open valley, and also above timberline on 
the grassy slopes. The time of arrival in the spring no doubt varies with 
the season and amount of snow. The winter of 1901-2 was rather a mild 
winter, with little snow and early spring, and February 24, 1902, a Horned 
Lark was seen by the roadside below the town, though the snow had not 
yet gone, and March 17 several were seen at the same place. The latest 
date I have recorded, September 23, 1902, 1 collected one at about timberline 
on the ridge above Elk Basin, and there was a good bit of snow there at 
that date. The following year I saw it in the same region the last of June, 
and on the thirtieth of that month I found a nest with four eggs on the 
slope at the head of Elk Basin. This nest was on the ground with practi- 
cally no protection in the way of surrounding or overhanging vegetation. 
In 1915 the species did not seem to be as common as of old; possibly its 
habits of frequenting the roads and roadsides have made it an easy prey 
for the foreigners. 

Pica pica hudsonia. Magpie. — Common resident and breeder. 
Nests mainly along streams, building largely in the willows, but also in the 
coniferous trees, and in the cottonwoods when there are any. Judging 
from the data at hand difference of altitude does not make much difference 
in the time of breeding. Thus at Crested Butte, 9,000 feet, I found newly 
hatched young May 27, 1900, and on West Muddy Creek, 7,000 feet, 
I found young of the same age May 28, 1902. The young at Crested 
Butte were observed closely, and were out of the nest in the branches at 
the age of four weeks, though as yet unable to fly, and when 5 weeks old 
could fly a little, and quite well at 6 weeks of age. On W^est Muddy Creek, 
June 20, 1903, young about four weeks old were found. I am doubtful 
if it breeds above 9,500 feet. The Magpie sometimes goes to timberline, 
one being seen at that elevation above Independence Basin, September 23, 
1902. It is a nuisance in winter when one is trying to trap about animal 
carcasses as they are continually getting into the traps. 

This is another of the species which I found to be rare about Crested 
Butte in 1915, and I saw very few during four weeks in June. I was told, 
however, that there were many about that spring; perhaps they also went 
into the pot with the other birds. 

Cyanocitta stelleri diademata. Long-crested Jay. — Not uncom- 
mon; probal>ly breeds as notes indicate its presence throughout the sum- 
mer. I think it must go somewhat lower diu-ing the most severe portion 
of the winter as I have no records for that season. The latest is November 
24 and 25, 1899, at the Keystone Mine, west of Crested Butte, 10,000 feet. 
One or two seen frequently about Hillside Ranch in June, 1915. In late 


306 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [j^y 

September, 1910, when camped on Middle Brush Creek at 9,750 feet, I saw 
a few about. General!}' but one or two are seen at a time. On Muddy 
Creek the species is more common, as the altitude is lower. When at 
Adams's ranch in September, 1902, I saw these Jays carrying heads of 
grain from the shocks in the field and hiding them in trees. Several birds 
were constantly going back and forth on this errand. 

Perisoreus canadensis capitalis. Rocky Mountain Jay. Camp 
Bird. — A common resident of the higher altitudes, making its home for 
the most part in the heavy timber from 10,500 to 11,500 feet, but wandering 
lower in the fall and early winter, and a few occasionally winter at quite 
low altitudes about ranches and mines. It must breed before the snow is 
gone as I shot a young one, full fledged but not long from the nest. May 31, 
1900, which would indicate that the eggs must be laid in April, when the 
snow is still deep at that altitude, and the nights, if not the days, cold. 
The " Camp Robber," as it is often called, often becomes very tame and 
familiar and will take food from the hand. In the fall of 1900 some were 
very tame at the " Twin Springs," on the south slope of Mt. Emmons, 
though no one was at that time living in the cabin there. They would 
take ])read from my fingers, and one tried to steal a whole slice from my 
lunch which was on the gi'ound close beside me, though I was dividing 
with them quite fairly. Like all theu family they are great hands to carry 
away and hide food, and when fed a bird will usually eat a mouthful or two, 
take all it can hold in its bill, and fly off with it, presently returning to 
repeat the performance. Some, at least, of the adult birds moult in June, 
as I have seen them with short tails, or parts of the tail missing; the plum- 
age of others was very ragged at that date. I have also seen birds in mid- 
September which had not yet completed the moult. 

Corvus corax sinuatus. Raven. — - Not common, occasionally seen. 
In lSS|5-6 there always used to be a few about the Augusta Mine at the 
head of Poverty Gulch, 12,500 feet, feeding on the refuse thrown out by 
the cook. C. F. Frey told me that Ravens bred in the cliffs on Anthracite 
Creek above the " Watson Ranch." Possibly the Ravens at the Augusta 
may have come from there as this mine is at the head of a branch of Anthra- 
cite Creek. In June, 1901, a number were seen near the trail between 
Anthracite and Muddy Creeks; a band of sheep was lambing there and a 
good many dead lambs were aliout. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos. Crow. — Early in 1901 
H. A. Decker saw several bii'ds near Crested Butte which he was sm-e were 
Crows. He said they " cawed," and were not as large as Ravens, with 
which he was familiar. Confirmatory of this, October 27, 1905, 1 saw 6 or 8 
birds a few miles north of Gunnison, or 20 miles south of Crested Butte, 
which I had no doubt were Crows. 

Nucifraga columbiana. Clarke's Nutcracker. — Not common, at 
least about Crested Butte, though at Anderson's ranch, Marble, the last 
of September, 1900, a good many were coming about the house for scraps, 
and were quite tame. They seemed to rather bully the Camp Birds and 

^°''i^i^"^] Wabren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 307 

Long-crested Jays which were also about. My records for Crested Butte 
are few and scattering. I saw it at Hillside Ranch twice in June, 1915. 
On the tenth, while photographing an Audubon's Warbler's nest, two came 
around, and I think they would have robbed the nest when I left if I had 
not taken it with me. I am inclined to think the species is more common 
in the northern part of the region than the southern, though I know of no 
reason why this should be the casp. • 

Molothrus ater ater. Cowbird. — Apparently a rare summer resi- 
dent. Seen at Pogna's ranch, 7 miles below Crested Butte, July 9, 1903. 
One seen at Marble, June 25, 1915. 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. Yellow-headed Blackbird. — 
Only a straggler at Crested Butte, and I have but two personal records, 
May 8 and September 22, 1900. I was told of one at Hillside Ranch in the 
spring of 1915. These were all males. A male was seen at Adam's ranch 
on Muddy Creek, June 14, 190.3, and Adams spoke as if he had never seen 
it there before. 

Agelaius phoeniceus fortis. Thick-billed Redwing. — Not particu- 
larly common at Crested Butte, though there are always some about in sum- 
mer. Earliest date is March 20, 1900; latest November 27, 1901. No 
doubt these dates vary much with the season. July 26, 1902, some young 
were seen just beginning to fly, presumably at Meridian Lake, as I was do- 
ing some sm'veying there at that date. There were some at Hillside Lake 
all through June, 1915, and on the fourth a nest with five fresh eggs was col- 
lected, built in some willows by the lake shore. On the Muddy I used 
to see these Blackbirds about the little ponds and marshy spots. 

Sturnella neglecta. Western Meadowlark. — Formerly a common 
summer resident and breeder in open gi-ound. In 1915 Meadowlarks did 
not appear to be nearly as abundant as formerly, possibly for the reason 
previously mentioned in connection with other species. I have seen it up 
to about 9,500 feet. I have no early spring dates; seen as late as October 
5, 1910. June 6, 1901, there was a nest at Hillside Ranch with 6 young; 
it was empty two daj's later; possiblj' the young were eaten by a snake. 

Icterus .jullocki. Bullock's Oriole. — Seen at Adams's Ranch, 
Muddy Creek, May 19, 1901. 

Euphagus cyanocephalus. Brew'er's Blackbird. — Common sum- 
mer resident and breeder. Seen as early as April 1, 1900, and as late aa 
November 14, 1901, but the majority are gone by the middle of October. 
By the last of July they have gathered in large flocks and are numerous 
about the streets of Crested Butte. These Blackbirds were nesting in some 
spruce trees in the corral at Adams's ranch, and May 31, 1901, I found a 
nest with 5 eggs and the following day two nests with 6 eggs in each in 
nearby trees. June 15 a young bird not able to fly w^as found in the corral; 
possibly it had fallen from one of these nests. May 29, 1902, I found a nest 
with eggs in the same corral. In 1915 I discovered several nests with eggs 
in the willows along the shore of Hillside Lake. Two of these contained 
5 eggs each; a set collected June 6 was heavily incubated and would 


308 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [ju"y 

have hatched in a few days. The other set of five was found June 10, and 
I sometimes saw the female on the nest, but I think she eventually deserted 
it ; the eggs were there up to June 29, but were gone on the afternoon of the 
30th except for a few fragments of shell. Whenever I went along the lake 
shore several blackbirds of both sexes always kept me company, perching 
on the willows and uttering notes of distress. June 26 I saw the first young 
of the year out of the nest and one or two were seen almost daily after that. 

In the town of Crested Butte I used to see partial albinos quite fre- 
quently ; it is possible there may have been a family with a tendency toward 
albinism breeding thereabouts. Thus from my notebooks: 

Sept. 7, 1900. This morning as I was coming up from breakfast saw a 
young Blackbird, or a female, with a white spot as big as my thumb in the 
middle of its back. 

Sept. 10, 1900. Had a close view of what was probably the same albino 
seen on the 7th. It had other white feathers on it besides the patch on 
the back, including some under wings. 

Sept. 22, 1900. One seen on street which had the outside edge of left 
wing white; should think the outer two or three primaries were white. 

Oct. 7, 1901. A female about town with a number of white feathers 
scattered through its plumage, and it also had one leg crippled in some way. 

Oct. 11, 1901. There are, as last year, a number of partially albino 
Blackbirds about, I have seen several. 

If my memory serves me right, I saw others in other years, before I made 
any notes. 

Pinicola enucleator montana. Rocky Mountain Pine Grosbeak. 

— I have seen this species on a few occasions, high up in the timber; twice 
near the Venango mine, Irwin, in July and October, and on Mt. Emmons. 
Late in September, 1910, I saw quite a number on Middel Brush Creek. 
These various records were at altitudes from 9,800 to nearly 11,000 feet. 

Carpodacus cassini. Cassin's Purple Finch. — I saw Cassin's 
P^inehes several times in June, 1915, at Hillside Ranch; in Rustler Gulch, 
at 10,000 feet; at Scofield, 10,150 feet; and near the Keystone Mine. 
September 24, 1910, 1 saw a flock of 25 or more on Middle Brush Creek, and 
secured one. From these data one may conclude that the species is at least 
a summer resident; whether it stays during the winter remains to be 

Loxia curvirostra minor. Crossbill. — Seen on Mt. Emmons, at 
11,000 feet, September 21, 1901; also two seen near Scofield, October 13, 

Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis. Gray-crowned Rosy Finch. 

— Rosy Finches come about in large flocks in autumn and winter, rather 
erratically; I have seen them in the town of Crested Butte and at Hillside 
Ranch; some, if not a majority, of these winter birds are Gray-crowned. 
The winter of 188&-7 I spent at the Domingo Mine above Dark Caiion, 
between 11,000 and 12,000 feet, and pleasant days through the winter 
Rosy Finches used to come and feed on the refuse we threw out. I col- 

^"^'i^^"^] Warren, Bird^ of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 309 

lected none of these birds and kept no notes, but have a distinct recollec- 
tion that I saw black individuals among them. A flock at Hillside Ranch, 
March 29, 1902, seemed to be all, or nearly all. Gray-crowned. 

Leucosticte australis. Brown-capped Rosy Finch. — A summer 
resident on the mountain tops, above timberline, and no doubt helps form 
the winter flocks. My summer notes often mention seeing it at high alti- 
tudes. July 11, 1902, one was seen on Mt. Emmons, hopping along on a 
snowbank picking at the snow; I could not tell if it was eating snow to 
quench its thirst or picking up food. September 23 of the same year a 
flock of 50 or more was seen on the same mountain; the birds lit quite 
close to me once, feeding on the gi-ass and weed seeds. June 28, 1915, I 
saw several in Elk Basin at 11,500 feet, in a loose sort of flock. I shot two 
females, which I have no doubt were breeding as their bi'easts and abdomens 
were denuded of feathers and the ova in the ovaries were small. It may 
be that they had young as their crops were filled with small seeds which 
possibly were intended for food for their broods. I had no time to make 
any search for their nests. The crops and stomachs were sent to the 
Biological Survey for examination and I received the following report : 

Stomach A. Over 2400 seeds of Alsine [Chickweed], 80%; about 80 
of a Composite like Bidens (shelled), 15%; and a few of Eragrostis, Poly- 
gonum and unidentified trace; 2 Corizus hyalinus, 11 Corizus indentataus, 
a few Balclutha impicta, etc., 4%; 1 Trypeia sp., fragments of beetle, etc., 
trace, remains of several spiders, 1%. 

Stomach B. About 40 seeds of Composite like Bidens and fragments, 
50%; about 320 of Alsine, 35%; and 100 of Eragrostis, 10%; 3 Corizus 
indentatus, 1 fly and traces of beetle, 5%. 

While the report refers to the Alsine as probably media, it is more Ukely 
to be umhellata or baicalensis, which are synonymous, and which species 
is found at high altitudes in Colorado, while the other is not, to the best of 
my information. 

Acanthis linaria linaria. Redpoll. — I have but two records for 
this species, a flock seen about the corral at Hillside Ranch, October 21, 
1900, and a single bird at the same place, November 11 of the same year. 

Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. — Probably a summer resident and 
breeder ; I have seen the species in summer and autumn, and once in Janu- 
ary, on the 31st, 1902. June 30, 1903, I saw two in the corral at Hillside 
Ranch, one of which seemed to be gathering hair for nesting material. In 
June, 1915, I saw a pair frequently at Hillside Ranch, and occasionally 
other individuals. It was also seen in and near Crested Butte. 

Sclater, in " A History of the Birds of Colorado," p. 345, records from 
my MS. notes the Arkansas Goldfinch, Astragalinus p. psallria, as occurring 
at Crested Butte. The date of this record was June 5, 1900. I wish to 
state here that I am convinced that I was mistaken in my identification 
and that the birds seen were really Pine Siskins. 

Passer domesticus. House Sparrow. English Sparrow. — First 
seen at Crested Butte December 1, 1900. I was away all the winter, but 

310 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. VinXy 

on my return in April, 1901, I saw the birds about the town. I do not 
think they have ever been especially abundant. 

Pooecetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. — A 
common summer resident and breeder. Ai-rives late in April or early in 
May; I have a note that I thought I saw one April 21, 1901. Remains 
until at least the middle of September, and I have a note that one was seen 
November 3, 1902, though this is extraordinarily late. Nests abundantly, 
laying from 3 to 5 eggs. The following notes give an idea of the nesting 
dates : 

May 27, 1900, nest with 3 eggs at Hillside Ranch; hatched between 
June 3 and 8. Another nest with 4 young larger than those in the first 
was found on the 8th. 

4 eggs, June 5, 1900, at Genright's ranch. 

4 eggs, June 13, 1900, Hillside Ranch, still unhatched on 17th, and 
deserted on 24th, with one dead young bird in it, and 3 eggs. 

June 15, 1902, 4 eggs. Hillside Ranch, low down in sage brush; 3 well 
grown young in this June 22. 

4 eggs, June 19, 1902, near Crested Butte. 

3 eggs, July 10, 1903, at Hillside Ranch; 2 young in this July 26, about 
5 days old. 

June 26, 1915, a nest with 4 well incubated eggs. 

Nearly all these nests were on the ground, often under an Artemisia bush, 
but not infrequently under a tuft of grass or a cinquefoil bush. The above 
notes show that the nesting season may extend over a period of several 
weeks; very possibly late sets are second layings due to the destruction of 
the first set. The species was also common on Muddy Creek. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys. White-crow^ned Sparrow. — 
Common summer resident. Arrives about the first week in Maj^, and leaves 
the middle of October. I do not think it nests below 9,500 feet. The early 
part of June, 1915, White-crowns were common about Hillside Ranch, 
9,200 feet, and I was also noting it elsewhere; the twelfth was the last 
date on which I saw it at the ranch, though I observed it often at somewhat 
higher elevations, and on the 17th collected a nest with four nearly fresh 
eggs 2 miles west of Crested Butte, ^t about 9,500 feet; this was built in a 
tuft of grass on the ground, in a damp spot near a little brook, with willow 
thickets all about. That same day many were seen on the hillside below 
the Keystone Mine, and I saw several old nests which I thought belonged 
to this species in the willows there. As there were exactly similar localities 
and conditions at the Hillside Ranch I came to the conclusion that they did 
not breed there because of the low elevation. June 23, 1915, I saw some in 
Galena Park, 10,300 feet, when the snow had Iseen gone from there but a 
few days. I have also seen the species up to nearly 12,000 feet. 

Spizella rrjfonticola ochracea. Western Tree Sparrow.— Has been 
seen in autumn, when it is quite common about Crested Butte in late 
September and in October; also noted at Marble in October. No spring 

^°''i9?6^"^] Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 311 

Spizella passerina arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. — Rather 
common summer resident. I do not know what its range in altitude is, 
I have seen it a httle above 9,000 feet. 

Junco shufeldti. Shufeldt's Junco. — A number of black-headed 
Juncos taken near Crested Butte were identified by H. C. Oberholser of the 
Biological Survey as shufeldti. It occui's during the spring and autumn 
migi"ations, and at the latter season, at least, appears to be quite common. 
None of the Juncos seem to winter in the region. 

Junco mearnsi. Pink-sided Junco.— Common in migration; arrives 
as early as September 24, and remains through October. A note of October 
17, 1902, speaks of this as being the most abundant of the three species 
of Junco seen on the Irwin road. Ranges at least to nearly 11,000 feet. 

Junco phseonotus caniceps. Gray-headed Junco. — Common sum- 
mer resident and breeder; I have no records to indicate the date of the 
spring arrivals, except that it was seen at Hillside Ranch, April 20, 1901. 
It remains through October. June 8, 1915, I found a nest with 3 eggs in a 
tall tuft of dead grass on the south slope of Crested Butte Mountain; July 5, 
1900, a nest with 4 newly hatched young was discovered under a Ijunch of 
grass beside an old timber road south of Coal Creek, 5 miles west of Crested 
Butte; July 11, 1902, young just able to fly seen on the " Smith Trail," 
west of Crested Butte. 

Melospiza melodia montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. — My 
records of this species for the region are decidedly scanty; it seems to be a 
summer resident, but is apparently rare. One was seen at Hillside Ranch, 
June 9, 1915. A Song Sparrow had a nest containing four eggs near a 
spring on the mesa west of Muddy Creek, at about 7,500 feet. One night 
a herd of cattle were about the spring and partly upset the nest; I straight- 
ened it up the next morning, and the bird went on incubating, but I do not 
know if she hatched the eggs. 

Melospiza lincolni lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. — Summer resi- 
dent and breeder; not uncommon. I have no definite records as to the 
vertical distribution of this species, my own being from 9,000 to 10,000 feet, 
nor have I any dates of arrival and departure. 

Pipilo maculatus montanus. Mountain Towhee. — One seen on 
Anthracite Creek, near Layton's ranch, September, 1902; never seen in 
the Crested Butte region, which is too high. 

Oreospiza chlorura. Green-tailed Towhee. — Common summer 
resident and l)reeder, preferring the open ground and sage brush, going to 
nearly 10,000 feet at least. I have no records indicating the date of its 
arrival in spring, nor the lateness of its stay in autumn, except September 7, 
1902. About Crested Butte this Towhee seems to prefer to place its nest 
in a sage brush, a foot or less above the ground. Nests with eggs found 
June 19, 1900; June 16, 1902; June 22, 1902; all near Crested Butte. 
These nests were all built of small twigs, lined with gi-ass and horsehair. 
July 10, 1903, 3 young about ten days old were seen at Hillside Ranch. 
On Muddy Creek, June 15, 1903, I discovered 3 nests with eggs, and one 
with young on the 20th. 

312 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. ' [july 

A ranchman I knew called this species " Redtop," a rather appropriate 

Zamelodia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. — I used to 
see this bird quite frequently about the scrub oaks on Muddy Creek, and 
it was apparently a common summer resident in that region. 

Passerina amoena. Lazuli Bunting. — A pair seen at Adams's ranch 
on Muddy Creek, June 13, 1903. 

Piranga ludoviciana. Western Tanager. — A summer visitor, status 
uncertain. I have seen this Tanager occasionally in summer, and with one 
exception all the birds observed were males. The dates are June 2, 1900; 
June 6, 1901; July 1, 1903; and June 7 and 13, 1915, all at Hillside ranch, 
A pair were seen on the last date, but were not seen again, though looked for. 
July 16, 1902, when going up High Bridge Creek, I saw a male Tanager 
flying over; I thought it had something in its mouth, and it may have been 
feeding young. One was seen at Crystal, 8,900 feet, August 10, 1902. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. — Common 
summer resident and breeder. Builds its nest under the eaves of houses, 
and even under the coi-nices of the false fronts of store buildings on the main 
street of Crested Butte. 

At Hillside Ranch, in June, 1902, I made the following nptes: 

22nd, " When I got up this morning there were quite a number of Cliff 
Swallows about the eaves on the east side of the upper house (a one story 
log structure). There was one nest started, apparently the day before. 
By night it was about done, another half done, and the beginnings of several 
others. It is strange how they all came there at once, for they have not 
been about before, though Violet-green Swallows are flying around all the 

June 29. There are now 30 Swallows' nests on the upper house, mostly 
on the east side. I do not think there are any eggs yet. It was interesting 
to look up and see the birds' heads peeping out of the nests, and from many 
of the nests two heads." 

August 31, 1902, a note says " No swallows about now." 

October 18 I took down one of the above nests, photographed and meas- 
ured it. It was 8 ins. wide across the back end, 85 ins. long; 3j ins. deep 
inside and 4 ins. deep outside at the back. There was not very much of a 
nest inside, only a few straws laid together. 

The following year there were no nests at this place. In 1915 there were 
two or three occupied nests on another house at Hillside Ranch, but none 
on the above mentioned. 

Hirundo erythrogastra. Barn Swallow. — Summer resident; locally 
common. At Jarvis's ranch. East River, June 19, 1900, Barn Swallows 
were nesting about the wagon and cattle sheds. One nest was a very curi- 
ous affair. Several strands of baling wire had been strung over a pole 
rafter which ran along the middle of the shed and twisted together below 
and bent up into a sort of hook. On this hook a pair of Swallows had built 
up a nest probably 5 inches high, and bearing a curious resemblance in its 

1916 J Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 313 

shape to an oriole's nest. The separate pellets of mud from which it was 
built could be seen plainly. The next evening I looked up at the nest 
about dusk and saw one bird in it and the other perched on the wires 

Iridoprocne bicolor. Tree Swallow.— Not until 1915 did I succeed 
in identifying Tree Swallows in the region, in fact I am quite sure I never 
saw them there before. On June 13 of that year while driving past 
Nichols's Lake on a road which at one place is sufficiently high above the 
water so the one could look down upon the swallows flying about I noted 
several Tree Swallows among the many Violet-green and Cliff Swallows 
there. I also saw the species at Hillside Ranch, and tried to collect some, 
but unsuccessfully. The birds flew about erratically and one had to wait 
for a good view before being able to decide if the bird was a Tree or Violet- 
green; the Cliff Swallows were easily separated. 

Toward sunset many swallows of the various species were usually flying 
about the lake, and they changed their beat continually, sometimes out 
over the lake and above the dam, then away over in another corner some- 
times flying quite low, and then again they were all to be seen high in 
the air circling about like a swarm of insects, but at all times evidently 
hunting. Occasionally they would all seem to disappear for a few minutes, 
and then return. 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida. Northern Violet-green Swal-^ 
LOW. — Abundant summer resident and breeder. Earliest spring date 
May 10, 1900. In common with the other species of swallow is gone by 
about September first. Often nests in abandoned woodpecker's holes in 
dead aspens, of which there are a good many. On Muddy Creek it was 
nesting in holes in the sandstone cliffs along the stream. In 1900 1 saw a 
dead aspen beside the Irwin road west of Crested Butte in which a Swallow 
and a House Wren had their nests in separate holes. July 16, 1903, I 
observed a nest at Hillside Ranch in an aspen about 8 feet above ground. 
Often the female would enter the nest without first alighting at the entrance, 
flying directly into the hole. Once I saw the male on the ground, picking 
at something, possibly ants. The next day I opened the nest by cutting 
out a section below the hole and found eggs; they seemed to be entirely 
buried and covered by the nest material. July 29 I found the nest deserted, 
no eggs left; it seemed a short time for the young to have been raised, 12 

At Marble, June 23-25, 1915, this was the only Swallow seen, and was 
abundant. It was seen in Galena Park 10,300 feet, on the same two days. 
It is often seen flying higher than timberline about the summits of the 
mountains, but I cannot say what is the highest elevation at which it 

Lanius borealis. Northern Shrike. — Visitor in late fall and early 
winter; I have no spring records. 

Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. White-rumped Shrike. — A 
few seen about Crested Butte, late in August and early in September. 

314 Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [j^JJy 

Vireosylva gilva swainsoni. Western Warbling Vireo. — I have 
but one record for this species, a female collected on Owens Creek, on the 
northwesterly slope of Crested Butte Mountain, 9,500 feet, June 15, 1915. 
It was collecting food when shot, so may have had young. It is quite 
likely a fairly common summer resident and breeder. 

Dendroica aestiva aestiva. Yellow Warbler. — Summer resident, 
common; breeding limit is apparently a little above 9,000 feet. A pair 
had a nest at Adams's ranch on Muddy Creek in early part of June, 1903. 
In 1915 Yellow Warblers were very common about the Hillside Ranch and 

1 discovered no less than six nests, all built in willows, 2 along the lake shore, 

2 near the outlet of the lake, and 2 in willows on the meadow; all these 
last near running water. One nest was collected and I had a rather curi- 
ous experience. It was found on the 9th and collected on the 16th of 
June. I was passing on the morning of the last-named date and looking 
into the nest saw four eggs. I returned about half an hour later with cam- 
era, cut out some interfering twigs, set up and focussed, and then discovered 
I had forgotten the plateholders, so went after them, returning in less than 
ten minutes, and took two pictm-es. I saw the female about while doing 
this. Then I went to remove the eggs and was surprised to find but one; 
looking about the remains of the others were discovered on the gi-ound 
below. Query: Did the bird destroy the eggs between the first and second 
visits, or after I had set the camera and was absent after the plateholders? 

Dendroica auduboni auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. — Summer 
resident and breeder; common. It breeds to at least 11,200 feet, judging 
from locahties where I have seen the species in summer, and possibly some- 
what higher. I saw one October 4, 1902, on the slope of W^hitehouse Moun- 
tain, above Yule Creek. 

June 10, 1915, I found an Audubon's Warbler's nest at Hillside Ranch. 
It was on a hill above the lake, in a Douglas's fir tree, on a branch about S 
feet above ground, and 4 feet out from the trunk. Twigs hvmg below, 
hiding it, and another twig projected over it above, hiding it from that 
point of view. I was obliged to cut off the latter twig in order to photo- 
graph the nest, and then the picture did not prove to be a success, thanks to 
the wind. I discovered the nest by watching the female as she worked 
about the tree hunting insects; wshen she disappeared on this branch and 
did not reappear after some time I investigated and flushed her from the 
nest. This is made of fine strips of dead bark on the outside, lined with 
horsehair and a few feathers, some of which are Long-crested Jay's, and 
others hen feathers. The nest is 3§ ins. diameter outside, 2 inside; and 
the cavity If ins. deep. There were four eggs, very slightly incubated. 
On June 13 I saw a female Audubon's in willows along the lake-shore not 
far from where this nest was apparent^ collecting strips of dead bark for 
building material. Possibly the pair were building a second nest. 

June 11, 1915, at an elevation of 11,200 feet on Mt. Emmons, in heavy 
Engelmann's Spruce timber, where the snow was three feet deep and no 
bare ground about, I saw at least two Audubon's Warblers about the 

^°''m6^"^] Warren, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. 315 

spruces. One was seen on Spring Creek, at the foot of Ragged Mountain^ 
about. 8,000 feet, May 14, 1902. 

Oporornis tolmiei. MacGillivray's Warbler. — Summer resident 
and breeder; not uncommon. I do not know its vertical range, above 
9,000 feet at least. As related under Wright's Flycatcher, a pair appeared 
to have a nest at Hillside Ranch, though I failed to locate it after diligent 
search. June 15, 1902, I did find a nest in the bushes on the shore of Hill- 
side Lake. It was empty then, but on the 22nd contained 4 eggs, which 
were unhatched on the 29th; July 4 there were young in the nest. 

Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. — Common sum- 
mer resident and breeder; from my observations made in 1915 I think 
about 9,500 feet marks the lower limit of its breeding range as after the first 
week in June I found none below that altitude, though common enough 
about the willows along the streams higher than that. A family was seen 
at Hillside Ranch, September 7, 1902. 

Anthus rubescens. Pipit. — Summer resident and breeder, living 
from near timberhne up; have seen it at these elevations as late as Sep- 
tember 23, 1902. June 27, 1903, I found a nest on the grassy slope above 
Elk Basin, containing 4 eggs. The nest was quite deep, and hidden under 
a bunch of gi-ass facing southwest, being almost entirely concealed. July 
13 I visited the nest again, found 3 young about two thirds gi'own and one 
unhatched egg. October 7, 1910, several were seen by the roadside not 
far from Crested Butte. 

June 11, 1915, I ascended the south slope of Mt. Emmons to the summit, 
a little over 12,000 feet. The season was late, and everything was covered 
with snow, probably averaging three feet in depth, only a few bare patches 
being visible. On this snow I found many insects, all of them alive, and 
apparently carried there by the wind. Just above the limit of the large 
Engelmann's Spruces I saw one or two Robins on the snow picking up 
these insects, which were found from this line up to the summit. Higher 
up Pipits were feeding on them also. A number of the insects were secured 
and were identified for me by the Biological Survey, which reported four 
species of Hemiptera, two of Hj'menoptera, two Diptera, and one Coleop- 
tera. At this date the Pipits seemed to be paired, though probably had 
not yet built nests, as there was no place for them to build except on the 

Cinclus mexicanus unicolor. Water Ousel. Dipper. — Fre- 
quently seen along the streams in summer, in fact all through the season 
of open water. There are usually one or two about Hillside Ranch in 
winter, where there is always some open water at the outlet of the lake, and 
also a little below where water from springs flows into the outlet and keeps 
open places here and there. A pair had a nest at Carey's on Muddy Creek, 
and were said to have nested there for several years. C. F. Frey said a 
pair nested in the same place near the Watson ranch on Anthracite Creek 
for a number of years. 

Dumetella carolinensis. Catbird. — A pair nested for three years 

316 Warrex, Birds of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. [j "ly 

in a dense thicket of Choke Cherry at Adams's ranch on Muddy Creek, 
1901-2-3; the nest itself was not found except once in the fall after the 
leaves had gone. The male was always singing near the nest. This species 
does not occur in the Crested Butte region. 

Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus. Rock Wren. — Summer resident; 
breeds. Apparently rare about Crested Butte. A l)rood of young from 
the nest were seen at Hillside Ranch, August 16, 1902. None seen there 
in 1915, Ijut one noted June 28 just west of Crested Butte. 

Troglodytes aedon parkmani. Western House Wren. — Common 
summer resident and breeder. Earliest spring date. May 5, 1900, at 
Crested Butte. Latest fall date, September 7, 1902, but doubtless remains 
later. Ranges to at least 10,500 feet. As ever>Tvhere breeds in all sorts 
of locations. As noted under that species a pair had a nest in the same 
tree with a Violet-green Swallow. A pair nested in between the slabs at a 
corner of a shed at Hillside Ranch in 1903, which had left the nest July 20. 
A family of young seen on Coon Creek, July 14, 1900. A Wren was noted 
at nest hole in dead aspen on south slope of Crested Butte Mountain, carry- 
ing food for young, June 8, 1915. During that month a pair had a nest 
somewhere about the log house in which I stayed at Hillside Ranch, but 
I could never discover its situation; in fact I think they changed its loca- 
tion for a second brood. June 11, and for several days after they were 
busy carrying food to the nest ; then they seemed to be making ready for a 
new brood, and I thought they were 0(!cupying an old ClilT Swallow's nest 
under the eaves on the end as I saw a Wren in it several times, but finally 
concluded I was mistaken. There may have been some crevice in the roof, 
under the log ridge poles, into which they could get. The latter part of the 
month the male spent nuich of his time on a projecting pole at the end of 
the roof, singing. 

Sitta carolinensis nelsoni. Rocky Mountain Nuthatch. — One 
observed at Hillside Ranch, carrying food, June 29, 1903. The only record 
I have of the species. 

Sitta pygmaea pygmaea. Pygmy Nuthatch.— One seen on Middle 
Brush Creek, Septcml)cr 28, 1910. My only record. 

Penthestes atricapillus septentrionalis. Long-tailed Chick- 
adee. — Resident, moderately common, but not seen as frequently as the 
next species, and possibly does not go as high. I have notes for all seasons. 
Seen at Marl)le; also on Muddy ('reek. 

Penthestes gambeli gambeli. Mountain Chickadee.— Resident; 
common; seen at all seasons; goes to timberline. One day in September, 
1901, I was surveying near Irwin, and while standing by the transit a little 
band of Mountain Chickadees came very close to me and I could hear their 
notes very distinctly. They seemed to say " chick-a-dee-a-dee-a-dee," 
not " chick-a-dee-dee " as the Black-caps do. And the tone was also 
different, but I cannot describe it. I did not hear them use the " phe-be " 
call, nor would they answer when I whistled it. 

Regulus calendula calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — Summer 

Vol. XXXIII 1 

j WAHRE^f, Birth of the Elk Mountain Region, Colo. ol7 

resident; seems to l)e common. Usually noted in spring and fall. IVIay G, 
1900, is my earliest date, at Hillside Ranch, where the willows alon;^ the 
lake shore appear to l)e a favorite resort for them in migration. 

Myadestes townsendi. Townsend's Solitaire. — Presumably a 
summer resident and breeder, and possibly a few winter. One seen at 
Hillside Ranch, March 10, 1902; also seen there June 5, 1915. Several 
noted early in Octol)er, 1910, on the south slope of Crested Butte Mountain, 
up to 11,000 feet. 

Hylocichla guttata guttata. Alaska Hermit Thuush. — Several 
seen, and (jne collected, on Middle Brash Creek, 9,S00 feet, Septeml)er 25, 
26 and 27, 1910. One seen on south slope of Crested Butte Mountain, 
October 3, 1910. 

Hylocichla guttata auduboni. Audubon's Hermit Thrush. — I 
have but one record of this species for the region, a dead, thoroughly desic- 
cated specimen I picked up on the Marble tramroad. Yule Creek, at about 
9,000 feet. This was June 24, 1915. It may have been killed by striking 
a telephone or power wire. The species ought to be a summer resident. 

Planesticus migratorius propinquus. Western Rohin. — Abun- 
dant sununer resident and brcinler. Ivirliest spring date April 1, 1900, and 
latest autumn date, October 27, 1900, both at Oested Butte. Begins 
nesting in May, and young are hatcihed last of that month and early in June. 
The following notes made about Crested Butte give an idea of the nesting: 

June 2, 4 young about a week old; June 6, 3 young just hatched and 1 
egg; June 9, 3 young about ready to fly; June 14, 3 young, well feathered; 
June 19, 4 eggs; July 12, 4 eggs; this last nest contained 3 young and one 
egg on 15th. The preceding nests were all noted in 1900. The following 
were observed in 1902: June 15, a nest with 4 young nearly ready to fly, 
and another nest with 4 eggs which did not hat(!h until after the 22d; 
July 20, 3 eggs, and in another nest 3 young which would have left the nest 
in a week. In 1915, the following notes were made: June 6, 2 young hatch- 
ing; June 9, 2 well grown young; June 10, 3 well grown young, had left 
by the IGth; June 19, 4 eggs. The last of June many well grown young 
were about. Judging from the preceding dates they probably raise two 
broods in a season. I saw one nest in rather an odd situation. A large 
dead aspen had the bark split and partly separated from the trunk, and the 
nest was built between the bark and the trunk. I once found an old nest 
on the top of an old aspen stul), with no protection at all from the weather. 
October 4, 1910, one seen at 11,000 feet on Crested Butte Mountain. 

Sialia currucoides. Mountain Bluehird. — Al)undant summer resi- 
dent. Earliest spring date, March 14, 1900; latest autumn date, October 
27, 1900. Nests in all sorts of situations, old woodpe(!kcr holes, holes 
in walls of stone buildings, in false fronts of buildings in town, in bird houses, 
almost anywhere. The first week in July there are usually a good many 
young just from the nest about Crested Butte, and I have seen them feeding 
young at Irwin, August 3. Seen at timberline, September 20, 1900. Seen 
in Galena Park, 10,300 feet, June 23, 1915. 

olo General Notes. • [ju"y 


Recent Occurrence of Iceland Gulls near New York. — During the 
past few years there have been some sight identifications of the Iceland Gull 
{Larns leiicopterus) near New York City, which indicate that this species, 
though rare, occurs here every year or two between the middle of January 
and end of March. In this connection attention is called to remarks on 
the occurrence of the Iceland Gull near Boston and its satisfactory- identi- 
fication in life in ' The Auk,' July, 1908 (F. H. Allen, Larus kumlieni and 
other northern Gulls in the neighborhood of Boston, p. 296). As the 
validity of " sight " records depends on the circumstances under which 
they are made, we quote pertinent matters from the notes of the respective 
observers. — 

1906, March 5. Observations by Dr. W. H. Wiegmann. 

" The following observations were made [on a single Iceland Gull] oppo- 
site the Hoboken terminal of the Lackawanna R. R. and adjacent northerly 
pier .... Size noticeably smaller than the numerous Herring Gulls present : 
body more bulky with shorter and broader wings: entire head, neck, under 
surface of wings and under parts, pure white: mantle lighter than in 
argentatus: bill yellow, no carmine, spot observed; distal ends of primaries 
white .... Larus leucopterus would fly towards water, settle and pick up 
some drifted garbage; then was at a distance of less than 50 ft. from my 
position. I also saw the bird pass over me at 25 feet." 

1912. Observations by Ludlow Griscom. 

" Feb. 6th. Hudson River from Liberty St. Ferry. Just as I was 
leaving the slip, several gulls flew by about 50 yds. away, and I saw at once 
that one of them was one of the white-winged species, a fact immediately 
verified by my prism glasses. At first the birds flew away, but a minute 
later wheeled with the other gulls and hovered over the same spot while 
the ferry came nearer, giving perfect views. It [the Iceland Gull] was 
noticeably smaller than the Herring Gulls, the head and bill appearing 
much slighter and more slender. The bird was an adult pure white 
with pearl gray on mantle and wings. The red spot on the lower mandible 
was noted also. As the ferry came very near indeed, all the gulls rose in the 
air and flew directly over my head at a maximum distance of 30 feet just 
clearing the upper deck, when every marking, except the red spot on the 
bill, could be seen with the naked eye." 

" March 29th. Central Park, New York City. 

Mr. S. V. LaDow and I saw an adult Iceland Gull with a large flock of 
Herring Gulls on the Reservoir. The smaller size and slenderer head and 
bill was again noted .... [In my absence] the Iceland Gull approached 
within 20 feet of Mr. La Dow thus giving him an incomparable observa- 

1915 and 1916. Observations by J. T. Nichols. 

V<»-™I"] General Notes. 319 

" Feb. 13, 1915. Fort Lee Ferry, New York City. An immature 
plumaged Gull, paler and more uniform than a young Herring, with the 
primaries largely white, seemed about the size of Herring Gulls which flew 
up with it from an ice-pan in the river. It could only have been an Iceland 
Gull or very small Glaucous Gull, in all probability but not positively the 

" Jan. 19, 1916. Twenty-third Street Ferry. New York City. An 
adult plumaged Iceland Gull seen nicely among Herring Gulls, though 
without glasses, at close range, from the front of the boat. The delicate 
grey of the mantle extended well out on the wing not sharply contrasted 
with its white tip. It was appreciably smaller than the Herring GuUa, 
the head and bill less heavy, and had an etherial look which I accredited to 
its having a paler mantle, although by then my chance had passed for 
direct comparison of the tone of same. Its head and neck were clouded 
with brownish, its feet pink." — Ludlow Griscom and J. T. Nichols, 
Neiv York City. 

The Arctic Tern in Central New York.— On May 20, 1915, I was 
fortunate enough to collect an adult female of this species mixed in with 
Common and Plack Terns and Bonaparte's Gulls at the north end of 
Cayuga Lake. As Brewster and Townsend have shown, it is distinguish- 
able in life from the Common Tern by its all crimson bill and more deeply 
forked tail. Early Avi-iters on New York State ornithology mention this 
species without definite data, and Bergtold gives it as an accidental visitor 
near Buffalo. The only definite record for the state is a male in Mr. 
Butcher's possession taken on Ram Island shoals, July 1, 1884. 

The record is of particular interest to my mind, however, in furnishing 
a definite date for the spring migration of this species, about which little 
or nothing is known. It seems to arrive on the New England breeding 
grounds about May 15, though I have been unable to locate a definite 
record. It has been noted near Mt. McKinley, Alaska, May 30, 1908. 
In localities where it is only a transient, definite data are again lacking. 
An extremely early specimen was taken at Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 9, 
1875. There are two records for Hawaii, May 9, 1891, and April 30, 1902. 
Considering the breeding range, one would think that there must be at 
least three migration routes through the United States, one along each coast 
and one through the interior, as it breeds in Wisconsin and abundantly 
in North Central Canada. The scarcity of records is correspondingly 
remarkable. — Ludlow Griscom, Ithaca, N. Y. 

American Merganser, wintering at Boston, Mass. — I have noted 
this species (Mergus americanus) on Charles River, Boston, Mass., this 
winter as follows: 

Dec. 24, 1915. I saw a single bird in the female plumage. 

Dec. 25, 1915. Saw a single bird in female plumage in the morning, in 
the afternoon saw three. 

320 General Notes I July 

Dec. 31, 1915. Saw seven in plumage of the female, the river was 
skimmed over with ice, they were in an open space. 

Jan. 4, 1916. I saw the seven again today, also saw a new one, a drake, 
in full plumage. 

Jan. 13, 1916. Saw four, one drake, three in female plumage; another 
full plum aged drake joined them in the p.m. 

Jan. 22, 1916. I saw thirteen, four drakes in full plumage, the others 
in the female plumage. 

Jan. 30, 1916. I saw eleven, four of which were drakes in full plumage. 
They were widely separated. 

Feb. 6, 1916. Saw twenty at 8 o'clock a. m., five of them drakes, later 
there were nine drakes. 

Feb. 7, 1916. Saw them all again this morning. 
'Feb. 10, 1916. River closed with ice, birds all gone. 

I have noticed a number of times this winter a feature in the courtship 
of the drakes, while resting on the water. They would send out a stream 
of water with their feet, or foot, between three and four feet directly behind 
them. I would also mention that they are astonishingly swift swim- 
mers under water, and that coming up under the ice apparently caused 
them little inconvenience. — George H. Mackay, Nantucket, Mass. 

The European Widgeon in Central New York.^ On April 11, 1915, 
Prof. A. A. Allen and I were in the Montezuma marshes at the outlet of 
Lake Cayuga, attempting to photograph the wild fowl. Leaving Prof. 
AUen in the blind I wandered over the marsh to " Black Lake " where a 
handsome drake of this species was discovered in a flock of Baldpate. An 
hour or so later we both returned, and the European Widgeon was observed 
at fairly close range through prism glasses for a quarter of an hour, every 
detail of plumage being satisfactorily made out. The species has not 
been recorded from the Cayuga Lake Basin in many years, and through 
Prof. Allen's courtesy I am able to record our observation. — Ludlow 
Griscom, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Limicolse at Porto Rico in July. — While studying the fishes of Porto 
Rico in behalf of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences and Insular Government; 
Guanica Lake, July 27, 1914: the writer observed a Least Tern {Sterna 
antillarum), about a dozen Lesser Yellowlegs (Totamis flavipes), as many 
Least Sandpipers {Pisobia minutilla), a couple of Semipalmated Sandpipers 
{Ereunetes pusillus), and a single Greater Y-ellowlegs (Totanus vielano- 
le.ucus). The Tern is a more recent occurrence than noted by Wetmore, 
Birds of Porto Rico, 1916 (U. S. Dept. Ag., Bull. No. 326), and the date for 
the Shore Birds is earlier than any he gives for them on their southward 
migration, earlier than, at first thought, one would expect them to reach ■ 
the West Indies. But many early south-bound Limicolse probably move » 
very rapidly, reaching localities in widely separated latitudes on approxi- 
mately the same dates. This was first called to the writer's attention by 

Vol. xxxiin 

1916 J 

General Notes. 


I some of these birds which he chanced to observe in Bermuda in 1903. In 

the Zoologist for Nov., 1877, Reid records the Turnstone {Arenaria interpres 

Imorinella) as having occurred in Bermuda Aug. 3, the Lesser Yellowlegs 

I July 13, dates which correspond closely with the arrival of these species on 

Long Island, New York. He gives the Ringneck {^'Egialitis semipalmata) 

and Greater Yellowlegs as arriving early in August, the Semipalmated 

Sandpiper, the first of August or a few days earlier; which is little later 

' than the arrival of the main flight of these same species on Long Island. 

I A Turnstone has been noted at Cooper's Island, Bermuda, by H. Bowditch, 

I July 27 (Am. Naturalist, 1904, p. 557), which would be an exceptionally 

[early date for higher latitudes. — J. T. Nichols, New York City. 

Krider's Hawk (Buteo borealis kxideri) in Alaska. — Krider's Hawk, the 
type specimen of which was taken in Winnebago County, Iowa, September, 
1872, ranges according to the 1910 Check-List of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, from the "great plains, from Wyoming, North Dakota, and 
, Minnesota, south to Nebraska and Missouri, and in winter to Wisconsin, 
I Illinois, Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi." It is, therefore, of no little 
I interest to record a specimen from Eagle, Alaska, which was secured for the 
iCoe College Museum, (No. 336), through Rev. Dr. C. F. Ensign, formerly 
I a missionary at that station. The exact date on which the specimen was 
collected is not available, but it was during the winter of 1903. The bird 
Iwas submitted for final identification to Mr. Robert Ridgway of the 
[National Museum, Washington, D. C. Mr. Ensign says that hawks like 
[this one are not common in that part of Alaska, and whether others seen 
[were of this variety may be questioned. 

The bird is fairly light for an immature specimen of this variety, the 
[middle breast practically unspotted, the belly showing an incomplete belt 
'of scattered brownish spots. The feathers of the head are whitish basally, 
[the shafts appearing as dark penciled lines, each shaft bordered on either 
f side with dusky brown. The tail is crossed by eight distinct narrow dusky 
[bands, the spaces between the bands being rusty whitish, the under surface 
'of the tail and body markedly white. Tibiae spotted somewhat with faint 

The mea.surements of the specimen taken (from the skin) are as follows: 


600 milhmeters. 







Bill (including cere) 


Krider's Hawks have been reported to me not infrequently from various 
[ parts of Iowa, and especially from the region about Eagle Lake, in Hancock 
County, Iowa. It is a conspicuous bird in the field, being recognized even 
by those who are not ornithologists, as a much lighter colored hawk than 
[the common Red-tail. — B. H. Bailey, M. D., Dept. Zoology, Coe College, 
[Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

322 General Notes. [july 

The Type Locality of Colaptes cafer. — According to the A. O. U. 

Check-List Colaptes cafer described by GmeHn in 1788 is an extrahmital 
species, and the type locaUty, erroneously given as Cape of Good Hope, 
is generally assumed to be Mexico. 

Gmelin's original description (Syst. Nat., 13th ed., I, p. 431), is as follows: 

P. supra fuscus, subtus vinaceus nigro-guttatus, alls subtus, scapisque 
remigum et retricam miniatis. 

Habitat ad caput bonje spei, aurato multum similis, sed minor. ^ 

Rostrum fuscum, ad utrumque latus stria rubra notatum; cauda acuta, 
rectricibus apice l^ifurcis. 

There is no citation here as there is under most of the other species 
to indicate the original source of the description. It is well known however, 
that Gmelin's descriptions were not made from specimens but were com- 
piled from the works of previous authors and in the case of birds frpm the 
west coast of North America his information was obtained almost entirely 
from Latham's ' Synopsis.' 

Latham did not recognize the Red-shafted Flicker as a distinct species 
nor did he give it a name, but in his General Synopsis of Birds (II, p. 599, 
1782), after the account of the Gold-winged Woodpecker he adds the fol- 
lowing note: 

49a. " I have lately seen, in the Museum above referred to [the Leverian 
Museum of Sir Ashton Lever to which Latham had free access], a bird 
which appears to be a mere variety, though brought from a far different 
country. This was much like the last described in colour, but rather less 
in size. The bill exactly made like that bird [the Gold-winged Woodpecker], 
and brown: on each side of the jaw is a stripe of crimson, like a whisker: the 
under parts of the wings of a pale red colour, not unlike what is called red 
lead: and the shafts of the quills and tail, which in the other bird are yellow, 
in this are red: the plumage on the upper parts of the body is brown: 
beneath vinaceous, marked ivith round black spots: tail black, pointed, and 
each feather bifurcated at the tip, exactly like the American one. 

" This was brought from the Cape of Good Hope. I have seen two speci- 
mens of this bird." 

It will be seen by a comparison of Gmelin's description with the extract 
from Latham which I have italicized that practically every word even to 
the locality is found in Latham's account. Five years later, in 1787, in his 
Supplement to the Synopsis of Birds (Vol. I, p. Ill) Latham makes this 
significant statement : 

" Gold-winged Woodpecker. Gen. Syn., II, p. 597, No. 49." 

Captain Cook in his last voyage found this bird at Nootka Sound.^ 

Turning to the page cited, we find that Cook in speaking of the birds 
found at Nootka Sound mentions two species of woodpeckers, one of which, 
evidently the Red-shafted Flicker, is described as follows: 

" The other is a larger, and much more elegant bird, of a dusky brown 

I Voy., II., p. 297. 

^°'-™"I] Cencral Notes. ' 323 

colour, on the upper part, richly waved with black, except about the head; 
the belly of a reddish cast, with round black spots; a black spot on the 
breast; and the under-side of the wings and tail a plain scarlet colour, 
though blackish above; with a crimson streak running from the angle of 
the mouth, a little down the neck on each side." 

A reexamination of these descriptions in chronological order shows: 
(1) that the bird found by Cook at Nootka Sound in 1778 and that described 
by Latham in 1782 are one and the same species, even without reference 
to Latham's statement in the Supplement; (2) that the birds described by 
Latham and Gmelin are identical and Gmelin's description is evidently 
taken from Latham. Gmelin's description of cafer follows the descrip- 
tion of auratus based on Latham's Gold-winged Woodpecker No. 49, and 
precedes the description of olivaceus based on Latham's ' Crimson- breasted 
Woodpecker ' ' No. 50, so that the sequence of these three species is the 
same in both books. 

Latham's connection with Gmelin's description was evidently recognized 
by contemporaneous authors as is shown by the citation of the reference to 
the ' Synopsis ' in the synonymy of cafer by Donndorff in 1794 (Ornith. 
Beytrage zur XIII Ausgabe Linn. Natursyst., p. 518) and Suckow in 1800 
(Anfangsgr. Thiere, II, p. 547).^ Later Wagler, in 1827, proposed lathami 
as a substitute for Gmelin's inappropriate name cafer (Syst. Avium, Picus, 
sp. 85). The reason that Gmelin included no reference to Latham was 
probably due either to inadvertence or to the fact that Latham gave no 
distinctive name or numl)er to the Red-shafted Flicker. 

The locality ' Cape of Good Hope ' which has caused so much confusion 
also shows the close connection between the two descriptions. It may be 
regarded as a case of transposed labels on the specimens or a typographical 
error, but it is interesting to note that on Cook's chart of his routes in the 
Pacific Ocean the entrance to Nootka Sound is marked Bay of Good Hope 
(' B. of G. Hope '). It is jnentioned in the text as Hope Bay, the name 
being given by Cook upon first sighting this point on the coast and " hoping, 
from the appearance of the land, to find in it a good harbor " (II, p. 264). 
Possibly this troublesome ' Cape of Good Hope ' which has always been 
associated with South Africa may have been only a misprint for the long 
forgotten ' Bay of Good Hope ' on the west coast of Vancouver Island. 
Latham's statement that Captain Cook found the Gold-winged Woodpecker 
at Nootka Sound is not to be taken literally for ixi that time Latham 
regarded the Red-shafted Fli ker as merely a variety of his Gold-winged 
Woodpecker and both he and Cook described the red-shafted and not the 
yellow-shafted bird. 

1 This specimen which was also in the Leverian Museum later passed into the possession 
of the Bullock Museum and on the disposal of that collection was sold on May 18, 1819, to 
Baron Laugier for 12 shillings (Hist. Coll. Nat. Hist., Depts. Nat. Mus., II, 223, 1906). 
I have been unable to ascertain the history of the flickers. 

2 For the opportunity of consulting these rare works I am indebted to Dr. C. W. Bich- 
mond of the U. S. National Museum. 

o24 General Notes. [j„"y 

I therefore designate Nootka Sound as the type locality of Gmelin's 
Picus cafer. 

Admitting that Gmelin's description really belongs to the bird found by 
Cook at this locality, several changes in nomenclature are unavoidable. 
Gmelin's name must be adopted for the Northwest coast Flicker which 
thus becomes Colaptes cafer cafer and Colaptes c. saturatior is reduced to 
synonymy. Colaptes mexicanus of Swainson should be restored as the 
name of the Mexican bird in accordance with the usage of most English 
ornithologists but in the form Colaptes cafer mexicanus. No change is 
necessary in the name of the California bird which remains Colaptes c. 
collaris (Vigors) or in that of the Guadalupe Flicker, Colaptes c. rufipileus 
(Ridgway). Such a solution of the cafer difficulty seems reasonable and 
has much in its favor. It is inconceivable that such a conspicuous bird as 
the Red-shafted Flicker which was represented in England at the time of 
the return of Cook's expedition by at least two specimens, two published 
descriptions, and a colored plate ^ should have remained unnamed for 
nearly half a century until Swainson in 1S27 described the bird brought 
from Mexico by Bullock, and Vigors in 1829 named the flicker obtained on 
the Pacific Coast during the Voyage of H. M. S. ' Blossom.' Moreover the 
transfer of the name cafer to the Northwest Coast Flicker connects the 
history of the bird with that of Capt. James Cook, the famous navigator 
and explorer, to whom undoubtedly belongs the honor of collecting the 
first specimens which were carried to Europe. — T. S. Palmer, Washington, 
D. C. 

The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher in New Mexico. — The Scissor-tailed 
Flycatcher has long been known as an inhabitant of western Texas almost 
to the New Mexico line, but up to the present time has had no unquestion- 
able published i-ecord for the latter State. A recent letter fi'om Mr. E. H. 
Byers says that the species is nesting this summer at Hobbs, New Mexico, 
close to the Texas line and about 45 miles north of the southeastern corner 
of New Mexico. 

Mr. Byers was familiar with the bird in former years in eastern Texas, 
and was pleased to welcome an old acquaintance when it first appeared at 
Hobbs in June, 1912, and raised a family in a mesquite bush about a mile 
from water and from the nearest human habitation. Since then the 
numbers have increased until the summer of 1915 they were fairly common 
and ranged at least ten miles into New Mexico from the Texas line. But 
instead of nesting in isolated places, most of the species have built in the 
trees near houses where there are reservoirs supplied by windmills. One 
pair actually built their nest on a windmill at the middle of the vane, 

1 This plate was drawn by William W. Ellis, the artist, who accompanied Captain Cook 
on his third voyage. The plate is No. 19 and is marked " King George's Sound ( = Nootka 
Sound) W. Ellis, del. etc., 1778." According to Sharpe, this plate which represents Colaptes 
auralus is now in the Museum of Natural History at South Kensington, England (Hist. 
Coll. Brit. Mus., II, 173, 200). 

°' 191(3 J General Notes. 325 

where their summer home was constantly shifting in a 30-foot circle and 
often at high speed. The eggs had been laid, and incubation begun, when 
an unusually severe storm tore the fabric from its fastening. — Wells W. 
Cooke, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Evening Grosbeak at Williamsport, Pa. — On April 20, 1916, and 
again on April 28 on a morning walk through one of our parks I chanced 
on some birds that were entirely new to me. I was able to observe them 
carefully and submitted a description of them to Dr. Witmer Stone who at 
once pronounced them to be Evening Grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina 
vespertina). A subsequent visit to the same spot early in May failed to 
discover them. — (Miss) Bert L. Gage, Williamsport, Pa. 

Evening Grosbeak at Rochester, N. Y. — About the middle of March 
we had a report from a correspondent in Massachusetts that the Evening 
Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina) had appeared there, so 
that it may be of interest to report that two pairs were seen here on March 
19 and 20 feeding in thorn apple bushes on the outskirts of the city. — 
F. H. Ward, Rochester, N. Y. 

Evening Grosbeak at Lowville, N. Y. — The Evening Grosbeaks (Hes- 
periphona vespertina vespertina) have been very plentiful here during the 
past winter and spring, they came in the latter part of December and 
were common up to the 15th of May when the bulk of them disappeared. 
Two or three were seen as late as May 17. There was a flock of about 
fifty birds which made their home in the village feeding mainly on maple 
seeds. They also fed on Sumac seeds of which they appeared to be very 
fond. There was a good proportion of male birds in all stages of plumage. 
This is the first instance, to my knowledge, of this species having been 
here in such numbers. — James H. Miller, Lowville, N. Y. 

The Calaveras Warbler in Colorado. — The undersigned has to record 
the occurrence of this warbler (Vermivora rubricapilla gutturalis) in Colo- 
rado, having collected a male of this subspecies in Carver Caiion (altitude 
about 7000 ft.), eight miles west of Sedalia, Colo., on September 12, 1915. 
Inasmuch as this seems to be the first record for this State, and in order 
that there might be no question as to identification, the skin was sent to 
W. DeW. Miller of the American Museum of Natural History, who kindly 
examined it, and independently diagnosed it as "a typical example of 
Vermivora rubricapilla gutturalis." — W. H. Bbrgtold, Denver, Colo. 

The Catbird in Winter in Massachusetts. — In January, 1916, I 
saw a calling Catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis) near dusk in the Botanic 
Garden, Cambridge, Massachusetts. On the 29th of February I saw him 
again in a yard on Garden Street near the Botanic Garden, and again on 
10 March. This has been an unusually severe winter and the past month. 

326 ' General Notes. [f^^ 

according to the Weather Bureau, the snowiest February since 1893, but 
this bird seems to be in good condition. 

My only other record of the Catbird in winter is that of an individual 
which I observed in Stoughton on December 4, 1910. My latest date for 
an undoubted migrant is October 22, 1913, when I heard one calling in 
North Stoughton. — S. F. Blake, Stoughton, Mass. 

Breeding of the Golden-crowned Kinglet in Norfolk County, 
Massachusetts. — On June 16, 1908, I discovered in Stoughton, Massa- 
chusetts, a breeding pair of Golden-crowned Kinglets {Regulus satrapa 
satrapa) with their nest, apparently the first to be found in the east-central 
part of the state since the nest with three eggs found by N. Vickary at Lynn 
in May or June, 1889. My attention was first attracted by the familiar 
call-notes of the birds coming from the edge of a rather close growth of 
Red Cedar {Junipems virginiana) and deciduous trees at the base of a low 
hill close to a little-travelled wood-road. Pushing in among the trees, 
I soon caught a glimpse of the female Kinglet being pursued by a Black- 
and-white Warl)ler. The male soon came into view, and very soon the 
female disappeared in the top of a red cedar about twenty feet high. After 
a few minutes' wait I climbed a nearby tree and found her sitting on the 
nest. This was placed 18 feet 10 inches above the ground on the upper side 
of a small branch about a foot long, near the trunk and about a foot and a 
half from the top of the tree, rather firmly fastened and requiring some 
effort to dislodge. The nest is a firm ball of green moss (chiefly Thelia 
hirtella, /identified by Dr. W. G. Farlow) with some bark, lichens, and 
feathers, measuring 11 cm. in length, 9 cm. in breadth, and 6.5 cm. in 
height. The cavity, 4.5 cm. deep and 4 cm. in diameter at the top, is 
slightly enlarged below and lined chiefly with fine bark strips and a few 
feathers including some from the head of the female Kinglet. The eight 
eggs in the nest contained small embryos. They are elliptical-ovate in 
outline, with the smaller end rather blunt, dull white in ground color, 
finely speckled all over, but especially at the larger end where a more or 
less distinct wreath is formed, with pale ashy-brown; on a single egg the 
markings are very faint. They measure in inches .54 X .41, .54 X .42, 
.55 X .41, .55 X .41, .55 X .41, .56 X .41, .57 X .41, .57 X .41, averaging 
.55 X .41. 

Although on June 16, 1908, when this nest was found and taken, only a 
single pair of the birds was seen, I feel convinced that at least two pairs 
of the birds must have been nesting there, for on 6 July 1 saw at the same 
locality at least three Golden-crowned Kinglets, apparently young birds, as 
no crown patch was visible. Brewster found that a pair whose nest was 
nearly finished and being provided with lining on June 13 in Worcester 
County, Massachusetts, required sixteen days to complete it and lay their 
set of nine eggs, and that another nest nearly completed on June 16 did 
not acquire its full set of nine eggs until the same date (June 29). It is 
impossible to suppose that my pair, whose nest was taken on June 16, could 

VoLXXXIIIj g^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 327 

have built another nest, laid eggs, and brought out nearly fullgrown young 
in twenty days, and there must certainly have been at least one other pair 
in the vicinity. On August 4 I again saw three Kinglets at the same local- 
ity, after which date they were not seen again. One at least of those seen 
on this date had the crown-patch of the adult. 

The first well identified nest of the Golden-crowned Kinglet seems to 
have been that found by H. D. Minot (Land-birds and Game-birds of New 
England, ed. 1. 56 (1877)) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire on 
July 16, 1876. This nest, which contained young birds, was four feet from 
the ground in a hemlock, pensile like the majority of recorded nests. Mr. 
Vickery's Lynn nest (O. & O. xiv. 95, 111 (1889)), which contained only 
three eggs, was in a spruce tree and likewise suspended from a limb. Both 
the nests of the Golden-crown recorded by H. Austen (O. & O. xiv. 93-94 
(1889); XV. 106 (1890)) from the vicinity of Halifax, Nova Scotia, were 
" suspended .... on twigs .... fully three to eight inches underneath the 
main branch .... fastened by the side with moss to the small branches." 
One of two nests of the Ruby-crown, however, was built on a limb (1. c. xv. 
106), while the other was suspended. Brewster's account (Auk, v. 337-344 
(1888)), the fullest that has yet appeared of the nesting of the Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, gives details of three nests found in Winchendon (Mass.), 
or vicinity, all of which were pensile. 

A brief record of the taking of the present nest has already appeared in 
'The Taxidermist' (no. 4, p. 7 (Oct. 1908)).— S. F. Blake, Stoiighton, 

A Record of Townsend's Solitaire {Myadesles townsendi). — A male 
Townsend's Solitaire was taken at CoUegeville, Minnesota, Dec. 20, 1909. 
Although far from its normal haunts, the bird was very active and its 
melodious warble broke the monotony of the winter day. Coues remarks, 
that this bird is " capable of musical expression in an exalted degree." 

When found, it was feeding in a young evergreen grove, planted about 
a mile and a half from the railway station and only a few hundred feet 
from Observatory Hill. Dr. Thomas S. Roberts of Minnesota State Uni- 
versity, Minneapolis, kindly verified my identification. 

Ridgway (Birds of North and Middle Am., Part IV, page 165) says that 
it has been found " straggling, in autumn or winter to Kansas (Wallace, 
October) .... and northwestern Illinois (Waukegan, Dec. 16, 1875). 
Since its breeding range " extends from the Coast Ranges to the Black Hills 
of North Dakota " (Ridgway loc. cit.), the Minnesota record of Dec. 20, 
1909, is interesting. The mounted specimen was added to the bird collec- 
tion of St. John's University Museum, CoUegeville, Minnesota. — Severin 
Gertken, CoUegeville, Minn. 

Regular Breeding of Alice's Thrush in Arctic East Siberia. — In a 

paper entitled. Notes on the Birds and Mammals of the Arctic Coast of 
East Siberia (Proc. of the New Engl. Zool. Club, Vol. V, 1914) on page 37 


328 General Notes. [j^Jly 

we recorded the regular occurrence of Alice's Thrush — Hylocichla alidce 
alicice (Baird) , as a breeding bird in suitable places along the coastal regions 
of Arctic East Siberia, west to the Kolyma. At that time we had received 
from Mr. Johan Koren only a set of eggs, the parent birds to which were 
lost, and his notes. 

On a more recent trip to the same general region, in the summer of 1915, 
we asked Koren to look out especially for the bird and to get us a specimen. 
This he did, and wrote that he found Alice's Thrush breeding commonly, 
particularly along the smaller side streams of the Kolyma, that are over- 
hung by alders. He sent us an adult female. No. 21800, Coll. of John E, 
Thayer shot at Neshon Kolymsk, June 8, 1915, which is precisely like 
Alaskan breeding birds. 

The earlier records of Alice's Thrush in East Siberia in the breeding season 
are — Krit. Obz. Orn. Fauna Vost. Sibiri, 1877, 32, Cape Tschukotsk, (see 
Stejneger, Auk, I, 1884, 166) and Palmen, Vega — Exp., 1887, 262 Tschuk- 
tsch-halfon and Pitlekaj. These were apparently taken by Hartert as 
indicating only the casual occurrence of Hylocichla alicice in East Siberia, 
and the species was not given a formal place in his Vogel der Palaarktischen 

In all probability the individuals of the Siberian colony, travel back and 
forth each year across Bering Sea and winter with the main bulk of the 
species in tropical America; just as Asiatic birds, — Acanthapncuste borealis 
borealis (Blasius); (Enanthe cenanihe cenanihe (Linn.); Cyanosylva suecica 
robusta (Burturlin); Budytes flavus alascensis Ridg. and Sterna aleutica 
Baird — now breeding regularly each year in Alaska still migrate southward 
and winter wholly on the Asiatic side of the Pacific. — John E. Thayeh 
AND OuTRAM Bangs, Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. 

Some Unusual Records for Massachusetts. — The Boston Society 
of Natural History has recently acquired the following rarities for its 
collection of mounted birds. 

Piranga rubra rubra (Linne). Summer Tanager. — A male taken at 
Deer Island, Boston harbor, Mass., April 11, 1916. The plumage and 
general condition of this specimen led us to beheve that this bird had not 
been in captivity. It was taken on the window-ledge of a pumping station. 

Antrostomus carolinensis (Gmel.) Chuck- will's-widow. — An indi- 
vidual seen flying about the docks at East Boston, Mass., on Oct. 13, 1915, 
and captured by Mr. N. Hagman. It was not sexed. 

Aluco pratincola {Bp.). Barn Owl. — A female specimen of this owl 
taken by Mr. Chas. Fowle on June 10, 1915, at Lexington, Mass. 

Somateria spectabilis (Linne). King Eider. — An immature female 
taken at Newburyport, Mass., by Mr. C. H. Richardson on November 19, 
1915. — W. Sprague Brooks, Boston Soc. Kat. Hist. 

Bird Notes from the Chicago Area. — Aluco pratincola. Barn 
Ow'L. — An adult female of this species was given me by Mr. George Dunk- 

^"'•me'"'"] General Notes. 329 

ley of Chicago, who shot it while hunting Jack Snipe on the marshes in the 
vicinity of Hyde Lake, South Chicago, 111., Oct. 14. 1915. The specimen 
is in the Harris Extension collection. 

Bubo virginianus virginianus. Great Horned Ow'l. — Woodruff 
(Birds of the Chicago Area, 1907, p. 106) says of this species, " The Great 
Horned Owl was a common resident many years ago, but now it is very 
rare." At the present time, however, individuals may frequently l)e seen 
in the more heavily wooded portions of the sand dune region, near Millers, 
Ind., and three nests were found in the spring of 1914, a short distance east 
of that village. One, located March 15 in an old Crow's nest about forty 
feet up a small scrub pine, contained three slightly incubated eggs. March 
17, two heavily incubated eggs were collected from a nest in a cavity in the 
top of a very large dead pine stub, the female was shot as she left the nest. 
The third, from which three downy young, ranging in age from about one to 
five or six days old, and adult female were collected April 4, — was located 
in a cavity in broken off top of large dead pine tree, about twenty feet from 
the ground. A few miles east and outside the limits of the " Ai-ea," two 
more nests were found; one in old Crow's nest a few feet up a very small 
Scrub Pine sapling, with a two-thirds grown nestling, contained the remains 
of a Bittern. The other, from which three young in downy stage were 
secured April 4, 1915, contained the remains of a cottontail rabbit, and a 
half eaten Meadow Lark. 

In all cases the parent birds were extremely wary, seldom even a glimpse 
of the male being offered, and the same was true of the female, except while 
incubating or brooding newly hatched young, at which times a very close 
approach w^as allowed. A very noticeable increase in the number of 
Ruffed Grouse seen lately in this region, may, in part, be due to the thin- 
ning out of the Horned Owls. 

Hespesiphona vespertina vespertina. Evening Grosbeak. — First 
noted this winter (1916) February 6, when a female was taken from a flock 
of four, near Mineral Springs, Ind., from which date they wei'e noted 
in increasing numbers in different parts of the dune regions. Six males 
were secured from a flock of about seventy-five, just east of Gary, Ind., 
March 30, and two females the same day from a flock of about forty, near 
Millers. Last noted April l,.when a flock of eight was seen near Garj'. 

Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler. — A fine male of this species 
was secured May 16, 1915, in the brush near Eggers, South Chicago, 111. — 
H. L. Stoddard, A''. W. Harris Public School Extension of Fidd Museum, 
Chicago, III. 

Notes from Leon Co., Florida. — Butorides virescens virescens. 

Little Green Heron. — An example of this species was seen Jan. 3 and 
4, 1916, in the marshes bordering Lake lamonia. The only thing conspicu- 
ous about it was its extreme shyness, a fruitless hour being spent in trying 
to collect it. The Green Heron is considered rare in the United States in 
winter according to the Check-List. Barring one record for the South 


330 General Notes. [july 

Carolina coast, all others come from the subtropical parts of Florida. It 
seems, therefore, surprising to find it so far inland, especially as freezing 
weather had prevailed a week previously. 

Colinus virginianus floridanus. Florida Bob-white. — Mr. R. W. 
Williams, Jr., in his preliminary list of the birds of Leon Co. (Auk, XXI, 
1904, p. 453) gives virginianus as the local form, although he had seen inter- 
mediates and suspected the occurrence of floridanus in the southern part 
of the county. On Horseshoe Plantation, in the extreme northern part of 
the county, my relatives had often spoken of shooting small dark quail, 
and wondered what they were. On Jan. 1, 1916, six males were shot and 
brought to me, all alike in size and coloration. -One was preserved, and 
Dr. Dwight, who kindly compared it with his series, pronounces it a typi- 
cal floridanus, making the first county record, and so far as I can find 
the northernmost point from which typical examples of this subspecies have 
been taken. In considering the status of the species in this section it should 
be born in mind that it is full of quail preserves which are continually 
being restocked with northern birds. It is now, of course, impossible to 
determine definitely which was the original resident form. 

Certhia familiaris americana. Brown Creeper. — The only definite 
records for Florida that I can find are the two specimens from Leon Co. 
recorded by Williams. Wa3aie in his notes on the birds of theWacissa 
and Aucilla River Regions (Auk, XII, 1895, pp. 362-367) lists the Brown 
Creeper but gives no information about it. It seems, therefore, advisable 
to record two individuals which I saw on the Horseshoe Plantation, one 
on Dec. 25, 1915, and another in a totally different part of the plantation 
on Dec. 26. Unfortunately I was at that time ignorant of the bird's rarity 
in Florida so made no effort to collect a specimen. — Ludlow Griscom, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

1916 J Recent Literature. ool 


Ridgway's ' The Birds of North and Middle America ' Part VII. i — 

While less bulky than its predecessors Part VII of Mr. Ridgvvay's great 
work follows them closely in style and execution. As heretofore the foot- 
notes are replete with synonymy and citations of types and type localities 
for many extralimital genera and species which render the volume a store- 
house of information for those working on the neotropical avifauna, who 
extend their researches beyond the isthmus. For America north of 
Panama it is, like the preceding parts, a monograph. 

As an illustration of the thoroughness of Mr. Ridg-way's studies, he states 
on p. 108 that he has examined representatives of all of the American genera 
of Parrots but Cyanopsitta, specimens of which, by the way, are in the 
collection of the Philadelphia Academy. 

Most of the new names that he has found it necessary to establish as the 
work proceeded have been published in the Proceedings of the Biological 
Societ}^ of Washington and we notice only two in the present volume. 
CEnanas plumbea chapmahi (p. 325), Gualea, Ecuador; and Zenaidura 
mac^ura caurina (p. 348), Oregon. Mr. Ridgway's practice of proposing 
new names in footnotes with not even heavy-faced type to attract atten- 
tion to them is unfortunate, in view of the trouble that obscurely published 
names have caused in the past. The latter of these new forms moreover is 
proposed " provisionally " based on " three very poor specimens," with a 
" provisional type " designated. The author is surely aware that there 
is no difference nomenclaturally between ' ' provisional ' ' and other names 
or types and this Zenaidura m. caurina must rest for all time on an ad- 
mittedly unsatisfactory type specimen. 

The nomenclature of the North American species differs somewhat from 
that of the A. O. U. Check-List. Conuropsis carolinensis interior appears 
as C. c. ludovicianus, the Louisiana bird belongi^ig to the interior race in 
Mr. Ridg^vay's opinion; Linnaeus however is wrongly cited as the authority 
for the name. Coccyzus minor minor should apparently be omitted from 
the Check- List as all the unquestioned Florida birds seen by Mr. Ridgway 
are C. m. maynardi, while Audubon's specimen, said to be from Florida 
proves to be C. m. nesiotes. Among the doves the genera Geotrygon and 
Cohimba are subdivided, our species of the former becoming Oreopeleia, 
while Columba fasciata and flavirostris fall in Chlorcenas, and C. leucocephala 

^ The Birds | of | North and Middlfe America: | A Descriptive Catalogue | of the | Higher 
Groups, Genera, Species, and Subspecies of Birds | known to occur in North America,, 
from the | Arctic Lands to the Isthmus of Panama | the West Indies and other Islands [ 
of the Caribbean Sea, and the | Galapagos Archipelago. | By | Robert Ridgway, | Curator, 
Division of Birds. | Part VII. 

Family Cuculidse. Family Psittacidse. Family Columbidae. Bulletin of the United 
States National Museum. No. 50. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1916. 
[dated May 5, received May 29]. pp. i-xii^ + 1-543, pll. I-XXIV. 

332 \ Recent Literature. Ljuly 

and squamosa in Patagioenas. Following Todd, and we think rightly, 
the Ground Dove of the Southern States is called Chcemepelia passerina 
passerina, while the Bermuda form is regarded as identical with C. p. baha- 
mensis. Melopelia asiatica trudeaui Aud. appears as M. a. mearnsi Ridgw., 
since Mr. Ridgway considers Audubon's description and plate to represent 
the eastern form. Audubon's type is in the collection of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (see Cat. Types in Colin. Phila. Acad. 
Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1899) and proves, as Mr. Ridgway suggests, to be 
true asiatica. 

The type of Psittacula lineola Cassin is also in this collection, as recorded 
in the same paper, yet Mr. Ridg^vay quotes a letter from Prof. Heilprin, 
written over thirty years ago, to the effect that it had disappeared. 

In a work of such proportions however, it is inevitable that some pul^li- 
cations are overlooked and the above facts are offered not in a spirit of 
criticism but to supplement the history of these cases. 

All ornithologists will congratulate themselves as well as Mr. Ridgway 
upon the appearance of Part VII and will earnestly hope that he may be 
able to push the remaining parts to an early completion. The families 
still to be considered, while they contain, as a rule, fewer species and 
races, have received less critical study than those which have gone before 
and it is therefore greatly to be desired that we should have the benefit 
of Mr. Ridgway's careful treatment in them as well as in the Passerine 
and Picarian groups. — W. S. 

Todd's ' Birds of the Isle of Pines.' ' — Mr. Todd's latest contribution 
to neotropical ornithological literature is an admirable monograph of the 
birds of the Isle of Pines. The work is based primarily upon a collection 
of 842 skins obtained lay Mr. Gustav A. Link of the taxidermic force of the 
Carnegie Museum during a residence of a year on the island, in 1912 and 
1913. Mvich additional material was examined, however, and the litera- 
ture exhaustively studied, so that practically all that is known of the bird 
life of the island is incorporated in this paper. 

Besides the annotated list which covers 142 species, there is an outline 
of the Geography and Physiography of the Isle of Pines and notes on 
' Climate ' ; ' Previous Work ' ; ' Seasonal Occurrence ' ; ' Faunal Affini- 
ties ' and ' List of Localities,' as well as several half tone plates of scenery 
and a map. 

The affinities of the fauna are naturally with that of Cuba. In fact of 
126 species breeding in western Cuba, So are found also on the Isle of 
Pines, while eight others are represented there by closely related forms, 
only one of which is regarded by Mr. Todd as sufficiently distinct to warrant 
specific rank. 

1 The Birds of the Isle of Pines. By W. E. Clyde Todd. Ann. Carnegie Mus., Vol. X, 
Nos. 1-2, 1916. pp. 146-296, pi. XXII-XXVII. January 31, 1916 [received, March 6, 

^°''l9]'6^"T Recent Literature. 333 

The annotated list follows the classification set forth in Mr. Ridgway's 
' Birds of North and Middle America.' Under each species is a full bibliog- 
raphy for the Isle of Pines, to which, in the reviewer's opinion, might have 
been added a reference to the original publication of the name employed, 
which is usually of great assistance to those using the paper. There fol- 
lows a discussion of the occurrence and habits of each species on the island, 
and of its systematic status. 

We find described as new Amazona leucocephala 'palmarum (p. 228), Isle 
of Pines; Vireo gundlachii orientalis (p. 256) Guantanamo, Cuba; a.nd 
Holoquiscalus caymanensis dispar (p. 276), Isle of Pines, — the last being 
renamed on an erratum insert Q. c. caribams, dispar proving untenable. 
The species and subspecies of Holoquiscalus and the races oi Jacana spinosa 
are considered at length and reasons are set forth for the rejection of Podi- 
lymhus podiccps antillarum Bangs and Agelaius subniger Bangs, as well as 
the races of Squatarola squatarola recently proposed by Thayer and Bangs, 
and the West Indian races of the Green Heron proposed by Oberholser. 
As Mr. Todd is confessedly not following the A. O. U. Check-List where the 
" latest and best authorities " differ from it, attention might be called to 
the fact that by Opinion 62 of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature (March, 1914) the genera Herodias and Urubitinga become 
untenalile, being synonyms respectively of Egretta and Morphnus. 

Mr. Todd's careful study of the material before him brings out many 
interesting points, among others the fact that Sturnella magna hippocre- 
pis is nearest to S. m. argutula and not to S. neglecia as stated by Ridgway, 
while Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis is the form occurring on the Isle 
of Pines in spite of Prof. Cooke's reference of all West Indian records to 
typical noveboracensis . 

The bibliography comprises 64 titles of which 42 are of articles by A. C. 
Read published in newspapers, ' The Oologist,' and ' Bird Lore's ' Christ- 
mas lists. Much space in Mr. Todd's list is taken up with discrediting or 
rejecting records of Mr. Read, which seem to be almost entirely based upon 
sight or upon specimens shot but not preserved. It would seem that this 
represents a waste of time and energy as the records which are accepted as 
probable are severely discounted by the obvious inaccuracy of the others. 
Would it not be best to ignore such publications absolutely as the surest 
way to discourage them in future? This however detracts in no way from 
Mr. Todd's admirable paper which will stand as authority on the birds of 
the Isle of Pines for many years to come. — W. S. 

Wetmore's ' Birds of Porto Rico.'^ — This notable paper is the first 
comprehensive work on the food habits of neotropical birds, besides being 
a handy popular list of the birds of Porto Rico. From both aspects it is 
most welcome, not only to residents of the island but to others as well. 

» Birds of Porto Rico. By Alex Wetmore. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. No. 326. pp. 1-140, 
pU.I-X. March 24, 1916. 

334 Recent Ldterature. [july 

The immensely valuable agricultural interests of Porto Rico have suffered 
severely from insect pests and it seemed desirable, in seeking means to 
combat them, to obtain at the outset definite data on the food habits of the 
native birds, in order to foi-mulate plans for the better protection of those of 
greatest economic importance. Mr. Alex Wetmore, Assistant Biologist of 
the Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture, was selected for 
carrying out this investigation and judging from his report a l^etter choice 
could not have been made. During a residence of nine months on the 
island, December 13, 1911 to September 11, 1912, he visited forty-four 
localities obtaining 2200 stomachs and a mass of data. Upon this material 
and a thorough study of the literature the report has been based. 

The brief introduction discusses the birds found in the various agricul- 
tural districts — the cane fields, coffee plantations, and citrus groves; and 
the bird enemies of some of the principal insect pests — the mole cricket, 
sugarcane root-borer, weevil stalk-borer and May beetle. 

Then follow instructions for increasing birds, based on experience in the 
United States, and a discussion on the introduction of exotic species. 
Of several species introduced in the past, only the Hooded Weaver-finch 
{Spermestes cucullatus) has become generally distributed and fortunately 
it has not proved injurious. Mr. Wetmore is opposed on general principles 
to introducing foreign birds, but thinks it possible that the Barn Owl might 
be a valuable adjunct to the native avifauna as a check on the rats. 

In the annotated list the several native names of each species are added 
to the English and technical names, and a good account of the habits and 
distribution is presented. Then follows an analysis of the food, based upon 
the examination of stomach contents. The information thus obtained in 
the case of North American birds which winter in Porto Rico is of particular 
interest as it rounds out oui- knowledge of the food habits of these species. 

Mr. Wetmore found the " Martinete " or native variety of the Green 
Heron, to be the greatest destroyer of the injurious mole cricket, while the 
Blackbird (Holoquiscalus brachypterus) seems to be the greatest enemy of 
the root-l)orer. The little owl {Gymnasio nudipes) feeds largely upon the 
May beetle. There was no evidence that any of the Porto Rican birds 
were injurious, with the exception of two hawks which however, are not 

Porto Rico, like the other Greater Antilles is very poor in bird species 
compared with Central America and Mr. Wetmore's list comprises only 162 
species with 16 others, the occurrence of which he thinks requires confirma- 
tion. Of this number only about 50 are resident land birds. As an indica- 
tion of the abundance of bird life on the island several censuses are given. 
One on May 24 at Yauco yielded 391 individuals of 35 species in four 
hours, over a distance of five miles; while on June 28 near Lares 335 indi- 
viduals of 27 species were seen. The several half tone plates represent 
Porto Rican birds from drawings by Fuertes and photographs of stomach 

Mr. Wetmore's report will serve a valuable purpose in stimulating inter- 

'^''^'m^e'^"^] Recent Literature. 335 

est in the birds of the island among the residents and the author is to be 
congratulated upon an admir^able piece of work. — W. S. 

Hersey's ' List of Birds Observed in Alaska and Siberia.' ^ — Mr. 

Hersey's trip along the Alaskan coast during the summer of 1914 was 
undertaken in the interest of Mr. A. C. Bent to obtain data for his continua- 
tion of the ' Life Histories of North American Birds.' Notes on 105 
species are contained in the list of which 74 are water-birds. 

The " repeated occurrence " of Fisher's Petrel {^strelata fisheri) was one 
of the pleasures of the trip, but the scarcity of the Emperor Goose and 
Spectacled Eider seems to point to the greatly increased rarity of these 
species in the near future. 

The practice of treating two species collectively in the annotated list is 
unfortunate as it leads to ambiguity. On p. 13 for instance it is impos- 
sible to tell whether the four gulls that followed the vessel to Ketchikan 
included any Western Gulls or whether they were all Herring Gulls. If 
any of the former wei'e present the occun-ence constitutes a new record 
for Alaska. 

Mr. Hersey's list is a welcome addition to the literature of the Alaskan 
coast and the western arctic region, and the extensive notes obtained for 
Mr. Bent will doubtless add largely to the accuracy and interest of his 
accounts of the northwestern waterfowl. — W. S. 

Brooks' ' Notes on Birds from East Siberia and Arctic Alaska.'- — 

Messrs. W. Sprague Brooks and Joseph Dixon accompanied the ' Polar 
Bear ' hunting party, organized by graduates of Harvard University in the 
spring of 1913, and remained in the Arctic regions for some fifteen months, 
making collections for the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The paper 
before us comprises Mr. Brooks' report on the birds, of which 160 species 
were observed. Notes of interest on the habits and distribution of many 
of the species are presented. Five forms are considered worthy of differ- 
entiation. A gull from EUesmere Land allied to L. kumlieni is named 
Larus thayeri (p. 373) in honor of Col. J. E. Thayer through whose gener- 
osity the collection was obtained. The other new forms are Histrionicus 
h. pacificus (p. 393), Cape Shipunski, Kamchatka, including all the 
Pacific coast Harlequins; (Edemia deglandi dixoni (p. 393), Humphrey 
Pt., Alaska; Nannus hiemalis semidiensis (p. 400), Semidi Islands, Alaska; 
Leucostictc grisconucha maxima (p. 405), Commander Islands. 

Messrs. Brooks and Dixon deserve much credit for securing so many 
interesting specimens and for visiting so many localities. They have added 
materially to our knowledge of the birds of the great northwestern arctic 
coast. — W. S. 

' A List of the Birds Observed in Alaska and Northeastern Siberia During the Sumnaer 
of 1914. By F. Seymour Hersey. Smithson. Misc. Collns. Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 1-33. 

2 Notes on Birds from East Siberia and Arctic Alaska. By W. Sprague Brooks. Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. Vol. LIX, No. 5. pp. 361-413. September. 1915. 

336 Recent Literature. [ju"iy 

' The Birds of Australia.' ^ — Volume five of Mr. Mathews' great work is 
to be issued in lour instead of three parts as previously announced and the 
second of these is before us. It continues the treatment of the Raptores 
covering the Kites, part of the Falcons and a few other species. The same 
lengthy discussion of nomenclature characterizes this number, which has 
figured in its predecessors. 

The genus Fako as presented in the A. O. U. Check-List seems to Mr. 
Mathews to be a bad case of " lumping " and while he would admit that 
Rhynchodon is perhaps a subgenus, he claims that Hierofalco, Tinmuiculus 
and Cerchneis are perfectly good genera. 

We note Haliastur sphenurus sarasini, subsp. nov. (p. 169), New Cale- 
donia, Lophastur subcristatus kempi, subsp. nov. (p. 220), Cape York, 
Australia; and Falco longipennis samueli, nom. nov. (p. 232) for F. vielano- 
tus White and Mellor, Flinders Island, Australia; as new names. — W. S. 

Cassinia, 1915.2 — The proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological 
Club for 1915 show a continuation of the remarkable vitality that charac- 
terizes this organization. An average attendance of 24 at the 16 meetings 
held during the year is reported, and no fewer than 53 observers submitted 
migration records. Upon the material contained in these reports is based 
Dr. Stone's annual resume of the spring migration. That of 1915 was 
characterized by abnormally early arrival of species coming in April or 
earlier and irregular occurrence of the later migrants. Dr. Stone contrib- 
utes also another of the series of biographies he has published in 'Cassinia,' 
the present being that of Titian Peale. Other articles include 'Nesting 
birds of Pocono Lake,' with excellent illustrations of the nests of 2 species, 
of Empidonax, by J. Fletcher Street; 'Days with the Blue-gray Gnat- 
catcher and the Prothonotary Warbler' bj' Geo. H. Stuart 3rd, in which 
no locality is cited, a protective measure no doubt, yet even a county 
record would have added to the scientific value of the article; 'Eggs and 
Nestling Destruction' by Julian K. Potter, showing an average loss of 
40 per cent, large yet less than some other studies have brought out; 
and 'Mortality among birds at Philadelphia, May 21-22, 1915,' by Delos 
E. Culver, an account of migrants striking the City Hall. This issue of 
' Cassinia ' contains also a bibliography of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
Delaware ornithology for 1915, and a list of officers and members of the 
D.V. O. C— W. L. M. 

Bangs on New American Birds.' — A recent study of the Gallinules of 
America convinces Mr. Bangs that Hartert's view that they are best re- 

1 The Birds of Australia. By Gregory M. Mathews. Vol. V, Part II. London. 
February 29, 1916. 

• Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, 19, 1915 (March, 1916). 
72 pp., 2 pis. 

3 The American Forms of Gallinula chloropus (Linn). By Outram Bangs. Proc. N. E. 
Zoiil. Club, Vol. V, pp. 93-99. May 17, 1915. 

° ■ 1915 J Recent Literature. do7 

garded as subspecies of the Old World Gallinula chloropus is correct. 
Besides G. c. galeata here restricted to southeastern South America, he 
recognizes four other races G. c. garmani Allen, from the Andes; G. c. 
cerceris Bangs, from the Lesser Antilles; and two here described as new 
G. c. pauxilla (p. 96), Rio Cauca, western Colombia; and G. c.cachinnans 
(p. 96) type from De Soto Co., Florida,, for the North American bird. 

In another paper i the smaller Mockinglsird of the northern Bahamas is 
separated as Mimus polyglottos delenijicus, type locality Andros Island; and 
in conjunction with Mr. John E. Thayer- the Song Sparrow of Nova Scotia 
is described as Melospiza v^elodia acadica (p. 67), type locality Wolfville. — 
W. S. 

Swarth on the Pacific Coast Races of Bewick's Wren.' — From 
an examination of 597 skins, nine races are recognized. 

Two other forms are " pointed out and their characteristics described, 
but no names affixed," because "it is impossible to indicate more than 
obscure average distinctions " and because the " extreme variability of 
even the most strongly marked of the described forms militates against" 
their recognition. The author fears possible criticism of his action but we 
think it will meet with very general endorsement. 

Mr. Swarth's study is a very painstaking one, abounding in minute data, 
and will be a great help to those who wish to name their specimens, for 
to man}' who do not have a series of 500 skins for comparison this is by no 
means an easy task. There are some helpful suggestions to the A. O. U. 
Committee as to defining of the ranges of spilurus and charienturus in 
view of their refusal to recognize the poorly defined race drymoecus. — W. S. 

Murphy and Harper on New Diving Petrels.^ — In their studies of 
the family Pelecanoididse Messrs. Murphy and Harper have found two 
unnamed forms of the curious little Diving Petrels which so closely parallel 
in size and appearance the Murrelets of the northern hemisphere. These 
are named in the present paper, Pelecanoides urinatrix. chathatnensis (p. 
65), Chatham Islands; and P. georgica (p. 66) South Georgia Island. — 
W. S. 

Chapin on the Pennant- Winged Nightjar. ^ — During his sojourn 
in the gi-eat Equatorial forest of Central Africa, Mr. Chapin secured" 

> The Smaller Mockingbird of the Northern Bahamas. By Outrara Bangs. Proc. N. E. 
Zool. Club. Vol. VI. p. 23. March 29, 1916. 

2 A New Song Sparrow from Nova Scotia. By John E. Thayer and Outram Bangs. 
Proc. N. E. Zool. Club. Vol. V. pp. 07-i5S. May 29, 1914. 

3 The Pacific Coast Bace^, of the Bewick Wren. By Harry S. Swarth. Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., Vol. VI, No. 4, pp. 53-85, pi. 2. May 8, 1916. 

4 Two New Diving Petrels. By Bobert Cushman Murphy and Francis Harper. Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXV, pp. 6.5-67. April 1, 1916. 

' The Pennant-winged Nightjar and its Migration. By James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXXV, pp. 73-81. Scientific Besults of the Congo Expedition. 
Ornithology, No. 3. April 12, 1916. 

ooo Recent Literature. [jJly 

specimens of this curious Nightjar only during March and July. Sus- 
pecting that these records might indicate a migration he has recently made 
a thorough study of the published records of the species and finds his sur- 
mise to be correct. 

All the breeding records of Cosmetornis (September- January) are in 
southern Africa below the Equatorial forest, while all records from March 
to July are from the more or less open country north of the forest. We 
thus have a regular migration across the equator of a distinctly tropical 
bird, which is obviously different in origin from the great movement of 
migratory species in the north temperate and arctic regions. 

As a possible incentive, Mr. Chapin suggests the great abundance o